Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Causeand Effective Writing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Causeand Effective Writing


Published on

cause and effect Eng 101

cause and effect Eng 101

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Cause and Effect Writing English 1 Prof. Marcinek
  • 2.
    • Cause and Effect analyzes why something happens.
    • Some effects are caused by multiple causes.
    • Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects.
  • 3.
    • Main cause: the most important cause
    • Contributory Causes: less important
    • Immediate Cause: closely precedes the effect.
    • Remote cause: less obvious because it involves something in the past or far away.
    • Causal Chain: an effect can be the cause to another effect, on so on.
  • 4.
    • Avoiding Post Hoc Reasoning:
    • Do not assume that just because even A precedes event B, event A caused even B. This illogical assumption is called post hoc reasoning. This error leads you to confuse coincidence with causality.
  • 5.
    • Do not confuse words like because, therefore and consequently (indicating a causal relationship), with words like subsequently, later, and afterward (chronological relationship words)
  • 6. Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Purpose and Thesis:
      • Be sure to identify the relationships among the specific causes and effect you will discuss.
      • Thesis statement should tell the reader
        • The points you plan to consider
        • The position you will take
        • Whether you will emphasize causes, effects, or both.
        • The cause and/or effect you consider most important.
        • The order in which you will treat your points.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 7.
    • Order and sequence; several possibilities include:
      • Chronological
      • Main cause first, and then contributory causes
      • Contributory causes first, and then main cause.
      • Negative effects first, then positive
      • First dismiss events that are not causes, and then discuss actual causes for an effect.
      • Most obvious causes first, and then less obvious causes.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 8. Transitions!
    • Transitions are essential to this type of essay to distinguish causes from effects.
    • For a useful list of cause and effect transitions, see page 43.
    Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
  • 9. Structuring a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Finding Causes
        • Less important cause > effect> most important cause
    • Describing or Predicting Effects
        • Cause > first effect> second effect > third (most important) effect> conclusion (with possible prediction of additional effects).
  • 10. Revising a Cause and Effect Essay
    • See checklist on page 437 of Bedford Reader
    Editing a Cause and Effect Essay
    • Avoid redundant phrases like “the reason is because” examples
    • Use Affect and Effect correctly.
    • Editing checklist on page 437
  • 11. Assignment for next week
    • On page 459 of The Bedford Reader, Read the article, The Rise and Fall of The Hit.
    • Write an Essay in which you explain your own relationship with the media of popular culture – Internet, TV, Books, radio and so on. Which media you prefer? Have your preferences changed in the past year or two? Give specific Examples to support your explanation.
  • 12. Any Questions or Comments
    • Please call Marcinek at 570-259-1114
    • Grade Reports will be coming Today (Tuesday) and Tomorrow.
    • The Final Exam will be done outside of class and you will have the normal amount of time between sessions to ask questions and seek help for revisions.