Mongolian Education, Language, and Numerals


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Mongolian Education, Language, and Numerals

  1. 1. The Mongolian Education, Language, and Numeral System Andrew Romine Period 4
  2. 2. History of Education <ul><li>Originally, only Buddhist monks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher education was only available in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy, doctrine, and protocol of Buddhism were taught </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Chinese Collapse <ul><li>Secular education began after 1911 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China collapsed at this time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongolian languages began to be used for teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 47 enrollees in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yihe Huree in 1912 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Development <ul><li>Although 55% of party members were illiterate, things were progressing </li></ul><ul><li>2.7% of children were in secular schools </li></ul><ul><li>13% were in monastery schools </li></ul><ul><li>1968 was the first time that all adults were considered literate </li></ul><ul><li>20% of the state budget was towards education </li></ul>
  5. 5. Further Education <ul><li>Many Mongolians had to travel to the Soviet Union or Eastern Europe for higher level schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Many children did not choose to do this </li></ul>
  6. 6. Current Education <ul><li>Many children do not make it through primary school </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult to educate nomadic children </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolians believe that a woman’s job is to care for the family and the man’s is to run the herd </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly boys drop </li></ul><ul><li>out of school </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basic Language History <ul><li>Mongolian is a subfamily of Altaic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altaic is mostly spoken in Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The language is named for the Altai Shan, where some believe it originated </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Discovery of Turkic <ul><li>Johann von Strahlenberg, a Swedish officer, realized the link between Turkic, Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sub-languages <ul><li>Two main language groups: Western and Eastern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western languages are Oryat and Kalmyk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Languages are Buryat and Mongol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are some outlying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>languages but they have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no written language </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Early Mongolian <ul><li>A unified Mongolian language was recreated by l inguists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsure of origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared to be spoken in the 12 th century </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Middle Mongolian <ul><li>Middle Mongolian was used from 13 th to 16 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread by Genghis Khan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlying Mongolian languages were created from conquest and destruction </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Written Text <ul><li>Written Text began in the 13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>This was the beginning of the pre-classical period </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classical Period <ul><li>The Classical Period was from the </li></ul><ul><li>17 th to 18 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Ushered in by </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul>
  14. 14. Modern Mongolian <ul><li>Modern Mongolian languages have been used since the 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Lost many archaic features present in outlying languages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Full Written Text <ul><li>It was not until the 19 th century that the modern Mongolian languages ( Buryat, Mongol, Oryat, and Kalmyk) gained a written text </li></ul>
  16. 16. Famous Mongolian <ul><li>Many people enjoy Mongolian custom and language </li></ul><ul><li>Some famous movies are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prince Tsogt, 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Dogs, 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Story of the Weeping Camel, 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Basic Mongolian Numerals <ul><li>Mongolian Numerals are most likely based on of Tibetan script </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolian numerals are only used on the tögrög banknotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Mongolia, the Chinese numeral system is used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese numbers, as well as Mongolian numerals, correspond to the Arabic number system </li></ul></ul>
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