Chapter 03

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Chapter 03

  1. 1. Systems Analysis and Design8th EditionChapter 3Managing Systems Projects
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives• Explain techniques for estimating task completion times and costs• Describe various scheduling tools, including Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts• Analyze task dependencies, durations, start dates, and end dates 2
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives• Identify examples of project management software and explain how these programs can assist you in project planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting• Explain software change control• Understand why projects sometimes fail 3
  4. 4. Introduction• You will learn about project planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring, reporting, and the use of project management software• You also will learn how to control and manage project changes as they occur 4
  5. 5. Project Management Overview• Project Management• A successful project must be completed on time, within budget, and deliver a quality product that satisfies users and meets requirements• Project manager or project leader• Project coordinator 5
  6. 6. Project Management Overview• Project managers typically perform four main tasks: – Project planning – Project scheduling – Project monitoring and controlling – Project reporting 6
  7. 7. Project Planning 7
  8. 8. Project Planning• Identifying Tasks – One important variable is the size of the project, because the amount of work increases dramatically as project scope increases – A project that is twice as large will be much more than twice as complex 8
  9. 9. Project Planning• Identifying Tasks – Multiple interactions can lead to misunderstandings and delay – Project creep – The capabilities of project team members also affect time requirements – Brooks Law 9
  10. 10. Project Planning• Estimating Task Completion Time and Cost – Person-days – Some tasks can be divided evenly so it is possible to use different combinations of time and people, up to a point – In most systems analysis tasks, however, time and people are not interchangeable 10
  11. 11. Project Planning• Estimating Task Completion Time and Cost – Best-case estimate (B) – Probable-case estimate (P) – Worst-case estimate (W) – Weight – Expected task duration: (B+4P+W) 6 11
  12. 12. Project Planning• Factors Affecting Time and Cost Estimates – Project size and scope – IT resources – Prior experience with similar projects or systems – Applicable constraints 12
  13. 13. Project Scheduling• A project schedule is a specific timetable• Project scheduling also involves selecting and staffing the project team, assigning specific tasks to team members, and arranging for other necessary resources• Must balance task time estimates, sequences, and personnel assignments• Several graphical planning aids can help 13
  14. 14. Gantt Charts 14
  15. 15. PERT/CPM Charts• The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)• Critical Path Method (CPM)• The distinctions between the two methods have disappeared over time, and today the technique is called either PERT, CPM, or PERT/CPM 15
  16. 16. PERT/CPM Charts• Overview of PERT/CPM – PERT/CPM is called a bottom-up technique – Project tasks – Once you know the tasks, their duration, and the order in which they must be performed, you can calculate the time that it will take to complete the project 16
  17. 17. PERT/CPM Charts• PERT/CPM Tasks – Task box – Task ID – Task name – Task Duration – Start Day/Date – Finish Day/Date 17
  18. 18. PERT/CPM Charts• Task Patterns – Dependent Tasks – Multiple successor tasks • Concurrent task • Predecessor task • Successor task – Multiple Predecessor Tasks 18
  19. 19. PERT/CPM Charts• Complex Task Patterns – When various task patterns combine, you must study the facts carefully in order to understand the logical sequence – A project schedule will not be accurate unless the underlying task pattern is logically correct 19
  20. 20. PERT/CPM Charts• A PERT/CPM Example with Five Tasks 20
  21. 21. PERT/CPM Charts• Critical Path – Slack time – If any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayed – A critical path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule – If necessary, a project manager can reassign resources to keep the project on schedule 21
  22. 22. PERT/CPM Charts• Transforming a Task List into a PERT/CPM Chart 22
  23. 23. PERT/CPM Charts• Transforming a Task List into a PERT/CPM Chart 23
  24. 24. PERT/CPM Charts• Comparing Gantt Charts and PERT/CPM – Although a Gantt chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task, many project managers find PERT/CPM charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects – PERT/CPM and Gantt charts are not mutually exclusive techniques 24
  25. 25. Project Risk Management• Every IT project involves risks that systems analysts and project managers must address• Risk management• Steps in Risk Management – Develop risk management plan – Identify the risks • Risk identification 25
  26. 26. Project Risk Management• Steps in Risk Management – Analyze the risks • Qualitative risk analysis • Quantitative risk analysis – Create a risk response plan – Monitor risks 26
  27. 27. Project Risk Management• Risk Management Software Tools – Most project management software programs, such as Microsoft Project, contain various tools that a project manager can use – The IT team can make a recommendation regarding the risks – Depending on the nature and magnitude of the risk, the final decision might be made by management 27
  28. 28. Project Monitoring and Control• Monitoring and Control Techniques – The project manager must keep track of tasks and progress of team members, compare actual progress with the project plan, verify the completion of project milestones, and set standards and ensure that they are followed – Structured walkthrough – Called design reviews, code reviews, or testing reviews 28
  29. 29. Project Monitoring and Control• Maintaining a Schedule – Maintaining a project schedule can be a challenging task – The better the original plan, the easier it will be to control the project – If enough milestones and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly – Project managers often spend most of their time tracking the tasks along the critical path 29
  30. 30. Project Reporting• Project Status Meetings 30
  31. 31. Project Reporting• Project Status Reports – A project manager must report regularly to his or her immediate supervisor, upper management, and users – Should explain what you are doing to handle and monitor the problem – Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later 31
  32. 32. Project Management Software • Project Management Software Examples – Microsoft Office Project 2007 – Open Workbench – Open-source software 32
  33. 33. Project Management Software• A Sample Project Using Microsoft Project and Open Workbench 33
  34. 34. Project Management Software• A Sample Project Using Microsoft Project and Open Workbench 34
  35. 35. Software Change Control• Software Change Control• A procedure for processing requests for changes to an information system’s requirements consists of four steps: • Complete a change request form • Take initial action on the request • Analyze the impact of the requested change • Determine the disposition of the requested change 35
  36. 36. Keys to Project Success• Business Issues – The major objective of every system is to provide a solution to a business problem or opportunity – A system that falls short of business needs also produces problems for users and reduces employee morale and productivity 36
  37. 37. Keys to Project Success• Budget Issues – Cost overruns typically result from one or more of the following: • Unrealistic estimates • Failure to develop an accurate TCO forecast • Poor monitoring of progress and inadequate reaction to early signs of problems • Schedule delays due to unanticipated factors • Human resource factors 37
  38. 38. Keys to Project Success• Schedule Issues – Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate a failure to recognize task dependencies, confusion between effort and progress, poor monitoring and control methods, personality conflicts among team members, or turnover of project personnel 38
  39. 39. Keys to Project Success• Successful Project Management – When problems occur, the project manager’s ability to handle the situation becomes the critical factor – Sometimes, when a project experiences delays or cost overruns, the system still can be delivered on time and within budget if several less critical requirements are trimmed 39
  40. 40. Keys to Project Success• Successful Project Management – If a project is in trouble because of a lack of resources or organizational support, management might be willing to give the project more commitment and higher priority – A typical response is to push back the completion date – Option only if the original target date is flexible and the extension will not create excessive costs or other problems 40
  41. 41. Chapter Summary• Project management is the process of planning, scheduling, monitoring and controlling, and reporting upon the development of an information system• Begins with identifying and planning all specific tasks or activities• Can use graphical tools such as Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts to assist in the scheduling process 41
  42. 42. Chapter Summary• Project managers are responsible for risk management• Every successful information system must support business requirements, stay within budget, and be available on time• Sound project management involves the same skills as any type of management 42
  43. 43. Chapter Summary• Chapter 3 complete 43

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