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Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation
 

Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • I think the point that struck me most from this article is that multiple ICT officer's working as a team had the greatest impact upon addressing ICT issues within the school context. Where the Principal was not only required for funding, but also able to select appropriate technology and professional development sessions, the sustainability of the ICT implementation was vastly improved.
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  • Ensuring that the ICT we implement in schools is sustainable and embedded in all our practices is essential for many reasons. This means working with staff and the whole school community to overcome the barriers and ensure its success. Professional learning is once again a key factor in this.
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  • An interesting article. How to organizations implement ICT. What may hinder this use.
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  • I think in this knowledge based era, it is hard to leave the technology, especially for profit organisations. For example, the social medias in few years ago accused as the factor that decrease the work performance of the employees in organisations, now is the opposite, many people work using social medias to support their organisations.
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  • Schools are forced nowadays to pick up current and new technologies. It is not an option for us to say we aren't a technology school, which may have been acceptable in the past. To teach our students to be successful, life long learners, we must embrace and move our schools and profession forward and be leaders in the area of technology.
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    Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation Presentation Transcript

    • SUPPORTIVE AND HINDERING FACTORS TO A SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT IN SCHOOLS PRESENTED BY: Yayan Andrian Sarmili BASED ON ARTICLE BY Birgit Eickelmann
    • ABOUT THE ARTICLE  THIS ARTICLE IS A CASE STUDY IN SIX SCHOOLS IN GERMANY, CONSISTS OF TWO PRIMARY SHOOLS, TWO LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND TWO UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO IDENTY SUPPORTING AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS CONSTRIBUTING TO LONG TERM ICT IMPLEMENTATION IN THESE SCHOOLS.  THERE WERE TWO LEVELS OF THE STUDY, FIRST IS TO IDENTIFY THE FACTORS IN THE SCHOOL LEVEL AND THE SECOND IS IN THE CLASSROOM LEVEL OR IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
    • MAIN POINTS OF THE ARTICLE  ICT USES IN GERMAN SCHOOLS  APPROACHES FOR THE SYSTEMASATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUCCESSFUL ICT IMPLEMENTATION.  INDICATORS OF SUCCESSFUL/SUSTAINABLE ICT IMPLEMENTATION  SUPPORTING AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS TO A SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT IN SCHOOL LEVEL  SUPPORTING AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT IN CLASSROOM LEVEL  CONCLUSIONS  QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION
    • ICT USES IN GERMAN SCHOOLS  TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT HAS IMPACTS ON SOCIETY (ANDERSON, 2008) AND CHALLENGES SCHOOLS TO PROVIDE YOUNG PEOPLE/STUDENTS WITH EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN SOCIETY (VOOGT & KNEZEK, 2008; OECD, 2010).  THE USE OF ICT IS NOW MORE CHALLENGING THAN IT WAS FIRST INTRODUCED IN 1960’S (TEARLE, 2004).  THE REGULER USE OF ICT IS NOT COMMON YET FOR MAJORITY OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. IN GERMAN CASE, THERE ARE COMPARATIVELY SMALL COMPUTERS IN GERMAN SCHOOLS AND THEY ARE INFREQUENTLY USED.  IT IS IMPORTANT TO IMPROVE THE PREQUENCY OF ICT USE IN CLASSROOMS. PROBLEMS RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL ICT IMPLEMETATION HAVE BECOME INTERESTS FOR SEVERAL COUNTRIES (GROFF & MOUZA, 2008). THE EXPLOSION OF ITC IN RECENT YEARS HAS BEEN ON-GOING PROBLEMS FOR SCHOOLS ALL OVER THE WORLD.
    • APPROACHES FOR THE SYSTEMASATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT  MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL FACTORS (BECTA, 2003; Eickelmann & Schulz-Zander, 2006; Pelgrum, 2001; Schaumburg, 2003)  THIS APPROACH MAKES A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND INDICATES THAT SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IS DETERMINED BY SCHOOL’S CONTEXT, INPUT AND PROCESSES (Ditton, 2000; Scheerens, 2000).  A SINGLE SCHOOL HAS DIFFERENT CONSTELLATIONS REGARDING CONTEXT AND INPUT LEVEL. THEY HAVE TO ADDRESS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THEIR PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS. SCHOOL EFFECTIVESS NOT ONLY FOCUSES ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE AND COMPETENCE BUT ALSO A SCHOOL’S ‘EFFECTIVENESS’ AS A GOAL ATTAINMENT (Scheerens, 2000, p. 19).  FACTORS CONCERNING ICT INTEGRATION ON THE INPUT LEVEL OF SCHOOLS. MAINLY ON THE AVAILAIBILITY OF ICT INFRASTRUCTURE AND TEACHERS’ BEHAVIOUR.  FACTORS CONCERNING ICT INTEGRATION ON PROCESS LEVEL OF SCHOOLS. IT COMPRISES THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP (PRINCIPAL), ASPECTS OF SCHOOL CULTURE, LEVEL OF COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHERS AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM LEVEL.
    • INDICATORS OF SUCCESSFUL/SUSTAINABLE ICT IMPLEMENTATION Areas of school improvement related to digital media (Schulz-Zander, 1999) 1. Organizational development 2. Development of teaching and learning 3. Professional development 4. Development of ICT-related cooperation 5. Technological development
    • Indicators concerning the organizational development 1) the inclusion of digital media into school programs 2) the linking of media use to pedagogical aims of the school 3) the ability to cope with problems regarding ICT implemen- tation 4) the current stage within the innovation process 5) the sustained success of former ICT-related innovations, such as the classroom practice observed in SITES M2.
    • Indicators concerning the development of teaching and learning 1) the application of ICT in various subjects 2) the application of ICT among the teaching staff 3) the frequency of ICT-use 4) general changes in the culture of learning.
    • Indicators Concerning the professional development  the perceived availability and utility of professional development and training measures for teachers and the participation in such programs were observed and estimated
    • Indicators on the development of ICT- related cooperation  inter-school cooperation and cooperation with external partners concerning ICT aspects were identified and assessed
    • Indicators on the technological development 1) the perceived satisfaction with IT-equipment 2) the objective evaluation of IT-equipment compared to national means 3) the availability and perception of technical support within the school
    • Common essential supportive factors on the school level:  The principals in the successful schools had strong leadership skills, which they used to promote ICT-use, and had a sound understanding of the potential of ICT to enhance learning.  The schools had established cooperation with external partners to raise funding, e.g. companies or education authorities to participate in ICT-related funding programs.  The schools realized intra-school cooperation (e.g. coaching systems or de-privatization of classroom practice), which was integrated into school concepts and culture. This way, the computer-related and pedagogical knowledge of the teaching staff was improved.  They developed concepts to cope with new digital trends, e.g. implementation of new staff development schemes with the establishment of private-public partnerships and by turning teacher positions into positions for technical staff when necessary  5. They used their radius of operation on the process level to cope with problems and challenges regarding ICT-implementation and did not externalize problems.
    • Common essential supportive factors on the classroom level  The successful schools disseminated ICT’s potential to enhance learning within the whole school, e.g. use of ICT to support personalized learning.  They closely linked ICT-use to existing and prospective pedagogical aims, such as language support for students with a migration background. By this, the schools’ IT-infrastructure was carefully selected, in order to address these aims (e.g. equipping students with portable devices or locating computers in the classroom to support individualized learning).  They disseminated ICT into teaching and learning by integrating technology into compulsory school programs and curricula.
    • Common hindering factors on the school level  When funding was available, these schools did not develop long term strategies to integrate digital media into learning and teaching.  The school principals relied too much on individuals, such as ‘innovation champions’ and did not succeed in disseminating ICT-use. By this, the gap between teachers’ technological pedagogical knowledge widened and in some cases, where the innovation champions left the schools, the required knowledge was no longer available.  They failed to develop holistic support structures for ICT-use that covers both pedagogical and technological aspects.  The schools reported teacher variables as hindering factors for ICT integration, especially lack of acceptance. They missed perceived value of ICT-use by focusing on limited competencies in technical and pedagogical ICT use.
    • Common hindering factors regarding the classroom level  The schools could not clearly disseminate the potential of ICT-use to enhance learning. This became obvious in cases where only some teachers used ICT for teaching and learning aiming to address the needs of their students (e.g. the need for special language support), while other teachers pointed out that their students’ needs and background were rather obstacles than reasons for computer use.  The schools have focused on teaching ICT competencies, instead of using ICT to enhance learning. For example, they organized courses on how to use a word processing or spreadsheet software, instead of relating their application to content or suggesting an overarching pedagogical approach. They have not developed concepts to use the potential benefits of ICT to achieve their pedagogical aims.
    • QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. ICT DEVELOPES RAPIDLY. NEW AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY EMERGES VERY QUICKLY. WHAT DOES YOUR ORGANISATION RESPONSE TO THIS, DO THEY ADOPT IT OR LEAVE IT? IF THEY ADOPTED THE ICT, TO WHAT EXTENT THIS IMPLEMENTATION CAN ENHANCE YOUR ORGANISATION? 2. IN YOUR CONTEXT, WHAT IS THE IMPORTANT AREA(S) ACCORDING TO SCHULZ ZANDER (1999) TO ADDRESS AND DEAL WITH IN RELATION TO SUSTAINABLE ICT IMPLEMENTATION? 3. WHAT ARE THE COMMON SUPPORTING AND HINDERING FACTORS FOUND IN YOUR SCHOOL IN RELATION TO THE ADOPTION OF ICT BOTH IN SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM LEVEL? WHAT DOES YOUR ORGANISATION/SCHOOL AND TEACHERS DO TO DEAL WITH THESE FACTORS?
    • CONCLUSION  IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABLE ICT WITHIN THE SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS IS NOT AN EASY JOB TO DO, IN FACT IT IS VERY CHALLENGING, ESPECIALLY BECAUSE OF THE RAPID AND ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT OF ICT ITSELF , THE ORGANISATION OF THE SCHOOLS AND THE PEOPLE WITHIN THE SCHOOLS.  WE MAY FIND SUPPORTING FACTORS THAT CAN ENHANCE THE IMPLEMENTATION AND FINALLY LEAD TO THE ATTAIMENT OF OUR SCHOOL PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS. WHAT HAVE TO DO IS MAKING THE BEST USE OF THE FACTORS IN ORDER TO BE SUSTAINABLE.  BUT SOMETIMES, WE FIND OBSTACLES AND BARRIES DURING THE ICT IMPLEMENTATION AND WHAT HAVE TO DO IS ADDRESSING THE OBSTACLES/BARRIES AND COPE WITH THEM IN ORDER THAT WE CAN CONTINUE ADOPTING ICT FOR THE SCHOOL PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS.
    • Birgit Eickelmann, (2011). Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation of ICT in schools. Journal for Educational Research Online. Volume 3 (2011), No. 1, 75–103
    • THANK YOU, TERIMA KASIH, SYUKRON JAZILAN, MATUR SUWUN….