Causeand Effective Writing
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cause and effect Eng 101

cause and effect Eng 101

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Causeand Effective Writing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cause and Effect Writing English 1 Prof. Marcinek
  • 2.
    • Cause and Effect analyzes why something happens.
    • Some effects are caused by multiple causes.
    • Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects.
  • 3.
    • Main cause: the most important cause
    • Contributory Causes: less important
    • Immediate Cause: closely precedes the effect.
    • Remote cause: less obvious because it involves something in the past or far away.
    • Causal Chain: an effect can be the cause to another effect, on so on.
  • 4.
    • Avoiding Post Hoc Reasoning:
    • Do not assume that just because even A precedes event B, event A caused even B. This illogical assumption is called post hoc reasoning. This error leads you to confuse coincidence with causality.
  • 5.
    • Do not confuse words like because, therefore and consequently (indicating a causal relationship), with words like subsequently, later, and afterward (chronological relationship words)
  • 6. Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Purpose and Thesis:
      • Be sure to identify the relationships among the specific causes and effect you will discuss.
      • Thesis statement should tell the reader
        • The points you plan to consider
        • The position you will take
        • Whether you will emphasize causes, effects, or both.
        • The cause and/or effect you consider most important.
        • The order in which you will treat your points.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 7.
    • Order and sequence; several possibilities include:
      • Chronological
      • Main cause first, and then contributory causes
      • Contributory causes first, and then main cause.
      • Negative effects first, then positive
      • First dismiss events that are not causes, and then discuss actual causes for an effect.
      • Most obvious causes first, and then less obvious causes.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 8. Transitions!
    • Transitions are essential to this type of essay to distinguish causes from effects.
    • For a useful list of cause and effect transitions, see page 43.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 9. Structuring a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Finding Causes
        • Less important cause > effect> most important cause
    • Describing or Predicting Effects
        • Cause > first effect> second effect > third (most important) effect> conclusion (with possible prediction of additional effects).
  • 10. Revising a Cause and Effect Essay
    • See checklist on page 437 of Bedford Reader
    Editing a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Avoid redundant phrases like “the reason is because” examples
    • Use Affect and Effect correctly.
    • Editing checklist on page 437
  • 11. Assignment for next week
    • On page 459 of The Bedford Reader, Read the article, The Rise and Fall of The Hit.
    • Write an Essay in which you explain your own relationship with the media of popular culture – Internet, TV, Books, radio and so on. Which media you prefer? Have your preferences changed in the past year or two? Give specific Examples to support your explanation.
  • 12. Any Questions or Comments
    • Please call Marcinek at 570-259-1114
    • Grade Reports will be coming Today (Tuesday) and Tomorrow.
    • The Final Exam will be done outside of class and you will have the normal amount of time between sessions to ask questions and seek help for revisions.