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Head in the CloudUnderstanding and Scaling the Cloud            for Startups        Managing Technology Teams WorkshopAndy...
Today We Will Cover    What is “The Cloud?”    How Does It Work?    How Well Does It Work?    What Your Dev Team Should Kn...
What Is “The Cloud?”
“Cloud Computing is the delivery of   computing as a service rather than a   product, whereby shared resources, software, ...
Impact to Startups    Changed Economics    Democratizes Entrepreneurship    Changed VC landscape:     Then: raise $$ to bu...
Essential Aspects and Some Jargon   Self Service On-Demand     Provisioning without humans     No ownership of servers   P...
Service Models    SaaS = Software As A Service     this is Google Apps. Enough said.    PaaS = Platform As A Service     D...
Deployment Models   Private Cloud     Tenants are a single customer     Owned or rented     On premises or off   Public Cl...
PaaS vs IaaS                       IaaS      PaaS  Application Code     You        You  Runtime Platform     You      Prov...
Where is the Cloud Essential?            Some examples:    Web servers: scaling up and down to meet    demand    Offline d...
AWS Components   EC2 - computing   EBS - fast-ish storage   S3 - storage capacity   ElastiCache   ELB - load balancing   C...
Cloud Timeline         First                General         Hypervisor:          use                                      ...
How Does It Work?
Virtualization    Hides physical details of hardware    Lots of VMs run on a single physical    machine    VM’s are reloca...
Virtualization    Software or “Full” Virtualization: software-only, can    virtualize any hardware and unmodified OS    Ha...
Massive Scale    Affordability comes from economies of    scale    Fault tolerance and soft failing of hardware    Automat...
How Well Does It Work?
Really Well! Until Things Break.    Failure of some kind is assured    Performance Drops    Instance Failures    Network O...
One day this email came in...Hello,One of your instances in the us-east-1 region is on hardware that requires networkrelat...
~ April 21, 2011 ~
~ April 21, 2011 ~   MASSIVE AWS Service outage   Some data loss (< 0.1%)   Revealed details about how EBS worked at   the...
Disk I/O: The Thorn in Your Side    Unpredictable    No guarantees    Bane of Databases    And disk-bound operations like ...
EBS Filesystem Tests                                     Seq. Reads   Seq. Writes     Random        Random          R/W Mi...
How Will Things Improve?    Price drops    SSD (already in AWS DynamoDB)    Improvements in virtualization    Ever more in...
What Your Dev TeamShould Know
We Don’t Need a Sys Admin!   You probably do, actually. But not yet.   Ops -> DevOps -> NoOps   (Adrian Cockroft, NetFlix)...
Architecting for the Cloud    No SPFs    No SLAs     Don’t depend on SLA
Architecting for the Cloud    Figure out how things will fail. Design for    failure.    No fire drills. Deal with Friday ...
Architecting for the Cloud    Exact hardware location is decided by the    provider    Design to Distribute    Stateless w...
Tools: Monitoring/Cost Management    Ylastic    RightScale    Cloudability    CloudVertical    SensibleCloud    Raveld    ...
How Much Does It Cost?
But wait a sec...                       Cloud                       Hardware              100%                            ...
But wait a sec...      YEAR                       PHYSICAL                                        CLOUD       1           ...
Elasticity is the key      YEAR     PHYSICAL    CLOUD       1        $240,000    $80,000       2         $62,000    $100,0...
Price Comparisons   The Devil is in the Details   Billing is a Means of Differentiation   What are you paying for?    “Com...
Price Comparisons              Example: Instance Types            AWS      Rackspace Joyent   Softlayer   Cores      1    ...
EC2 Reserved Pricing                          3-Year Run Cost:                     35 small, 10 large instances           ...
Keys to Controlling Costs    Correlate Cloud sizing with application needs    Keep things running at close to 100% utiliza...
Which Provider to Use?                David Fletcher http://cloudtweaks.com
Guess What? It depends.
How Do Providers Distinguish Themselves?     Affinity for a language or stack     Pricing models     Performance     Add-o...
Hands On(If there’s time)
Thanks!Andy Parsons | @andyparsons | andyparsons@gmail.com
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Ga cloud scaling 3 30-2012

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  • Move an engineer from one company to another, both using EngineYard, he will get it immediately.\nWith AWS, not so much\n
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  • anecdote: App on Heroku. on heroku and ec2. sys admin setup on ec2. same region.\n
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  • Transcript of "Ga cloud scaling 3 30-2012"

    1. 1. Head in the CloudUnderstanding and Scaling the Cloud for Startups Managing Technology Teams WorkshopAndy Parsons | @andyparsons | andyparsons@gmail.com
    2. 2. Today We Will Cover What is “The Cloud?” How Does It Work? How Well Does It Work? What Your Dev Team Should Know How Much Does It Cost? Which Provider To Use? * If Time: Hands On Demo
    3. 3. What Is “The Cloud?”
    4. 4. “Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided tocomputers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.” (http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf)
    5. 5. Impact to Startups Changed Economics Democratizes Entrepreneurship Changed VC landscape: Then: raise $$ to build something Now: build something to raise $$
    6. 6. Essential Aspects and Some Jargon Self Service On-Demand Provisioning without humans No ownership of servers Pooled Resources Multi-tenant Location independence Processing, Memory, Storage, Bandwidth, Services Rapid Elasticity - provision and destroy Measured & Metered Service Usage transparency Cost transparency * (kinda)
    7. 7. Service Models SaaS = Software As A Service this is Google Apps. Enough said. PaaS = Platform As A Service Drop code, watch magic IaaS = Infrastructure As A Service Building blocks only
    8. 8. Deployment Models Private Cloud Tenants are a single customer Owned or rented On premises or off Public Cloud Off premises Available to anyone Hybrid Cloud 2 or more cloud infrastructure providers bound together OR, hybrid multi-tenant and dedicated resources
    9. 9. PaaS vs IaaS IaaS PaaS Application Code You You Runtime Platform You Provided Security You Provided Databases You Provided Servers Provided Provided Virtualization Provided Provided Hardware Provided Provided Storage Provided Provided Networking Provided Provided
    10. 10. Where is the Cloud Essential? Some examples: Web servers: scaling up and down to meet demand Offline data crunching Recommendation engines Social Graph applications Giant search indexing
    11. 11. AWS Components EC2 - computing EBS - fast-ish storage S3 - storage capacity ElastiCache ELB - load balancing CloudFront - Content Delivery Network on top of S3 Route53 - DNS SNS - notification service SES - email services SQS - queueing Elastic MapReduce - Hadoop Databases Simple DB RDS DynamoDB CloudFormation - templated stacks
    12. 12. Cloud Timeline First General Hypervisor: use Google Dot com FedRAMP, Runs on Internet docs and Multi-cloud, bubble Microsoft US Gov IBM 360 becomes EC2 commoditization, bursts Azure Cloud common launch market growth 1961 1965 1969 1990 1995 2000 2002 2006 2008 2009 2010 2012John IBM and Oracle Intel AZN AWSMcCarthy - Google and other founded, founded launchesCloud introduce clouds, ARPANetComputing their IaaS popularity createdConcept of PaaS
    13. 13. How Does It Work?
    14. 14. Virtualization Hides physical details of hardware Lots of VMs run on a single physical machine VM’s are relocatable
    15. 15. Virtualization Software or “Full” Virtualization: software-only, can virtualize any hardware and unmodified OS Hardware-Assisted: Special capabilities built into processors to assist with running virtual hosts Paravirtualization uses a special “hypervisor” to expose an API to virtual OS Parallels, VMWare
    16. 16. Massive Scale Affordability comes from economies of scale Fault tolerance and soft failing of hardware Automated failover Providers have developed proprietary monitoring, networking, and in some cases virtualization
    17. 17. How Well Does It Work?
    18. 18. Really Well! Until Things Break. Failure of some kind is assured Performance Drops Instance Failures Network Outages EBS RAID bottlenecks
    19. 19. One day this email came in...Hello,One of your instances in the us-east-1 region is on hardware that requires networkrelated maintenance. Your other instances that are not listed here will not be affected.i-3fcdb156For the above instance, we recommend migrating to a replacement instance to avoidany downtime. Your replacement instance would not be subject to this maintenance.If you leave your instance running, you will lose network connectivity for up to twohours. The maintenance will occur during a 12-hour window starting at 12:00amPST on Monday, February 15, 2010. After the maintenance is complete, networkconnectivity will be restored to your instance.As always, we recommend keeping current backups of data stored on your instance.Sincerely,The Amazon EC2 Team
    20. 20. ~ April 21, 2011 ~
    21. 21. ~ April 21, 2011 ~ MASSIVE AWS Service outage Some data loss (< 0.1%) Revealed details about how EBS worked at the time Catastrophic for some Triggered by a router upgrade! Replication stampede
    22. 22. Disk I/O: The Thorn in Your Side Unpredictable No guarantees Bane of Databases And disk-bound operations like app startup Monitor closely Build Around This (coming up)
    23. 23. EBS Filesystem Tests Seq. Reads Seq. Writes Random Random R/W Mix: RW Mix: Filesystem # of Disks (MB/s) (MB/s) Reads (MB/s) Writes (MB/s) Reads (MB/s) Writes (MB/s) EXT3, 3 74.7 102.1 1.3 20.4 21.3 25.1 64K stripe EXT3, 128K stripe, 3 1.6 11.3 2MB readahead buffer XFS, 3 20.7 107.2 1.7 40.2 13.6 12.5 64k stripe XFS, 3 102.2 106.2 1.5 87.8 41.1 24.6 128K stripe XFS, 4 115.8 135.4 2.0 76.4 41.0 24.6 64K stripe XFS, 4 104.8 103.1 1.8 70.8 49.3 30.3 128K stripe XFS, 128K stripe, 4 105.0 102.8 2.0 70.1 55.1 31.5 deadline scheduler
    24. 24. How Will Things Improve? Price drops SSD (already in AWS DynamoDB) Improvements in virtualization Ever more interesting PaaS offerings Convergence of IaaS and PaaS
    25. 25. What Your Dev TeamShould Know
    26. 26. We Don’t Need a Sys Admin! You probably do, actually. But not yet. Ops -> DevOps -> NoOps (Adrian Cockroft, NetFlix) But your SA or DevOps can do more than ever before. David Fletcher http://cloudtweaks.com
    27. 27. Architecting for the Cloud No SPFs No SLAs Don’t depend on SLA
    28. 28. Architecting for the Cloud Figure out how things will fail. Design for failure. No fire drills. Deal with Friday failures on Monday. Make provisioning new parts trivial Failover Database Replication
    29. 29. Architecting for the Cloud Exact hardware location is decided by the provider Design to Distribute Stateless wherever possible Loosely coupled, redundant systems Redundant data storage Understand Your Dependencies!
    30. 30. Tools: Monitoring/Cost Management Ylastic RightScale Cloudability CloudVertical SensibleCloud Raveld Cloud Cruiser
    31. 31. How Much Does It Cost?
    32. 32. But wait a sec... Cloud Hardware 100% Considers cost of:Utilization ✓Computing, ✓Storage, 80% ✓Bandwidth, ✓Staff 60% $0K $150K $300K $450K $600K Cumulative Cost Over 3 Years (http://www.hightechinthehub.com/2011/09/dirty-little-secret-of-the-cloud/)
    33. 33. But wait a sec... YEAR PHYSICAL CLOUD 1 $240,000 $196,000 2 $62,000 $196,000 3 $62,000 $196,000 TOTAL $364,000 $588,000 (http://www.hightechinthehub.com/2011/09/dirty-little-secret-of-the-cloud/)
    34. 34. Elasticity is the key YEAR PHYSICAL CLOUD 1 $240,000 $80,000 2 $62,000 $100,000 3 $62,000 $120,000 TOTAL $364,000 $400,000 Now we are managing costs
    35. 35. Price Comparisons The Devil is in the Details Billing is a Means of Differentiation What are you paying for? “Compute Units” + RAM Bandwidth Storage Virtualization (efficient use of metal)
    36. 36. Price Comparisons Example: Instance Types AWS Rackspace Joyent Softlayer Cores 1 1 1 1 RAM 1.7 GB 1 GB 1 GB 1 GB Disk 160 GB 40 GB 30 GB 25 GB $/month $58 $44 $62 $50 But what’s a “core?”
    37. 37. EC2 Reserved Pricing 3-Year Run Cost: 35 small, 10 large instances Own Hardware On-Demand 1-Year Reserved 3-Year Reserved Usage $157,680 $75,411 $48,123 Hardware $20,129 Network gear $4,026 Hardware Maint. $28,986 Datacenter Cost $131,382 Remote Hands $1,014 Data Transfer $10,071 $6138 $6138 $6138 TOTAL $195,608 $163,818 $81,550 $54,263 (http://mikekhristo.com/ec2-ondemand-vs-reserved-instance-savings-calculator/)
    38. 38. Keys to Controlling Costs Correlate Cloud sizing with application needs Keep things running at close to 100% utilization Fact: for always-on infrastructure cloud is more expensive than hardware Good metrics to consider: CCOGS Cloud cost of goods sold = Cloud Costs/ Revenue % Utilization: Actual Utilization/Total Capacity HOLY GRAIL: Cloud Costs/Active User
    39. 39. Which Provider to Use? David Fletcher http://cloudtweaks.com
    40. 40. Guess What? It depends.
    41. 41. How Do Providers Distinguish Themselves? Affinity for a language or stack Pricing models Performance Add-on computing services (DNS, Load Balancing ...) Managed Services (backup, humans ...) SLAs
    42. 42. Hands On(If there’s time)
    43. 43. Thanks!Andy Parsons | @andyparsons | andyparsons@gmail.com
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