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Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007
 

Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007

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Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007 Fresh Produce Safet1hour2007 Presentation Transcript

  • As A Grower, How Can You Make Fruits and Vegetables Safer For Your Consumer
  • Introduction
    • OSU Food Safety Team created in 2007 to address rising food safety concerns in Ohio.
    • Grant received to educate fruit and vegetable growers in Ohio producing a commodity for sale to the public.
    • The objective of OSU Food Safety Team is combine critical food safety knowledge and real world tools into action on your farm to protect you and your customers.
    • In partnership with CIFT, Center for Innovative Food Technology
  • Where should you begin?
    • Become better educated concerning microbial food safety risks
    • Conduct a farm audit, or hire it done
    • Implement audit recommendations.
    • At least, start with a few changes.
    • Document, document, document!
  • Fruit and Vegetable Consumption
    • Between 1974 -2004, the U.S. per
    • capita consumption of fruits and
    • vegetables increased 20% !
    • 578 lbs to 694 lbs per year.
    In the same time period , fresh fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 37% 242 lbs to 331 lbs per year.
  • Consumers are Confused
    • Message # 1
    • - - Eat more fruits and
    • vegetables - -
    • Message # 2
        • - - People die from fresh
        • produce - -
  • Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases, April 2005. Josefa M. Rangel,*†Comments Phyllis H. Sparling,‡ Collen Crowe,* Patricia M. Griffin,* and David L. Swerdlow*,*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; and ‡U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA
  • Proportion of Outbreaks and Cases are Rising As presented by Dr. Michael Lynch, CDC, Global GAPs Conference, 2005
  • E. coli Outbreak Spurs Lawsuits and FDA Letter Marler Clark files third E. coli lawsuit against Dole November 1, 2005 Marler Clark MINNEAPOLIS, MN – Marler Clark filed a third E. coli lawsuit against Dole late Tuesday in United States District Court for the District of Minnesota. The lawsuit was filed on behalf of Lori Olson, a Minneapolis resident, and her two minor daughters.
  • CA Marketing Agreement
    • Leafy Greens
    • A Regulatory Mechanism for the State of CA based on CA State Demand.
    • A Marketing Seal.
    • Not required, but selling without the Seal is difficult.
    • Approved by the CA Dept Ag
  • How Big is the Problem?
    • Every year foodborne illnesses result in an estimated:
      • 76 million cases of foodborne illness.
      • 325,000 people hospitalized for foodborne illness.
      • 5,200 needless deaths each year.
      • Economic losses between 10-83 billion dollars.
  • Foodborne outbreaks traced to fresh produce, 1990-1996
    • Year Pathogen Vehicle Cases States
    • 1995 S. Stanley Alfalfa sprouts 242 17
    • 1995 S. Hartford Orange juice 63 21
    • 1995 E. coli O157:H7 Leaf lettuce 70 1
    • 1996 E. coli O157:H7 Leaf lettuce 49 2
    • 1996 Cyclospora Raspberries 978 20
    • 1996 E. coli O157:H7 Apple juice 71 3
    Tauxe. 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3:425-434.
  • Recent Foodborne Outbreaks traced to Fresh Produce
    • Year Pathogen Vehicle Cases States
    • 2004 Cyclospora Basil/Mesculin 95 2
    • 2004 S. b ovismorbificans Alfalfa Sprouts 12 2
    • 2004 Salmonella Roma Tomatoes 289 5
    • 2005 E. coli O157:H7 Packaged lettuce 11 1
    • 2006 E. coli O157:H7 Spinach 199 26
    • 2006 S. typhimurium Tomatoes 183 21
    • 2006 E. coli O157:H7 Lettuce 71 5
    • S. Plimpton-2007
  • US Produce Outbreaks: 1990 - 1998 Source: CDC Foodborne outbreak surveillance system Salad Bar Salad Bar 35.4% 35.4% Fruit Fruit 20.8% 20.8% Lettuce Lettuce 16.7% 16.7% Unknown/Other 7.3% Cabbage 5.2% Carrots 3.1% Tomatoes 2 .1% Sprouts Sprouts 9.4% 9.4%
  • Fruit and Vegetable Outbreaks by Origin of Produce: 1990 - 1998 Domestic 75.3% Imported 7.5% Unknown 17.2% Source: CDC Foodborne outbreak surveillance system
  • Why are Foodborne Illnesses Increasing?
    • Complexities of the Food System
    • Aging of the Population
    • Chronic Illnesses / Compromised Immunity
    • Awareness of Hygiene & Risks Changing
    • Changing Microorganisms:
      • More Virulent Strains
      • Adapting to Stresses
  • A Little Microbiology
    • In the right environment, bacteria replicate ~ every 20 minutes.
    • An head of lettuce has 1 bacteria on it.
    • How long will it take to multiply to 100 cells?
    The Infective Dose of E.coli O157: H7 could be as few as 10 cells . 140 minutes or 2 hrs & 20 min
  • Enteric (Fecal) Pathogens Bacteria Protozoa Bacteria Virus
  • Washing Produce Does Not Eliminate Pathogens
    • Therefore !!!
    • At every step in the food chain
      • Prevention
      • Reduction
      • Education
  • Limits of pH for Growth of Key Bacteria Microbe pH range Candida spp. 2.3-8.8 Clostridium botulinum 4.7-8.5 Escherichia coli 4.4-9.0 Escherichia coli O157:H7 4.2-9.0 Erwinia carotovora 5.6-9.3 Lactobacillus spp. 3.8-7.2 Pseudomonas marginalis 6.0-8.5 Salmonella spp. 4.8-8.0 Salmonella DT104 4.2-8.0
  • How E. coli adheres to and penetrates Apple Tissues
    • Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the Surfaces and Internal Structures of Apples as Detected by Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy. Scott L. Burnett, Jinru Chen, and Larry R. Beuchat*
    • Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797 ; AEM, August, 2000.
    A - Cells adhering to cleft in waxy cuticle B - Cells clustered in Intact Cuticle
  • Taking Aim at Microbial Safety for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Where do we shoot the silver bullet?
  • Where Microbial Pathogens Live
    • Common in soils…
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Bacillus cereus
      • Clostridium botulinum
      • Clostridium perfringens
    • Residents of human and animal intestinal tracts…
      • Salmonella species
      • E. coli O157:H7
      • Shigella species
      • Campylobacter jejuni
      • Viruses and parasites
  • Food Safety Systems
    • Systems that assure the safety of fruits and vegetables during growing, harvesting, postharvest handling, fresh-cut processing, and distribution:
    • Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)
    • Good Handling Practices (GHPs)
      • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
      • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  • What really matters ..
    • … . is protecting the consumer and your business.
    • Implement GAP/GHP
    • Tailor a Food Safety Program to your Unique Operation
    • Manage to Reduce Risk
  • Implement a Food Safety .. What?
    • Map out your operation
    • Identify potential sources of contamination in your unique operation
    • Document procedures for reducing risk
    • Establish Traceability
  • Evaluate the Whole Operation
    • Field Sanitation
    • Water
    • Manure and Municipal Biosolids
    • Worker Health and Hygiene
    • Sanitary Facilities
    • Packing Facility Sanitation
    • Transportation
    • Trace-back/Trace-forward/Recall
    • Consumer Education
    Evaluate the Whole Operation to include Key GAPs/GHPs
  • Physical Hazards
    • Glass
    • Staples
    • Metal Shavings
    • Wood Splinters
    • Nuts/bolts/nails
    • Plastic
    • Twist Ties
  • Chemical Hazards
    • Pesticides
    • Fertilizers
    • Paints/Thinners
    • Non-food grade lubricants
    • Chlorine
    • Flaking Paint
  • Land Use & History
    • Prior use:
    • Current use
    • Slope
    • Porosity
    • Source of aerosols
    • Pests and vectors
    • Seasonal water contamination
    • Characterize:
    • Farm Layout
    • Adjacent Land
    • All Land-Use Activities
  • Water: The Critical Control Point?
  • Water Management
    • Know the source of the water and intended use.
    • Evaluate the irrigation method.
    • Test water quarterly for fecal coliforms and keep records of all water test results.
    • Be active in local watershed groups.
  • Ground Water Pumped to Impoundments are Exposed to Surface Effects
    • Blending with delivered water
    • Blending with tail water
    • Animal influences
    • Storm related effects
    • Illicit discharge
  • Are there Microbial Standards for Irrigation Water ?
    • Adequate for intended purpose
    • Cannot result in adulterated food
    • Potable standards are applied
    • Available science not supportive
    • Standard methods not available
  • To Test or Not to Test?
  • Pre-irrigation May Impact Adjacent Crops
  • Spray Water Quality
    • Use potable (drinking) water for sanitation sprays.
    • When potable water is not available, test water quality and keep records.
    • Low water volumes reduce risk.
  • Manure and Soil Amendments
  • Manure = Fecal Matter = Microbes
    • Human or animal: DO EVERYTHING you can to keep manure off produce.
    • Preventing contamination is THE goal.
  • Manure
    • Manage compost piles to achieve high temperatures to kill potential pathogens.
    • Time application properly .
    • Know the source.
  • Worker Hygiene
  • Farm Worker Hygiene
    • Provide clean restrooms with soap, water, and single-use towels.
    • Teach workers about food safety and their role in preventing microbial contamination of fresh fruits and vegetables.
    • Enforce proper use of facilities.
  • Is worker training really a priority?
    • Farm workers are sometimes the last/only people to handle the produce before the consumer.
    • Workers are capable of learning about food safety issues.
    • Effective training results in better employees and safer produce.
  • What is Proper Handwashing?
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
    • Proper Handwashing
    • Reduces infection 35 to 50%
    • Reduces GI-illness up to 80%
  • Unwashed Rinsed hand Washed 20 sec using soap and water Washed 20 sec and then sanitized From: University of Georgia
  • Harvest Considerations
    • Ideally pick dry fruit or vegetable.
    • Leave fruit that has bird droppings on it.
    • Clean and sanitize totes daily.
    • Cool product quickly.
    • Teach workers about proper handwashing.
  • Avoid Introducing Pathogens to your Harvest
    • Do Not Harvest Dropped Fruit.
    • Heavily Bruised, Punctured or Decaying Fruit should not be used for fresh market
    • or processing.
  • Movement of equipment and workers Traffic patterns for employees and equipment should be established to avoid cross contamination between raw manure and compost or crops
  • Field conditions may increase risks
  • Growers Are Innovating Their Own On-Farm Sanitation Routines
  • Promote Cleanliness at U Pick
    • Invite customers to wash their hands prior to entering the fields.
    • Provide clean and convenient restrooms for customer use.
    • Supply soap, clean water, and single -use towels for hand washing.
  • Wash Water Quality
    • Use potable water for all produce washing, cooling, dipping, icing, and processing.
    • Use a sanitation method to reduce the risk of microbial contamination.
  • Postharvest Water Disinfection Strategies
    • Some Options:
      • Chlorine gas, Sodium hypochlorite, Calcium hypochlorite, Chlorine dioxide, Acidified sodium chlorite,
      • Surfactants,
      • Ozone,
      • Ionizing radicals,
      • Hydrogen peroxide,
      • Peroxyacetic acid,
      • Ultraviolet Illumination.
    • Monitoring effectiveness is paramount to success.
  • Other Sanitation methods
    • There are other water and surface disinfectants available.
    • If you choose a new product, make sure it is effective and be aware of how to properly handle, mix, and store the material.
    • Rely on the experts and monitor effectiveness.
  • Wastewater Discharge
    • Organic compounds from processing
    • sugars, complex exudates, insolubles
    • Chemical disinfectants
    • Disinfection –by-products
    • Measured as BOD (O 2 consumption)
  • Develop your Food Safety Program
    • Find Out What the Auditors Want
    • An Overview of Your Operation
    • Identify potential sources of Contamination
    • Document procedures for reducing risk
    • Establish Traceback/Recall Procedures
  • How much do I really have to Document?
    • Documents for Audits:
      • Worker Training
      • Water Quality and Treatment
      • Storage and Transportation Temperatures
      • Pest Control Program
      • Traceback/Recall Program
  • What a Recall System includes
    • Identifying your Food Safety Coordinator and Chain of Communication
    • Develop a Plan and Procedure to quickly locate and remove identified product
    • Immediately notify sites of hold giving the pertinent information
  • You Must……
    • Notify distributors, retailers and others immediately
    • Segregate affected lots
    • Identify location and quantify product
    • Report data to State/Local and Federal Agencies within 10 calendar days
  • Food Security
    • Secure Your Perimeter
    • Know who is on the premises and why.
    • Keep Buildings Secure
    • Keep Chemicals Secure.
    • Keep Chemical Records up to Date.
  • Further Indepth Presentation Opportunities
    • Reduce Risks of Microbial Contamination During Production
    • Advanced GAPs:Water Sanitation and Third Party Certification
    • Food Safety Session-Post Harvest
  • Websites
    • http://www.gaps.cornell.edu
    • http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/
    • http://www.jifsan.umd.edu/gaps.html
    • http://www.nal.usda.gov
    • http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodguid.html
    • http://foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/
  • Acknowledgement
    • Re-adapted from presentations developed by Shari L. Plimpton, PhD
    • CIFT/EISC, Inc
  • Acknowledgements
    • Parts of this presentation were created by Elizabeth A. Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, Trevor V. Suslow, Robert B. Gravani, Marvin P. Pritts and Randy Worobo.
    • Images provided by USDA ( 94c3993, k8666, 96c0783, 92cs0587, 94cs3904, 94c3824, 94c3958, 95cs2808, 96cs1794, 85c0114, 95cs6978), Trevor V. Suslow,
    • Anusuya Rangarajan, Elizabeth A. Bihn,
    • Robert B. Gravani, Al B. Wagner, Barbara Bellows, Donna L. Scott and Ed McLaughlin.
  • Acknowledgements
    • Many slides included in this Presentation were created by Trevor V. Suslow , Elizabeth A.Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robert B. Gravani, and Randy Worobo.
    • Images provided by EISC, Inc., USDA (95cs6978, 95c7125), Trevor V. Suslow, Robert B. Gravani, Elizabeth A. Bihn, Anusuya Rangarajan, and Cornell IPM.
  • Engaging Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Enhanced Food Safety Practices
    • Team members:
    • Doug Doohan
    • Jeff LeJeune
    • Eric Barrett
    • Mike Gastier
    • Andy Kleinschmidt
    • Terry Kline
    • Hal Kneen