Categories & Language
CATEGORIES
 purpose (e.g. to inform, entertain,
persuade, educate, make a profit)
 medium (e.g. print, radio, television...
LANGUAGE
 Technical and cultural codes & reasons for
their use.
 sign: word, image, sound which conveys
meaning
 denota...
LANGUAGE
 motivation: the reason for the use of a specific
code, such as to aid meaning, to progress the
story
 polysemy...
SEMIOTICS
 Semiotics is the language of signs.
 It argues that interpreting images often depends
on the individual’s cul...
Semiotics Example
 Signifier = dog
 Signified = cute look
 Sign = cute dog
TECHNOLOGY
 The effects of technology on text & integration with
other key aspects e.g.
 special effects/animation techn...
Denotation / Connotation
What does it denote?
 Five men against a height chart
 The horizontal lines of the chart run behind the men
 The men ar...
What does it connote?
 The man wearing cream has connotations of a hero, of a good
protagonist
 This man also has a slig...
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Categories and language

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Categories and language

  1. 1. Categories & Language
  2. 2. CATEGORIES  purpose (e.g. to inform, entertain, persuade, educate, make a profit)  medium (e.g. print, radio, television, film)  form (e.g. newspaper, light entertainment, series, serial, outside broadcast, feature film)  genre (e.g. popular tabloid, soap opera, sitcom, action movie)  tone (e.g. comic, serious)  others (e.g. stars, director)
  3. 3. LANGUAGE  Technical and cultural codes & reasons for their use.  sign: word, image, sound which conveys meaning  denotation: the description of a sign  connotation: the meanings associated with a sign  referent: when the sign or picture refers to something else i.e. The ‘T’ in The Vicar of Dibley.  codes: systems of signs which can be analysed in terms of denotation & connotation; such codes may be technical and / or cultural. They create meaning.
  4. 4. LANGUAGE  motivation: the reason for the use of a specific code, such as to aid meaning, to progress the story  polysemy: signs may have several meanings at once  anchorage: the narrowing down of the polysemy of the text by its combination with other signs (e.g. caption or headline with photograph, music/sound with film)  conventions: established (habitual) ways of treating genre, narrative or representations
  5. 5. SEMIOTICS  Semiotics is the language of signs.  It argues that interpreting images often depends on the individual’s cultural influences.  A sign is made up of a signifier and a signified.  A ‘signifier’ = the form which the sign takes  The ‘signified’ = the concept it represents (or the meaning )  The ‘sign’ = the whole that results from the association of the signifier with the signified.
  6. 6. Semiotics Example  Signifier = dog  Signified = cute look  Sign = cute dog
  7. 7. TECHNOLOGY  The effects of technology on text & integration with other key aspects e.g.  special effects/animation technology which facilitates the telling of certain kinds of story, fictional or non-fictional (e.g. fantasy films); integrates with Categories, Language and Narrative  the effects of the technology of reception available to audiences (e.g. DVD as opposed to cinema); integrates with audience  the effects of the technology of distribution (e.g. electronic distribution of news); integrates with institution
  8. 8. Denotation / Connotation
  9. 9. What does it denote?  Five men against a height chart  The horizontal lines of the chart run behind the men  The men are grouped together staring at the camera  They are not smiling  The tallest man is in the middle  The man to the left of him is wearing a cream suit  The man on the right of him is holding his own arm  The tallest man in the centre is wearing a black suit and red shirt  The man on the left hand side of the centre is all in black  The picture is slightly over-exposed – very light  The tag line is at the bottom  The title is in reversed out white type at the bottom  All the type is reversed out of a black background  There are shadows
  10. 10. What does it connote?  The man wearing cream has connotations of a hero, of a good protagonist  This man also has a slightly defiant stance. His hand is on his hip. His expression is angry  The man wearing black has connotations of an antagonist  The man wearing red signifies danger  The man holding his arm looks weak and vulnerable  The reversed out type is very stark and white. It looks a bit like a stamp – its referent is a stamp and in later versions of the poster and on the DVD this referent is clearly used  The over-exposed light signifies a photograph, as if it is in the act of being taken  The signified is five men in a line up; the signifier is the context and the expressions on their faces. The connotations of both are that they are five criminals, but, culturally, we know that it is a line-up, only one man is guilty and the question is, which one is it?

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