Varieties of English(es) and Academic Literacy(ies):  Finding a ‘voice’ English Language Centre,  King’s College London ww...
University/Academic English as a variety of English <ul><li>Look at many languages in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Many var...
1. Many ways to say “hello”: <ul><li>Kaixo </li></ul><ul><li>Hola </li></ul><ul><li>As-Salāmu `Alaykum </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Words from other languages in English <ul><li>Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Assasin </li></ul><ul><li>K...
Words from other languages in English <ul><li>Shampoo </li></ul><ul><li>Thug </li></ul><ul><li>Cash </li></ul><ul><li>Magi...
How else could you say these expressions  from India/Pakistan? <ul><li>Eve-teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Opticals </li></ul><u...
What about these expressions from Jamaica/Nigeria/Ghana ? <ul><li>Sweet mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers </li></ul><ul><li>...
2. “Hello” in Yoruba <ul><li>[morning, honorific]  </li></ul><ul><li>E kú àárò </li></ul><ul><li>[afternoon, honorific]  <...
One meaning, many words <ul><li>Hello </li></ul><ul><li>Hi </li></ul><ul><li>Hiya </li></ul><ul><li>Good morning </li></ul...
One word many meanings <ul><li>Argument: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had an  argument  with my wife last night. </li></ul></ul...
3. What makes the difference between varieties? <ul><li>Who is using them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul...
4. What happens when you use the ‘wrong’ variety? <ul><li>No such thing as ‘wrong’ variety, only different than the group ...
5. What happens when you use the right variety? <ul><li>You are ‘accepted’ and ‘understood’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your ‘vo...
6. How can you learn new varieties? <ul><li>Start by listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken words and phrases, accents, pr...
Move on to reading <ul><li>Reading for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up vocabulary and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Try to wri...
7. What is ‘university English’ like? <ul><li>Varies by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre </...
Some examples <ul><li>I met this guy who was messed right up with fever. He went down the docs and got these nang pills wh...
Conclusion <ul><li>Bad news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of words to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to read and liste...
Good News <ul><li>You are already experts at learning new styles </li></ul><ul><li>Principles are the same: </li></ul><ul>...
Summary <ul><li>Look at many languages in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Many varieties within one ‘language’ </li></ul><ul><...
Varieties of English(es) and Academic Literacy(ies):  Finding a ‘voice’ English Language Centre,  King’s College London ww...
The question is: (How much) do you want to join the group? <ul><li>How to say “hello” in many languages: </li></ul><ul><li...
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varieties

  1. 1. Varieties of English(es) and Academic Literacy(ies): Finding a ‘voice’ English Language Centre, King’s College London www.kcl.ac.uk/elc
  2. 2. University/Academic English as a variety of English <ul><li>Look at many languages in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Many varieties within one ‘language’ </li></ul><ul><li>What makes the difference between varieties? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you use the ‘wrong’ one? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you use the ‘right’ one? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we learn new varieties? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ‘university English’ like? </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Many ways to say “hello”: <ul><li>Kaixo </li></ul><ul><li>Hola </li></ul><ul><li>As-Salāmu `Alaykum </li></ul><ul><li>Shalom </li></ul><ul><li>Bonjour </li></ul><ul><li>Ciao </li></ul><ul><li>Previet </li></ul><ul><li>E kú isé </li></ul><ul><li>Ola </li></ul><ul><li>Labas </li></ul><ul><li>Hej </li></ul><ul><li>Konichiwa </li></ul><ul><li>Ni Hao </li></ul><ul><li>Sawatdi </li></ul><ul><li>Merhaba </li></ul><ul><li>Szia </li></ul><ul><li>Bok </li></ul><ul><li>Guten Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>Iska waran </li></ul><ul><li>__________ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Words from other languages in English <ul><li>Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Assasin </li></ul><ul><li>Ketchup </li></ul><ul><li>Taboo </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africa (Temne/Mandinka) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaiian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaiian </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Words from other languages in English <ul><li>Shampoo </li></ul><ul><li>Thug </li></ul><ul><li>Cash </li></ul><ul><li>Magic </li></ul><ul><li>Yo-yo </li></ul><ul><li>Elephant and Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Vampire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagalog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkish </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How else could you say these expressions from India/Pakistan? <ul><li>Eve-teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Opticals </li></ul><ul><li>Himalayan blunder </li></ul><ul><li>Bearer </li></ul><ul><li>Freeship </li></ul><ul><li>Waiter </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Female harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Big mistake </li></ul>
  7. 7. What about these expressions from Jamaica/Nigeria/Ghana ? <ul><li>Sweet mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Cry waters </li></ul><ul><li>Go-slow </li></ul><ul><li>Bush meat </li></ul><ul><li>Tears </li></ul><ul><li>Game </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic jam </li></ul><ul><li>Relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Flatter </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. “Hello” in Yoruba <ul><li>[morning, honorific] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú àárò </li></ul><ul><li>[afternoon, honorific] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú òsán </li></ul><ul><li>[evening, honorific] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú ìròle </li></ul><ul><li>[night/before midnight] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú alé </li></ul><ul><li>[night/after midnight] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú áísún </li></ul><ul><li>[to a person at home] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú alé </li></ul><ul><li>[to a person at work] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú isé </li></ul><ul><li>[to a person returning] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú àbò </li></ul><ul><li>[to a person sitting] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú ìjokòó </li></ul><ul><li>[after long absence] </li></ul><ul><li>E kú àmójúbà </li></ul><ul><li>[morning non-honorific] </li></ul><ul><li>O kú àárò </li></ul><ul><li>[afternoon, non-honor.] </li></ul><ul><li>O kú òsán </li></ul><ul><li>[evening non-honorific] </li></ul><ul><li>O kú ìròle </li></ul><ul><li>[night/before midnight] </li></ul><ul><li>O kú alé </li></ul><ul><li>[night/after midnight] </li></ul><ul><li>O kú áísún </li></ul>
  9. 9. One meaning, many words <ul><li>Hello </li></ul><ul><li>Hi </li></ul><ul><li>Hiya </li></ul><ul><li>Good morning </li></ul><ul><li>Morning </li></ul><ul><li>Good afternoon </li></ul><ul><li>Good evening </li></ul><ul><li>Greetings </li></ul><ul><li>Hey </li></ul><ul><li>Howzitgoing? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Wassup? </li></ul><ul><li>Others:_______ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul>
  10. 10. One word many meanings <ul><li>Argument: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had an argument with my wife last night. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My argument is that more money should be spent on encouraging young people to go to university. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You often see cows and sheep in the fields in the countryside. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scanner works by producing a strong magnetic field . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In my field , languages and linguistics, culture is seen as very important. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3. What makes the difference between varieties? <ul><li>Who is using them? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who they are speaking to? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the context? </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. What happens when you use the ‘wrong’ variety? <ul><li>No such thing as ‘wrong’ variety, only different than the group or expectation </li></ul><ul><li>(It might be on purpose as a joke) </li></ul><ul><li>You may not be understood </li></ul><ul><li>You may be misunderstood </li></ul><ul><li>You will (always) be judged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often negative (dismiss, make fun) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your ideas (arguments) may not be heard or noticed, only your ‘style’ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 5. What happens when you use the right variety? <ul><li>You are ‘accepted’ and ‘understood’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your ‘voice’ is ‘heard’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your idea, message or argument is heard, rather than your language variety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You become one of the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain status and confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to control some aspects of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually you can even decide who is ‘in’ or ‘out’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Just like wearing the ‘right’ clothes / listening to the ‘right’ music </li></ul>
  14. 14. 6. How can you learn new varieties? <ul><li>Start by listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken words and phrases, accents, pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy what you have heard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(the majority, cool people) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make it yours, find your ‘voice’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new words/phrases ‘disappear’ into your vocabulary </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Move on to reading <ul><li>Reading for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up vocabulary and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Try to write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy what you have seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make it yours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find your ‘voice’ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 7. What is ‘university English’ like? <ul><li>Varies by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal preference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal style (long words, ‘posh’ or political sounding) </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive structure (intro/background, for/against, conclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence based (rather than opinion?) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul>
  17. 17. Some examples <ul><li>I met this guy who was messed right up with fever. He went down the docs and got these nang pills which sorted him right out. </li></ul><ul><li>One patient made a complete recovery after receiving a prescription for the fever reducing tablets from his GP. </li></ul><ul><li>No way they should’ve gone into Iraq. Everyone can see it was all lies what Bush and Blair were saying. </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely agreed that the reasons given by Bush and Blair for invading Iraq have turned out to be at best inaccurate and at worst deliberately misleading, with the result that the policy now appears to have been a complete mistake. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Bad news </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of words to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to read and listen to stuff until the style ‘disappears’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must practice speaking/writing and get feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to learn the big names/ideas in your subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation even within your subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never finish learning the variety(ies) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Good News <ul><li>You are already experts at learning new styles </li></ul><ul><li>Principles are the same: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate ideas best when your voice is heard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the style of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use support, base your ideas (arguments) on evidence (big names) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find your voice so you can communicate your ideas without worrying about the language (so much) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hopefully there will be some interest as you go deeper into a subject you choose </li></ul>
  20. 20. Summary <ul><li>Look at many languages in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Many varieties within one ‘language’ </li></ul><ul><li>What makes the difference between varieties? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you use the ‘wrong’ one? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you use the ‘right’ one? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we learn new varieties? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ‘university English’ like? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Varieties of English(es) and Academic Literacy(ies): Finding a ‘voice’ English Language Centre, King’s College London www.kcl.ac.uk/elc
  22. 22. The question is: (How much) do you want to join the group? <ul><li>How to say “hello” in many languages: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elite.net/~runner/jennifers/hello.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Words from India/Pakistan: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/words/activities/indian_english01.html </li></ul><ul><li>Words form Jamaica/Nigeria/Ghana: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/words/activities/jam_wa_english01.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Lists_of_English_words_of_foreign_origin </li></ul><ul><li>For a copy of this presentation email Andy at: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Agur (“goodbye” in Basque) </li></ul>
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