SUPPORTIVE AND HINDERING
FACTORS TO A SUSTAINABLE
IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT IN
PRESENTED BY: Yayan Andrian Sarmili
BASED ON ARTICLE BY Birgit Eickelmann
ABOUT THE ARTICLE
THIS ARTICLE IS A CASE STUDY IN SIX SCHOOLS IN GERMANY, CONSISTS OF TWO
PRIMARY SHOOLS, TWO LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND TWO UPPER
SECONDARY SCHOOLS. THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS TO IDENTY SUPPORTING
AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS CONSTRIBUTING TO LONG TERM ICT
IMPLEMENTATION IN THESE SCHOOLS.
THERE WERE TWO LEVELS OF THE STUDY, FIRST IS TO IDENTIFY THE FACTORS
IN THE SCHOOL LEVEL AND THE SECOND IS IN THE CLASSROOM LEVEL OR IN
THE PROCESS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
MAIN POINTS OF THE ARTICLE
ICT USES IN GERMAN SCHOOLS
APPROACHES FOR THE SYSTEMASATION OF FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO
SUCCESSFUL ICT IMPLEMENTATION.
INDICATORS OF SUCCESSFUL/SUSTAINABLE ICT IMPLEMENTATION
SUPPORTING AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS TO A SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION
OF ICT IN SCHOOL LEVEL
SUPPORTING AND OBSTRUCTING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION
OF ICT IN CLASSROOM LEVEL
QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER DISCUSSION
ICT USES IN GERMAN SCHOOLS
TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT HAS IMPACTS ON SOCIETY (ANDERSON, 2008) AND
CHALLENGES SCHOOLS TO PROVIDE YOUNG PEOPLE/STUDENTS WITH
EQUITABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN SOCIETY (VOOGT & KNEZEK, 2008; OECD, 2010).
THE USE OF ICT IS NOW MORE CHALLENGING THAN IT WAS FIRST INTRODUCED
IN 1960’S (TEARLE, 2004).
THE REGULER USE OF ICT IS NOT COMMON YET FOR MAJORITY OF TEACHERS
AND STUDENTS. IN GERMAN CASE, THERE ARE COMPARATIVELY SMALL
COMPUTERS IN GERMAN SCHOOLS AND THEY ARE INFREQUENTLY USED.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO IMPROVE THE PREQUENCY OF ICT USE IN CLASSROOMS.
PROBLEMS RELATED TO SUCCESSFUL ICT IMPLEMETATION HAVE BECOME
INTERESTS FOR SEVERAL COUNTRIES (GROFF & MOUZA, 2008). THE EXPLOSION
OF ITC IN RECENT YEARS HAS BEEN ON-GOING PROBLEMS FOR SCHOOLS ALL
OVER THE WORLD.
APPROACHES FOR THE SYSTEMASATION OF
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUSTAINABLE
IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT
MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL FACTORS (BECTA, 2003; Eickelmann & Schulz-Zander, 2006;
Pelgrum, 2001; Schaumburg, 2003)
THIS APPROACH MAKES A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND
INDICATES THAT SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IS DETERMINED BY SCHOOL’S CONTEXT, INPUT AND
PROCESSES (Ditton, 2000; Scheerens, 2000).
A SINGLE SCHOOL HAS DIFFERENT CONSTELLATIONS REGARDING CONTEXT AND INPUT LEVEL.
THEY HAVE TO ADDRESS FACTORS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THEIR PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND
SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS. SCHOOL EFFECTIVESS NOT ONLY FOCUSES ON STUDENTS
PERFORMANCE AND COMPETENCE BUT ALSO A SCHOOL’S ‘EFFECTIVENESS’ AS A GOAL
ATTAINMENT (Scheerens, 2000, p. 19).
FACTORS CONCERNING ICT INTEGRATION ON THE INPUT LEVEL OF SCHOOLS. MAINLY ON THE
AVAILAIBILITY OF ICT INFRASTRUCTURE AND TEACHERS’ BEHAVIOUR.
FACTORS CONCERNING ICT INTEGRATION ON PROCESS LEVEL OF SCHOOLS. IT COMPRISES THE
ROLE OF LEADERSHIP (PRINCIPAL), ASPECTS OF SCHOOL CULTURE, LEVEL OF COOPERATION
BETWEEN TEACHERS AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM LEVEL.
INDICATORS OF SUCCESSFUL/SUSTAINABLE ICT
Areas of school improvement related to digital media (Schulz-Zander, 1999)
1. Organizational development
2. Development of teaching and learning
3. Professional development
4. Development of ICT-related cooperation
5. Technological development
Indicators concerning the organizational
1) the inclusion of digital media into school programs
2) the linking of media use to pedagogical aims of the school
3) the ability to cope with problems regarding ICT implemen- tation
4) the current stage within the innovation process
5) the sustained success of former ICT-related innovations, such as the
classroom practice observed in SITES M2.
Indicators concerning the development
of teaching and learning
1) the application of ICT in various subjects
2) the application of ICT among the teaching staff
3) the frequency of ICT-use
4) general changes in the culture of learning.
Indicators Concerning the professional
the perceived availability and utility of professional
development and training measures for teachers and the
participation in such programs were observed and
Indicators on the development of ICT-
inter-school cooperation and cooperation with external
partners concerning ICT aspects were identiﬁed and
Indicators on the technological
1) the perceived satisfaction with IT-equipment
2) the objective evaluation of IT-equipment compared to
3) the availability and perception of technical support within
Common essential supportive factors on
the school level:
The principals in the successful schools had strong leadership skills, which they used to
promote ICT-use, and had a sound understanding of the potential of ICT to enhance learning.
The schools had established cooperation with external partners to raise fund- ing, e.g.
companies or education authorities to participate in ICT-related funding programs.
The schools realized intra-school cooperation (e.g. coaching systems or de-pri- vatization of
classroom practice), which was integrated into school concepts and culture. This way, the
computer-related and pedagogical knowledge of the teach- ing staff was improved.
They developed concepts to cope with new digital trends, e.g. implementation of new staff
development schemes with the establishment of private-public part- nerships and by turning
teacher positions into positions for technical staff when necess
5. They used their radius of operation on the process level to cope with problems and
challenges regarding ICT-implementation and did not externalize problems.
Common essential supportive factors on
the classroom level
The successful schools disseminated ICT’s potential to enhance learning
within the whole school, e.g. use of ICT to support personalized learning.
They closely linked ICT-use to existing and prospective pedagogical aims, such
as language support for students with a migration background. By this, the
schools’ IT-infrastructure was carefully selected, in order to address these
aims (e.g. equipping students with portable devices or locating computers in
the classroom to support individualized learning).
They disseminated ICT into teaching and learning by integrating technology
into compulsory school programs and curricula.
Common hindering factors on the school
When funding was available, these schools did not develop long term
strategies to integrate digital media into learning and teaching.
The school principals relied too much on individuals, such as ‘innovation
champions’ and did not succeed in disseminating ICT-use. By this, the gap
between teachers’ technological pedagogical knowledge widened and in some
cases, where the innovation champions left the schools, the required
knowledge was no longer available.
They failed to develop holistic support structures for ICT-use that covers both
pedagogical and technological aspects.
The schools reported teacher variables as hindering factors for ICT
integration, especially lack of acceptance. They missed perceived value of
ICT-use by focusing on limited competencies in technical and pedagogical ICT
Common hindering factors regarding the
The schools could not clearly disseminate the potential of ICT-use to enhance
learning. This became obvious in cases where only some teachers used ICT for
teaching and learning aiming to address the needs of their students (e.g. the
need for special language support), while other teachers pointed out that
their students’ needs and background were rather obstacles than reasons for
The schools have focused on teaching ICT competencies, instead of using ICT
to enhance learning. For example, they organized courses on how to use a
word processing or spreadsheet software, instead of relating their application
to content or suggesting an overarching pedagogical approach. They have not
developed concepts to use the potential beneﬁts of ICT to achieve their
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. ICT DEVELOPES RAPIDLY. NEW AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY EMERGES VERY
QUICKLY. WHAT DOES YOUR ORGANISATION RESPONSE TO THIS, DO THEY
ADOPT IT OR LEAVE IT? IF THEY ADOPTED THE ICT, TO WHAT EXTENT THIS
IMPLEMENTATION CAN ENHANCE YOUR ORGANISATION?
2. IN YOUR CONTEXT, WHAT IS THE IMPORTANT AREA(S) ACCORDING TO SCHULZ
ZANDER (1999) TO ADDRESS AND DEAL WITH IN RELATION TO SUSTAINABLE ICT
3. WHAT ARE THE COMMON SUPPORTING AND HINDERING FACTORS FOUND IN
YOUR SCHOOL IN RELATION TO THE ADOPTION OF ICT BOTH IN SCHOOL AND
CLASSROOM LEVEL? WHAT DOES YOUR ORGANISATION/SCHOOL AND TEACHERS
DO TO DEAL WITH THESE FACTORS?
IMPLEMENTING A SUSTAINABLE ICT WITHIN THE SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS IS
NOT AN EASY JOB TO DO, IN FACT IT IS VERY CHALLENGING, ESPECIALLY
BECAUSE OF THE RAPID AND ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT OF ICT ITSELF , THE
ORGANISATION OF THE SCHOOLS AND THE PEOPLE WITHIN THE SCHOOLS.
WE MAY FIND SUPPORTING FACTORS THAT CAN ENHANCE THE IMPLEMENTATION
AND FINALLY LEAD TO THE ATTAIMENT OF OUR SCHOOL PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND
SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS. WHAT HAVE TO DO IS MAKING THE BEST USE OF THE
FACTORS IN ORDER TO BE SUSTAINABLE.
BUT SOMETIMES, WE FIND OBSTACLES AND BARRIES DURING THE ICT
IMPLEMENTATION AND WHAT HAVE TO DO IS ADDRESSING THE
OBSTACLES/BARRIES AND COPE WITH THEM IN ORDER THAT WE CAN CONTINUE
ADOPTING ICT FOR THE SCHOOL PEDAGOGICAL AIMS AND SCHOOL
Birgit Eickelmann, (2011). Supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable
implementation of ICT in schools. Journal for
Educational Research Online. Volume 3 (2011), No. 1,