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Fragments

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  • 1. Fragments
  • 2. What is a fragment? A fragment is a group of words that is missing parts of a complete sentence. Remember that any sentence, in order to be complete, must express a complete thought and must include both a subject and a verb.
  • 3. Sentence:There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened.Sentence followed by a fragment:There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened.
  • 4. How can you find a fragment? Ask: Is there a subject in the word group? A verb? Ask: Does the word group express a complete thought? If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then the word group is a fragment.
  • 5. How can you correct a fragment?There are two basic ways to fix a fragment:– Add what is missing (a subject, a verb, or both).– Attach the fragment to the sentence before or after it.
  • 6. Fragments that start with prepositions What is a preposition?A preposition connects a noun, pronoun, or verb with other information about it.* Remember: While phrases that begin with prepositions usually contain a noun, this noun cannot be the subject of the sentence.Example: After the swim meet, I went out for dinner.In this sentence, I is the subject, not the swim meet.
  • 7. How do you correct fragments that start with prepositions? Correct the fragment by joining it to the sentence before or after it.Sentence followed by a fragment:Some parents worry. About their children’s imaginary companions.Corrected sentence:Some parents worry about their children’s imaginary companions.
  • 8. Fragments that start with dependent words What is a dependent word?A dependent word (also called a subordinating conjunction) is the first word in a dependent clause.* Remember: A dependent clause is not a sentence because it does not express a complete thought, even though it contains a subject and a verb.Example: Since I won the meet. I have not stopped smiling.Since I won has a subject (I) and a verb (won), but it doesn’t express a complete thought. (What happened since I won?)
  • 9. How do you correct fragments that start with a dependent word? Connect a fragment that starts with a dependent word to the sentence before or after it.Sentence followed by a fragment:There I was, in the middle of my morning shower. When it happened.Corrected sentence:There I was, in the middle of my morning shower, when it happened.
  • 10. Fragments that start with –ing verb forms What is an –ing verb form?An –ing verb form (also called a gerund) is the form of a verb that ends in –ing: walking, writing, running.* Remember: Unless it comes with a helping verb (like was), an –ing verb form cannot be a complete verb in a sentence. It can, however, be the subject of a sentence.Example:Walking is good exercise.
  • 11. How do you correct fragments that start with –ing verb forms? Correct a fragment that starts with an –ing verb form either by adding the missing elements of the sentence (such as a subject and a helping verb) or by connecting it to the previous or next sentence.Sentence followed by a fragment:I was humming to myself. Walking down the road.Corrected sentences:I was humming to myself. I was walking down the road.I was humming to myself, walking down the road.
  • 12. Fragments that start with to and a verb What is to and a verb?To and a verb is also known as the infinitive form of a verb.* Remember: If a word group begins with to and a verb, it must contain another verb, or it is not a complete sentence. To and a verb can be the subject of a sentence.Example:To run a complete marathon was my goal.
  • 13. How do you correct fragments that start with to and a verb? Correct a fragment that starts with to and a verb by joining it to the sentence before or after it, or by adding the missing sentence elements.Sentence followed by a fragment:It was my goal. To run a complete marathon.Corrected sentences:It was my goal to run a complete marathon.It was my goal. I wanted to run a complete marathon.
  • 14. Fragments that are examples or explanationsThis type of sentence fragment can be harder to recognize because there is no single word or kind of word to look for. Sometimes, fragments like this will start with words like especially, for example, like, or such as.Example:I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red.
  • 15. How do you correct fragments that are examples or explanations? Correct a fragment that is an example or explanation by adding the missing sentence elements or by joining it to the sentence before or after it.Sentence followed by a fragment:I wanted to paint my room a warm color. Like orange or red.Corrected sentences:I wanted to paint my room a warm color. I looked for paint that was orange or red.I wanted to paint my room a warm color like orange or red.
  • 16. LET’S PRACTICE!CLICK HERE TO START

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