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  1. 1. A Very Brief Introduction to Jazz
  2. 2. <ul><li>The word Jazz did not become a common phrase until 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>The roots are less certain, many maintain that Jazz was a natural evolution of Ragtime and Blues. Others state that Jazz was exported from New Orleans. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Jazz has taken many different forms over the last 100 years, but the most well known are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dixieland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Band/Swing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bebop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool Jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modal Jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Jazz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin Jazz </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Like blues, Jazz music is a mix of African and European musical traditions </li></ul><ul><li>African influences in Jazz include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyrhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syncopation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swung Rhythms </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Before Jazz… <ul><li>… There was Ragtime. </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ragtime was most popular from 1898 until 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>It developed from a combination of the Cakewalk, and the Jigs and marches played by the many Marching Bands </li></ul><ul><li>Composers tried to write reduced versions of popular tunes for the piano </li></ul><ul><li>By trying to cram all the different instrumental parts in they ended up creating the syncopated feel of Ragtime </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dixieland <ul><li>Dixieland developed in New Orleans at the beginning of the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Dixieland is a combination of Marching bands, Ragtime, Blues and French Dances (Quadrilles) </li></ul><ul><li>Dixieland groups include many instruments found in Marching Bands </li></ul><ul><li>They have a rhythm section that may include Piano, Guitar, Banjo, Double Bass, Tuba and Drums </li></ul><ul><li>Over the top the frontline players, usually Trumpet/Cornet, Trombone and Clarinet all improvise at the same time! </li></ul><ul><li>This creates a distinctive polyphonic texture </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dukes of Dixieland – When The Saints Go Marching In <ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  9. 9. Glenn Miller – In The Mood <ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  10. 10. Big Band / Swing <ul><li>Swing or Big Band Jazz developed in the 1920 ’ s and was most popular in the 1930 ’ s and 40 ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>Ensembles varied from 10 to 25 players who usually sat behind stands with the band ’ s logo </li></ul><ul><li>There was a rhythm section plus Trumpets, Saxophones, Clarinets and Trombones </li></ul><ul><li>Some groups also had vocalists </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bands had a Band Leader. These were usually well known arrangers and soloists </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Unlike Dixieland, Big Band arrangements were written down and very organised </li></ul><ul><li>There were strong, catchy melodies contrasted with clear spaces for the soloists to show off </li></ul><ul><li>The catchy tunes and fast tempo meant Swing Music became popular for dancing, especially with the younger generations </li></ul><ul><li>It was played a lot on the radio which helped spread it ’ s appeal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benny Goodman – Sing Sing Sing <ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bebop <ul><li>Bebop developed in the mid 1940 ’ s as musicians broke down the organised and controlled nature of Swing </li></ul><ul><li>Ensembles were still made from a rhythm section and a front line of soloists, but each group was much smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Bebop was generally fast and very virtuosic </li></ul><ul><li>Solos, Harmony and Phrasing were much less regular than those found in swing </li></ul><ul><li>Bass players became very important in holding the complex harmonies and rhythms together </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cool Jazz <ul><li>Cool Jazz came about in the early 1950 ’ s </li></ul><ul><li>It was smoother, slower and calmer than Bebop </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas Bebop mainly focused on solos, Cool Jazz was more organised and song like in its structure </li></ul><ul><li>Melodies were recognisable and catchier, like Swing </li></ul><ul><li>However, structures and melodies were still deliberately irregular – you couldn ’ t dance to it! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Modal Jazz <ul><li>A Mode is a scale that only uses the white notes of the piano </li></ul><ul><li>In Bebop the soloists played over a repeating chord sequence </li></ul><ul><li>The chord sequence and chord changes would determine the notes of the rhythm section and the improvised parts </li></ul><ul><li>Using a Mode, rather than a chord sequence, freed up all the parts to choose different and more interesting combinations of notes </li></ul><ul><li>This made Melody more important than Harmony </li></ul>