World Mayors Council on Climate Change Global Cities Covenant The Mexico City Pact 2011

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World Mayors Council on Climate Change Global Cities Covenant The Mexico City Pact 2011
Andrew Williams Jr
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  • 1. FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 2011 Published by
  • 2. I NDE X Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon Chair of the World Mayors Council on Climate Change Mayor of Mexico City 4 David Cadman Deputy Mayor of Vancouver President of ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability 8 Kadir Topbas Mayor of Istanbul President of UCLG 10 Carlos Westendorp Secretary General Club de Madrid 14 Bonn Center for Local Climate Action and Reporting carbonn 18 Martha Delgado Peralta Minister of the Environment Government of Mexico City. Vicepresident of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability 20 Gabriel Sánchez Díaz Chair, Fundación Pensar. Planeta, Política Persona. 24 First Annual Report of the Mexico City Pact General Direction Gabriel Sánchez Díaz Chair, Fundación Pensar. Planeta, Política Persona Coordination and Compilation Aina Aguila Turss and Ana Romero Salcedo Fundación Pensar. Planeta Política, Persona Adaptation, translation and copy editing Michael W. Parker Graphic Desing Judith Meléndrez Bayardo Special thanks to The Ministry of the Environment of the government of Mexico City for its support in the preparation of this report. Luciano Quadri,Adriana Prieto Gaspar de Alba, Gabriela Duhart Herrera, Carlo Vander Broeck, Mariel Rea and all the staff of The Fundación Pensar. Planeta, Política, Persona, involved during this process. The original texts used for the creation of this report were summarized and adapted according to the report’s editorial guidelines, based on information provided by cities and local authorities. This publication makes the information contained within it available for personal and public non-profit use and can be reproduced, in part or in full, in any medium, without remuneration or previous authorization, provided that its sources are always cited. Electronic version available at: ARGENTINA Buenos Aires 32 Santa Fe 34 BELGIUM Brussels Capital Region 36 BOLIVIA La Paz 38 San Carlos de Santa Cruz 39 BRAZIL Belo Horizonte 40 Curitiba 42 Diadema 44 Manaus 46 Rio de Janeiro 48 Sao Paulo 50 CANADA North Vancouver 52 CHILE Lautaro 54 Quilpué 56 Santiago 58 CHINESE TAIPEI Kaohsiung 60 COSTA RICA San José 62 ECUADOR Cuenca 64 Quito 66 EL SALVADOR Santa Ana 68 FRANCE Brest Métropole Océane 70 Communaté d´Aglomeration de la Plaune Commune 72 Nantes Métropole 74 Orleans 76 Paris 78 JAPAN Kyoto 80 Nagoya 82 MEXICO Aguascalientes 84 Chetumal 86 Chihuahua 88 Cuatro Ciénegas 90 Mexico City 92 Naucalpan 94 Puebla 96 Tepetlaoxtoc 98 Villa de Zaachila 98 NEW ZEALAND Wellington 100 PERU Etén 102 Santa Rosa 102 PHILIPPINES Ligao 104 PORTUGAL Lisbon 106 Oeiras 108 RUMANIA Pitesti 110 SENEGAL Nioro du Rip 110 SOUTH KOREA Cape Town 112 Gwangju Metropolitan City 114 SPAIN Barcelona 116 Deputation of Barcelona 118 TURKEY Istanbul 120 UNITED STATES Los Angeles 122 North Little Rock 124 URUGUAY San Carlos 126
  • 3. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 4 5 O ne year out from the World Mayors Summit on Climate Change, convoked by the Mexico City government, the World Mayors Council on Climate Change, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability, United Local Cities and Governments and the Club de Madrid, we present the first report on advances that are part of efforts driven by more than 200 sig- natory cities and entities of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate (Mexico City Pact). The outcomes described in this yearly report show us that not only have cities in every region of the planet taken on serious commit- ments for combating climate change, but also, that they demon- strate cities’ strategic and fundamental role to national govern- ments when it comes to the struggle to carry out global-impact actions and decisions. As centers of economic, political and cultural innovation, the cities of the world are today’s protagonists and leaders for the imple- mentation of cutting-edge public policy that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Relevant, innovate actions for enhancing public transportation, Marcelo Ebrard Casaubón Chair of the World Mayors Council on Climate Change Mayor of Mexico City achieving energy efficiency and introducing renewable energies; the sustainable management of basins and canyons; reforesta- tion efforts and myriad other activities allows us to accelerate technology transitions and necessary changes in habit that the fight against global warming demands. Cities have resolved to unapologetically implement mitigation and adaptation programs that safeguard our communities’ integrity. Decisions that have rested in the hands of mayors around the world have been taken with the utmost sense of responsibility, and today it is clear that our commitment is equal to what our status as investment and knowledge centers requires. This is done with a clear acknowledgment of imperatives established by the In- tergovernmental Panel of Experts on Climate Change, which has determined that greenhouse gas emissions reductions must be carried out to limit global temperature increases to no more than two degrees centigrade by the end of the current century. Our efforts go one step further in comparison to actions that national authorities have undertaken in recent years. Local gov- ernments from numerous different regions have joined initiatives
  • 4. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 6 7 such as World Mayors and Local Governments Climate Protec- tion Agreement (2007), the Local Government Climate Roadmap (2007), the publication of the Copenhagen World Catalogue of City Commitments to Combat Climate Change (2009), the Co- penhagen Climate Communiqué (2009), the Dunkerque 2010 Call on Climate Action (2010), the Bonn Declaration of the May- ors Adaptation Forum (2010) and the Climate Summits of Major Cities of the C40. As well, in accord with the UN Framework on Climate Change and Conference of Parties—which coordinate national governments’ climate efforts—local governments have enthusiastically participated in—and committed to—the design of instruments and policies to carry out Clean Development Mecha- nisms and comply with Kyoto Protocols, as well as to develop reli- able data registries related to measurable, reportable and verifi- able local emissions reductions such as the Carbonn Initiative. One important achievement that emerged from the World May- ors Climate Summit and the signing of the Mexico City Pact was recognition at COP 16 in Cancún that cities should be considered strategic governmental entities when it comes to fighting climate change at subsequent COP summits. Local governments deserve recognition and should be taken into account with regard to any strategy for combating climate change. What’s more, local governments should be the principal recipients of financial resources that are acquired for greenhouse gas mitigation and community climate-change adaptation, based on the effectiveness of the programs we develop. Our proposal is to face global warming’s hazards from within a safer, less vulner- able future scenario for all citizens. In this first Mexico City Pact Annual Outcomes Report, more than fifty global cities documented their advances as they met commit- ments for battling climate change. The mayors of the world have created an outstanding example by rising to this responsibility with both leadership and vision. We cannot overlook local action when it is precisely within this sphere that citizens have their closest interactions with their re- spective governments. It is only through local governments that international discussions become concrete, measurable and re- portable implementation actions such as the ones described in this report. We wish to thank our partners in this initiative: the World Mayors Council on Climate Change, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustain- ability, United Local Cities and Governments, CGLU and the Club de Madrid for their support of the Mexico City Pact, as well as to the Fundación Pensar. Planeta, Política, Persona for putting togeth- er this report and for being the pact’s official Secretariat.
  • 5. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 8 9 David Cadman Deputy Mayor of Vancouver President of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability runners in feeding into the carbonn Cities Climate Registry, which now compiles annual community greenhouse gas emissions inventories of 447 million tCO2e. This aggregated figure of 40 cities worldwide is higher than individual GHG emissions of 167 countries that are nego- tiating the future of climate action, which simply proves that the role of Mayors is equally, if not more, important than that of national or corporate leaders worldwide. Thus, the Mexico City Pact and carbonn Cities Climate Registry are leading contributions from local govern- ments to measurable, reportable, verifiable global climate action. On behalf of ICLEI, I would like to thank Mayor Marcelo Ebrard, both in his capacity as Mayor of Mexico City and as Chair of World Mayors Council on Climate Change, for his unprecedented efforts in creating the Mexico City Pact and monitoring its implementation. I also would like to commend and congratulate Martha Delgado Per- alta, Minister of Environment of Mexico City and Vice President of ICLEI, as well as Fundacion Pensar for their dedicated work and skill in mastering all of these processes and delivering fantastic results. Finally, I would like to thank United Cities and Local Governments and Club of Madrid for their support in making the Mexico City Pact a flag- ship movement of local governments to ensure the creation of low- carbon and climate resilient communities all over the world. M ayors from across the globe came together in Mexico City at the World Mayors Summit on Climate on 21 No- vember 2010, to advance in our common goal – sup- porting global efforts to combat climate change through ambitious action at the local level. The historic output was the Global Cities Covenant on Climate Change – the Mexico City Pact. The event and its outcomes, including launch of the carbonn Cities Climate Reg- istry, complemented and scaled up achievements of global climate advocacy by local governments in the past two decades. The fruits of our efforts were grasped immediately. A week after the Covenant’s adoption, global leaders convened at the UN climate talks (COP 16) in Cancun, and recognized local and sub-national govern- ments as ‘governmental stakeholders’ in the global climate regime. Such recognition is only the first of many milestones that will be achieved through our unity. A truly active and meaningful role can be accomplished through further expansion and recognition of the Covenant. Through this impressive First Annual Report, signatories of the Mexico City Pact demonstrate that the most effective way to combat global climate change is a bottom-up, participatory approach with concrete action beginning at the local level where citizens have direct access to political bodies and governments who can quickly respond to lo- cal needs. Similarly, signatories of the Mexico City Pact are also front
  • 6. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 10 11 Kadir Topbas Mayor of Istanbul President of UCLG that should be considered as a critical asset when it comes to ad- dressing the challenges the world is facing so that the peaceful cohabitation of people is not put at risk. In summary we bring to the world our commitment to contributing to the peaceful sustainable development of our planet. Fostering the wellbeing wof the billions of citizens settled in our territories. UCLG and partners are working to ensure the voice of local and regional governments through their inclusion in the complex ar- chitecture of the United Nations Conference on Climate change. Ahead of a renewed global climate deal to be reached in the con- tinuation of the Kyoto Protocol, taking end in 2012, UCLG em- barked on a joint strategy- the Local Governments climate Road- map- seeking the legal and institutional empowerment of local and regional governments in the post-Kyoto climate protocols. On the occasion of the UN Climate Conference in Bali, Indonesia in December 2007, UCLG in collaboration with partner organizations such as ICLEI coordinated the international launching of the World Mayors and Local Government Climate Protection Agreement, which sets objectives and core targets to be met by cities to reduce global warming. F ounded in May 2004, United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) is the united voice and world advocate of demo- cratic local self-government. Based in Barcelona its members represent over half the world’s population, the cities and as- sociation members of UCLG are present in 140 UN Member States across seven world regions – Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Eurasia, Middle East and West Asia, Latin America and North America. Representatives of local and regional governments the world over, serving the populations of rural and urban communities; small, medium and large towns, metropolises and regions share the con- viction that many global issues find their solutions in local commit- ments and engagements. We pledge that any efficient solution to global issues should build on the perspective and inputs of local and regional governments. Local authorities should therefore be formally recognized as a full party in all global debates. Having to cope with the daily demands and needs of the people we represent at local level and being at the forefront in addressing the Millennium Development Goals agenda as well as the Climate Change and sustainable development agenda, local governments have developed significant governance and professionals skills
  • 7. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 12 13 Strong Commitments; concrete steps This agreement further led to the Mexico City Pact launched after the UCLG World Congress in Mexico City in 2010, at the World Mayors Summit on Climate. In our view the Pact is a crucial milestone. It has both an important symbolic power and can have very concrete impacts in ensuring a sustainable future. We, the Mayors around the world are showing, once again, that we are able and committed to work towards emission reduction in a verifiable and measurwable manner. Climate Change affects all local and regional authorities indepen- dently of their size and believes. We are further convinced that it is not an environmental issue but rather one that has been ad- dressed from a governance perspective. We need to work on well designed and governed territories. We need to anticipate risk but we also need to work towards a men- tality change. High living standards that are not only link to high energy consumption. The services we provide need to reach the current population but also safeguard the quality of life of future generations. Stronger, well-managed local and regional governments will be needed Local and regional authorities will need adequate resources to meet the needs and the governance adaptation necessary to tackle Climate Change. But above all they will need to be ac- knowledge as a full fledge partner in the international decision- making process. Linking the Development Agenda and the Climate Agenda Protecting the health and living conditions of the communities as well as ensuring a good quality of life requires the sustainable management of the relationship between urban development, energy and the environment. The responses to climate change provide an opportunity to ad- dress the inherent inequity in the climate process and to create eq- uity within nations among nations and between generations. The transfer of technologies and capacity built in cities, local and re- gional governments in developed countries should be facilitated. Planning ahead Local and regional authorities will need to develop emergency or disaster preparedness plans along with a set of institutions and funding to implement them. Good city-wide provision for in- frastructure and services should remove most of the risks from storms and floods. Good disaster-preparedness plans may not re- duce hazards but they can dramatically reduce the loss of life and injury and reduce the loss of property. Resilient housing and increased safety margins for new infrastruc- ture will need to be paid special attention both in the developed and developing world. Efficient, well-coordinated mobility will represent a milestone for sustainable societies.
  • 8. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 14 15 Carlos Westendorp Secretary General Club de Madrid city level, from all the cities in a particular country supports enor- mously the achievement of the national climate commitments. In conclusion, focusing at the city level is a key entry point to combat climate change. As this report shows, among other things, cities consume directly, and are responsible for managing, a significant proportion of the world’s energy. Globally, cities are estimated to consume between 60-80% of commercial energy and are estimated to be respon- sible for a similar proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. This situation is aggravated by the continuous growth in urban areas, expected to represent 2/3 of total world population by 2030. Ur- banization in least developed countries is growing as much as seven times faster than in developed nations and largely contrib- utes to growing greenhouse gas emissions through a shift from CO2-neutral energy sources (waste and biomass) to energy carri- ers using fossil fuels. The potential of cities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is enor- mous. It has been estimated that approximately two thirds of the set of policies available to a country to reduce emissions are actu- ally implemented at the city level. Local authorities have a great opportunity to influence energy management both directly and indirectly. In their capacity as providers of public services such as transport, sanitation, or water, local governments are the owners of energy consuming infrastructure and public facilities. Through O ne year ago, the Club de Madrid, represented by our Member Cassam Uteem (President of Mauritius, 1992- 2002), supported the launch of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate Change – the Mexico City Pact and the carbonn Cities Climate Registry. An important initiative that shows how local climate action now is making a difference in global mitigation and adaptation actions, lead by Mexico City, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability and United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). Today, we very much welcome the launch of the First Annual Report of the Mexico City Pact based on the compilation of data from the signa- tory cities, which clearly states the important role of the local level in the global fight against climate change. Cities and local governments around the world, through voluntary ac- tions are leading by example, and through signing the Mexico City Pact are putting in place ambitious climate actions as well as report- ing its results in mitigation and adaptation, also facilitating exchange of best practices in the field and the analysis of where low hanging fruits lie. All of these efforts are helping cities to move forward in their pursuit of a more sustainable city, which at the end will attract more investment and build also the case for direct international finance co- operation for cities. This initiative is essential because the real climate mitigation and ad- aptation potential in the world lies in cities, is at the local level where the real implementation takes place. The sum of these actions at the
  • 9. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 16 17 the adoption of climate-friendly building codes and criteria in ur- ban planning, local authorities can directly and indirectly impact climate action. Apart from these possibilities, local authorities have a compara- tive advantage when combating climate change. They are much closer to citizens and are usually better prepared to implement and adapt national and international guidelines and regulations to local realities, provided they have adequate funding and com- petencies for doing so. In addition, an interesting opportunity for cities while combating climate change is that urban climate action can also foster low carbon economic growth. In the energy efficiency sector, green jobs could generate an additional 2 to 3.5 million jobs just in Europe and the United States, with an even higher potential in developing countries. All of these employment opportunities will take place in cities that are also the site of research, technology development, building construction, etc. They are not only posi- tive for workers and entrepreneurs but also directly benefit the fight against climate change. For all of these reasons, cities need to be a key component in climate mitigation and adaptation, since they are the best agents for change. In this regard we very much welcome the last deci- sions adopted in Cancún, during COP16 that marked a particularly significant momentum for local governments and their role in the fight against the devastating impact of climate change. For the first time, local governments were given official voice in Cancún and were recognized as official stakeholders within the United Na- tions Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the negotiations. The Club de Madrid is proud to support cities in this process. Cities have not been waiting for a comprehensive and global climate deal to emerge or for ‘instructions’ from national governments to act. Local authorities have already acted on climate change as the pres- ent report clearly shows; nevertheless, to continue with this fight in an effective way, local climate action deserves full recognition. This will allow that a truly active and meaningful climate action at the local level can be accomplished. Both, the effective potential of cities to reduce emissions and their proximity to local realities support the rationale for engaging cities in the fight to climate change, and that is why, the Club de Madrid and its Members, 87 democratic Heads of State and Government, have been supporting and continue to support the important ini- tiatives that local governments put in place in regards to climate change mitigation and adaptation.
  • 10. 18 19 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Bonn Center for Local Climate Action and Reporting – carbonn reduction commitments, GHG emissions inventories and climate mitigation/ad- aptation actions. It was launched at the World Mayors Summit on Climate that was held in Mexico City on 21 November 2010, pursuant to Art.4 of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate – the Mexico City Pact. Performance enables harmonized quantification of government and commu- nity GHG emissions, through the guidance provided by the International Local Government GHG Emissions Analysis Protocol (IEAP). Commitments reflects energy and climate related targets that are adopted by the local government to reduce government and community GHG emissions. Actions define legislative, capacity building, awareness raising and technology investment activities in the key categories of mitigation and adaptation that are implemented, in-progress or contingent on funding. This section also captures action plans which are considered to capture a more strategic vision. The cCCR ensures that local climate action is measurable, reportable and verifi- able, and that data are consistent with the standards of the global climate regime. The cCCR supports the global credibility of local climate action and ensures transparency, accountability and comparability. As of 15 November 2011, 51 cities/local authorities from 20 countries represent- ing 83 million inhabitants, shared in the carbonn Cities Climate Registry 106 En- ergy and Climate commitments, 89 GHG inventories that aggregates to annual community GHG emissions of 447 million tCO2e, and 555 Actions and Action Plans. 69% of cCCR Reporting Cities are signatories of the Mexico City Pact. The engine behind Cities Climate Registry With a vision to enhance cities’ action towards local low-carbon communities, the Bonn Center for Local Climate Action and Reporting - carbonn is aimed to: · Facilitating cities’ public presentation/reporting of their commitments, ac- tions and performance in greenhouse gas emissions and reductions through the Cities Climate Registry (Section-1); · Providing guidance on standards and tools for local greenhouse gas emis- sions accounting and reporting (Section-2); · Establishing a platform for sharing information and experience on urban cli- mate data and actions; · Convening expert meetings and symposia on methodological questions re- lated to cities’ emissions measurement, accounting and reporting; · Preparing and presenting annual reports on cities’ climate commitments, ac- tions and performance. The four main principles that will guide activities of carbonn are: · Local Government Ownership: Local governments through their legitimate associations and technical agencies shall lead and manage the reporting and management of data related to urban/local GHG emissions. · Global Perspective: The proposed harmonization and standardization of data generation and processing shall respect regional differentiations within developed countries and priorities of the developing countries. · City-based priorities: Any reporting and harmonization efforts shall be able to highlight the unique priorities of cities, which cannot be easily tracked with the existing national and corporate standards. · Compatibility with other initiatives: The proposed efforts of local gov- ernments shall follow the global trends that are being followed by national governments (including IPCC guidelines) and corporations. The carbonn Cities Climate Registry (cCCR) is a global mechanism that encour- ages local governments to regularly and publicly report on their greenhouse gas Identified by the Cities Climate Registry logo are some of the signatory cities of the Mexico City Pact that have reported to the Bonn Center for local climate action and reporting.
  • 11. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 20 21 Good afternoon. It is a great pleasure to be here with you today to pres- ent the first annual report of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate, also known as the Mexico City Pact, and the carbonn Cities Climate Registry. I always enjoy traveling to Scandinavia. I know I will be welcomed by some of the friendliest people in the world. I will experience some of the world’s most beautiful scenery. And, of course, I will not have to explain the im- portance of sustainability to the future of our planet. Here in Norway, and across the Scandinavian region, our planet’s chang- ing climate is understood and accepted as scientific fact. It is not a debate to advance a political agenda. Instead, it is an urgent calling for world action – for nations and people to agree on a strategy and commit to tar- gets, timetables and the resources necessary to realize them. This is a particularly urgent for the 50 percent of humanity that today lives in the world’s cities. According to the United Nations, the world’s urban population is likely to rise to 70 percent by mid-century. This process of urbanization has contributed significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. Today, cities consume as much as 80% of the world’s energy and account for nearly a half of all GHGs. Traditionally, cities were located near rivers and oceans for transportation and trade purposes. This historic, geographic advantage now increases the vulnerability of cities, as sea levels rise and extreme weather events increase in frequency. Here in Europe, 70 percent of the largest cities have areas vulnerable to rising sea levels. Mexico City is located at 2,200 meters above sea level. While rising sea levels will not impact us, we do face environmental challenges. Tempera- ture, rainfall and humidity patterns across the Valley of Mexico have shift- ed over the past four decades – creating both increased drought and flood conditions. Our geography makes us particularly vulnerable to an urban heat environment. As a result, our average temperatures have increased by 2 to 3 percent centigrade since the 1970s, and by 4 percent centigrade since the early 20th century. In the world’s largest cities, the burden and cost of climate change is ex- pected to fall heaviest on the urban poor. These populations tend to locate in the most vulnerable locations, where housing, construction standards and public infrastructure are inadequate. Moreover, the urban poor are the least prepared to address climate change and adapt to it. When a climate crisis strikes, cities are the first responders. Because of our proximity to citizens, and because we provide basic services that directly impact people’s every day lives, we must be ready to respond. In Mexico City, when heavy rainfall causes seasonal flooding or landslides, no one calls the President of Mexico or the United Nations. Instead, it is the Mex- ico City Government that puts its boots on the ground – wet and muddy ones at that – and responds to citizen’s needs. For this reason, cities are critical actors in arriving at a global commitment to address climate change. National governments may set the rules, but cities are the units of government that will implement them. To date, mayors and other urban leaders have not been an equal partner with national governments at the climate negotiating table. But this is beginning to change, in two ways. First, because cities look at issues such as climate change from a more pragmatic way than national governments, we are acting on our own. Launch of the Mexico City Pact First Annual Report 2011 at the 6th Annual Zero Emissions Conference November 21, 2011 Oslo, Norway Martha Delgado Peralta Minister of the Environment Government of Mexico City Vicepresident of ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability
  • 12. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 22 23 Hundreds of cities around the world, Mexico City included, have devel- oped and are implementing our own climate action plans, customized to respond to local threats and utilizing local resources. There are hundreds of ways that cities are acting: We are reducing GHG emissions resulting from public transportation systems; legislating new green building standards; creating more public green spaces and green development corridors; introducing renewable energy systems in public buildings and spaces; investing in new public transportation, water and solid waste infrastructure; purchasing electric, hybrid and biofuel vehicles for use in city fleets; creating bicycle-sharing networks in high-density ur- ban centers; expanding recycling programs. investing in waste-to-energy technologies; planting trees; and cleaning up polluted rivers. Second, cities are working together around the world to share best prac- tices, and put in place global instruments and resources to monitor, report and verify what we are doing to address climate change in our cities. In December 2009, more than 500 mayors from around the world at- tended the UN climate talks in Copenhagen. While national governments could not reach an agreement, mayors presented a number of different initiatives, including the Climate Catalogue – which included 3,251 targets reported by 2,902 cities around the world. Still, many mayors left this meeting disappointed with our ability to partici- pate in or to impact global climate negotiations. At Copenhagen, Mexico City’s mayor, Marcelo Ebrard, was appointed chair of the World Mayor’s Council on Climate. In this new capacity, Mayor Eb- rard and Mexico City decided to enhance the ability of cities to collaborate on climate. However, to achieve this, we needed to create a new mecha- nism to bring cities together. To this end, one year ago today, on November 21, 2010, mayors from 135 cities around the world met in Mexico City at the World Mayors Summit on Climate. The summit was convened by Mexico City in partnership with the World Mayors Council on Climate Change, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, United Cities and Local Governments’, and the Club de Madrid. The summit created two ground-breaking initiaives: the signing of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate, also known as the Mexico City Pact, and the carbonn Cities Climate Registry. Together, these two processes have created a tool to measure, report, and verify GHG inventories, energy and climate commitments, and mitigation and action plans of local gov- ernments worldwide. Two weeks after the Mexico City Summit, these initiatives were formal- ly presented to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change when it met in December 2011 in Cancun, Mexico. Over the past year, more cities have signed the Mexico City Pact. Today there are 205 signatories. Together, these cities are home to a combined 250 million citizens around the world. A diverse set of cities have signed the Pact – from megacities such as Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Paris, Istanbul, Johannesburg, and Jakarta, to mid-medium-sized and smaller communities in both developed and developing nations. I am pleased to report that Oslo has recently joined these cities Elsewhere in Europe, the signatories include 11 cities in France, 3 in Spain, 3 in Por- tugal, 2 in Sweden, and one each in Denmark, Belgium, Italy and Croatia. This is a good start. But we need many more cities around the world to join us. Meanwhile, those cities which have signed the Pact are today busy imple- menting its reporting mechanism and registering their climate action plans and GHG reduction and energy efficency commitments. A total of 51 cities, representing 20 countries and more than 80 million citizens, have to date registered their commitments with the carbonn Cit- ies Climate Registry. We know many more are preparing their submissions. These efforts are helping cities around the world achieve transparency and accountability of their local climate actions. The information is available to citizens everywhere, who can see what their leaders and communities are doing, and compare this with the actions of other cities. The Mexico City Pact cities are demonstrating leadership. But we are also initiating a process for direct access to global climate funds. The greatest challenge we face is finding the resources needed to finance the initiatives and actions citizens are demanding of us. At the same time, national governments and the global climate community are gaining a better understanding of our achievements and performance. This can help them develop appropriate global climate policies – ones that take into consideration both the involvement of local governments, and the resources needed for cities to help meet future GHG reduction targets and timetables. I want to thank the partnership of the Mexico City Pact formed by the World Mayors Council on Climate Change, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, United Cities and Local Governments’, Mexico City Govern- ment, the Fundación Pensar and the Club de Madrid for the support that their leaders have given to this global initiative. I also want to recognize the extraordinary work of the Secretariat of the Mexico City Pact that leads Fundacion Pensar, to create this First Annual Report, and highlight the im- portant job of the Bonn Centre for Local Climate Action and Reporting to create and integrate the carbonn Cities Climate Registry. At COP-17 in Durban, South Africa, and leading up and during next year’s UN Conference on Sustainable Development, marking the 20th anniversa- ry of the Rio Summit, we will continue to mobilize cities across the planet to climate action.
  • 13. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 24 25 Gabriel Sánchez Díaz Chair, Fundación Pensar. Planeta, Política, Persona The Mexico City Pact: Outcomes and challenges T he publication of the Global Cities Covenant on Climate/Mexico City Pact First Annual Report, created by the Fundación Pensar. Planeta Política, Persona and based on information provided by a significant number of the pact’s signatory cities, commemorates the commitments and achievements world mayors made throughout 2010 as part of the World Mayors Summit on Climate Change. The report attests to cities’ strategic approaches when combating cli- mate change, as have accords such as the World Mayors and Local Gov- ernments Climate Protection Agreement (2007), the Local Government Climate Roadmap (2007), the publication of the Copenhagen World Catalogue of City Commitments to Combat Climate Change (2009), the Copenhagen Climate Communiqué (2009), the Dunkerque 2010 Call on Climate Action (2010), the Bonn Declaration of the Mayors Adapta- tion Forum (2010) and the Climate Summits of Major Cities of the C40, among many other efforts. That said, all these actions and agreements reached something of a cul- mination at the World Mayors Summit on Climate Change. At last year’s meeting, mayors from five continents came together to sign measurable, reportable and verifiable commitments, converting the event into a real, unqualified advance in terms of world mayors’ joint efforts. As Istanbul Mayor Kadir Topbas, President of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) notes in his preface to this volume, the Mexico City Pact represents a high-impact, essential milestone as we work toward a sustainable future. The report is a demonstration of cities’ practical capacities when it comes to successfully carrying out a wide array of mitigation and adaptation policies on varying scales. It proves that everyone from small towns to megapolises can initiate the kinds of mitigation and adaptation actions that in fact these cities are currently making a reality. Consider some of the following examples: a rural government such as that of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, at 7860 km2, has enacted forestry reg- ulation as well as sustainable basin and river management to guarantee future drinking water supplies for its inhabitants; five rural local gov- ernments created or extended natural protected areas; and fifteen cities rolled out integrated sustainable river and basin management programs. Solid waste management is a fundamental concern for local govern- ments. Fifty out of 51 cities reported various waste management pro- grams including garbage separation and recycling, education, adequate landfill creation and even packaging-reduction regulations. Additionally, twenty cities created biogas harvest projects at landfills for use as fuel, to develop carbon-trading schemes, or simply to reduce methane emissions. 23 high-density cities reported extending sustainable public transport networks involving BRT, subways and railways. At the same time 41 cities report urban reforestation activities including the promotion or instal- lation of green roofs, new parks and river restoration projects. Finally, seven cities reported sustainable vehicle programs that include substitut- ing outmoded and polluting vehicles, to be replaced with electric and hybrid cars.
  • 14. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 26 27 A central proviso of the Mexico City Pact consisted in lending the same weight to both adaptation and mitigation actions—a crucial consider- ation for local governments. As such, 27 cities have developed long-term adaptation strategies, legislation and policies; 19 have created strict con- struction regulations in anticipation of mid- and long-range probable im- pacts or hazards; and most importantly of all, provisions have been made to protect the poor and vulnerable. Seven cities made protecting and pre- serving biodiversity an imperative. All in all, the first Report includes 444 public policies designed to combat climate change; 297 greenhouse gas emissions mitigation actions; and 147 climate change adaptation strategies, as noted below: Table 1 Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies, by Activity CLIMATE CHANGE ACTIONS Number of cities taking this action MITIGATION OF GHG Climatic action plans 48 Energy efficiency programs 14 Substitution of old vehicles for electric and hybrid vehicles 7 Public lighting efficiency 27 Enhanced waste management 50 General reduction of emissions and resources-use in public administration 15 Promoting and increasing urban density 4 Increasing sustainable transportation routes and infrastructure 23 GHG inventories 7 Environmental education 23 Policies aimed at reducing automobile use or enhancing its sustainability 22 Energy efficiency certifications and regulations 5 General mobility strategies 3 General use of renewable energies strategies 9 Creation of specific institutions and agencies on climate change 2 Monitoring emissions systems 3 Direct emissions reduction (industry, waste, etc.) 20 Environmental legislation and vigilance 7 Creation or extension of natural protected areas 5 Sustainable housing and construction 3 ADAPTATIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE General urban adaptation and resilience plans 27 Urban reforestation programs and greenspace creation, including green roofs 41 Construction regulations and planning in anticipation of climate change impacts 19 Biodiversity conservation programs 7 Enhanced management of basins, agriculture and rivers 15 Risk/disaster management protocols and programs 5 Improved street pavement 5 Water resource management 19 Political actions (forums, summits, etc.) 4 Economic and technical adaptation programs/ incentives (e.g., carbon markets) 4 Health policies 1
  • 15. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City PactF I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 28 29 These actions are enhanced by reports released by the carbonn Cities Climate Registry, which documented the technical results of actions un- dertaken by 51 signatory cities. The cCCR published results from which we can make the following summary: Table 2. Outcomes in Cities as Reported to the cCCR As of 15 November 2011: 51 Cities 20 Countries 83 million inhabitants 447 million tCO2e/yr 89 GHG inventories 107 Commitments 555 Actions The Mexico City Pact is a strategic tool undergoing a process of expan- sion and enhancement through participation by local authorities, mayors, multilateral entities and their partners. From 138 local authorities that subscribed on 21 November, the pact now includes 207 signatory cities from 46 nations that represent some 250 million inhabitants. These cities’ names and geographic placement is found at this volume. Table 3 Mexico City Pact Signatory Cities, by Continent Continent Number of Cities % Africa 49 23.6 The Americas 93 44.9 Asia 25 12.1 Europe 36 17.4 Oceania 4 2.0 Total 207 100% The challenges faced by the Mexico City pact are essentially the following: a) Expanding the pact’s action radius by incorporating more local gov- ernments; and strengthening the pact’s presence in each of the five continents where it currently operates while facilitating its growth in each of the sub-regions that make it up. b) Discovering mechanisms whereby high-local-impact accords, pacts and declarations entered into by local authorities, as derived from the Mexico City Pact, can be integrated to create a single global pact featuring uniform city assessment/reporting mechanisms requiring measurable, reportable and verifiable data. c) Strengthening and enhancing the relationship with UNFCCC, en- deavoring to find a more solid forum for international negotiations, now that MCP signatories have been recognized as governmental stakeholders coming out of COP16 in Cancún. The goal, obviously, is to be included in public policy definitions that benefit local au- thorities and with this, access international financing in support of local government mitigation and adaptation policies. d) Maintain and expand relationships with three strategic sectors that participated in the WMSC: scientific institutions, the business com- munity, and NGOs. e) Assure that local government mitigation and adaptation actions re- ceive priority consideration through projected green funds, so that local governments directly access resources by presenting the most cost-efficient emissions-reduction or adaptation proposals. Mr. David Cadman, President of ICLEI said in his foreword: “A truly active and meaningful role can be accomplished through further expansion and recognition of the Covenant”. For that reason, in its role as the Interna- tional Secretariat for the Mexico City Pact, the Fundación Pensar will rise to these challenges and wishes to assure observers of its readiness to take on commitments in 2012 that will constitute a wide-ranging strategic, diplomatic and logistical action designed to face them. Not least of all, our success could not be possible without unwavering support from the pact’s partners: the WMSC chaired by Mayor Marcelo Ebrard, the Mexico City Government through the Minister of the Environ- ment Ms. Martha Delgado, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability headed by Mr. David Cadman, CGLU led by Mayor Topbas and the Club de Madrid, whose President is Mr. Wim KOK, whom we thank for their trust, valuable contributions and ongoing support.
  • 16. 31 207 SIGNATORY CITIES OF THE MEXICO CITY PACT AS OF NOVEMBER 2011 Buenos Aires Argentina America La Falda Argentina America Rosario Argentina America Santa Fe Argentina America Lake Macquarie Australia Oceania Melbourne Australia Oceania Brussels Belgium Europe Belmopan Belize America La Paz Bolivia America San Carlos de Santa Cruz Bolivia America Santísima Trinidad Bolivia America Belo Horizonte Brazil America Curitiba Brazil America Diadema Brazil America Manaus Brazil America Porto Alegre Brazil America Rio de Janeiro Brazil America Sao Paulo Brazil America Association of Forestry Municipalities of Cameroon (Encompassing 25 municipalities) Cameroon Africa Calgary Canada America Delta Canada America District of Maple Ridge Canada America Metro Vancouver Canada America North Vancouver Canada America Vancouver Canada America Coltauco Chile America El Bosque Chile America Graneros Chile America Lautaro Chile America Quilpué Chile America Requinoa Chile America Santiago Chile America Santiago Metropolitan Area Chile America Kaohsiung Chinese Taipei Asia Taipei City Chinese Taipei Asia Bogotá DC Colombia America Gigante-Huila Colombia America Montería Colombia America San José Costa Rica America Koprivnica Croatia Europe Copenhagen Denmark Europe Cuenca Ecuador America Pichincha Ecuador America Quito Ecuador America Santa Ana El Salvador America Brest Métropole Océane (Encompassing 8 cities) France Europe Bordeaux France Europe Saint-Denis * France Europe Pierrefitte * France Europe L’Île-Saint-Denis * France Europe Epinay * France Europe La Courneuve * France Europe Stains * France Europe Villetaneuse * France Europe Aubervilliers * France Europe Île-de-France Regional Council France Europe Dunkerque France Europe Grenoble France Europe Lyon France Europe Mellac France Europe Nantes Métropole (Encompassing 24 cities) France Europe Orleans France Europe Paris France Europe Dötlingen Germany Europe Guatemala Guatemala America Bhavnagar India Asia Nagpur India Asia Jakarta Indonesia Asia Jerusalem Israel Asia Cerisano Italy Europe Fujisawa Japan Asia Iida Japan Asia Itabashi Japan Asia Kyoto Japan Asia Nagoya Japan Asia Okayama Japan Asia Tokyo Metropolitan Government Japan Asia Yamanashi Japan Asia Mandera Kenya Africa Benslimane Morocco Africa Casablanca Morocco Africa Essaouira Morocco Africa Kenitra Morocco Africa Khouribga Morocco Africa Meknes Morocco Africa Ouarzazate Morocco Africa Rabat Morocco Africa Settat Morocco Africa Temara Morocco Africa Acatepec Mexico America Acatzingo Mexico America Acuamanala de Miguel Hidalgo Mexico America Aguascalientes Mexico America Amixtlán Mexico America Ayotlán Mexico America Camerino Z. Mendoza Mexico America Cancún Mexico America Chalma Mexico America Chahuites Mexico America Chihuahua Mexico America Cintalapa de Figueroa Mexico America Coyoacán Mexico America Cuatro Ciénagas Mexico America Chiconamel Mexico America Chetumal Mexico America Lázaro Cardenas Mexico America Lerdo Mexico America Luvianos Mexico America Mexico City Mexico America Naucalpan Mexico America Paso del Macho Mexico America Puebla Mexico America Santiago Apóstol Mexico America San Cristóbal de las Casas Mexico America San Juan Lachao Mexico America San Juan Guichicovi Mexico America San Martín Hidalgo Mexico America Santa Catarina Sachatao Ixtlán Mexico America Santa Lucía del Camino Mexico America Santiago Papasquiaro Mexico America Sierra Mojada Mexico America Tecalitlán Mexico America Tepetlaoxtoc Mexico America Tlacotepec de Benito Juárez Mexico America Totolapa Mexico America Villa de Zaachila Mexico America Yurécuaro Mexico America Zimapan Mexico America Zacatecas Mexico America Greater Wellington Region New Zealand Oceania Wellington City New Zealand Oceania Amuwo Odofin LocalGovernment Nigeria Africa Oslo Norway Europe Chaclacayo Peru America Chancay Peru America Comas Peru America Etén Peru America Lima Peru America Santa Rosa Peru America Trujillo Peru America Albay Philippines Asia Calbiga Philippines Asia Dagupan Philippines Asia Ligao City Philippines Asia Quezon Philippines Asia Almada Portugal Europe Lisbon Portugal Europe Oeiras Portugal Europe Comerío Puerto Rico America Pitesti Romania Europe Dakar Senegal Africa Nioro du Rip Senegal Africa Saint Louis Senegal Africa Cape Town South Africa Africa Cape Winelands South Africa Africa Dr JS Moroko Local Municipality South Africa Africa Durban South Africa Africa Johannesburg South Africa Africa Matlosana South Africa Africa Gwangju South Korea Asia Jeju South Korea Asia Suncheon South Korea Asia Suwon South Korea Asia Yeosu South Korea Asia Yeonsu-Gu South Korea Asia Barcelona Spain Europe Deputation of Barcelona Spain Europe Mataró Spain Europe Karlstad Sweden Europe Malmö Sweden Europe Istanbul Turkey Europe Nevs ehir Turkey Europe Yalova Turkey Europe Entebbe Uganda Africa Kampala Kawempe Uganda Africa Montevideo Uruguay America San Carlos Uruguay America Burnsville USA America Des Moines USA America Los Angeles USA America North Little Rock USA America Caracas Venezuela America Harare Zimbabwe Africa *Cities that encompass the agglomeration community of Plaine Commune, France.
  • 17. 32 33 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Buenos Aires, Argentina Mayor Mauricio Macri Population 2,891,082 Territorial Extension 202.4 km2 ARGENTINA MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city of Buenos Aires monitors municipal government energy consumption; studied outcomes will guide future energy and climate-change policy. n City public lighting is being migrated to low-energy LED and high-pressure sodium vapor technologies. n BA continues to encourage and develop the use of renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic cells for solar water heating and solar heating in marginalized communi- ties (as a means of social inclusion). n The city supports the private sector’s migration to sustainability through environ- mental management seminars for small and medium businesses as well as low-interest credit subsidies for business that seek to make energy-efficient infrastructure upgrades. n Fifteen businesses participated in the “Buenos Aires Makes Things Cleaner” program, achieving an overall 15% reduction in electricity consumption. n In collaboration with the city of Genoa, the city will create an Environmental Eco- nomic Center to provide a space that provides best-environmental-practices information and outreach, serves as a green businesses incubator, and is also generalized forum for technical and academic discussion, oriented toward the creation of clean jobs in Buenos Aires. n The city sponsors ongoing training seminars in energy-efficient and sustainable building for the local construction sector. n Buenos Aires’s “Sustainable Mobility Plan” calls for expanded mass-transit-dedi- cated traffic lanes and metrobus service, nine new subway stations by June 2012, hybrid fueled buses, and a public shared bicycle net- work, among other improvements. n Five downtown streets have been converted to pedestrian-only thoroughfares. n The municipal government supports waste reduction initiatives such as separated garbage, reduced consumption, and enhanced on-street re- ceptacle support. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Buenos Aires’s climate-change adaptation strategy includes permanent meteo- rological monitoring, expansion of city greenspaces, green corridor design and imple- mentation, relocation of at-risk communities, dengue control and enhanced drainage infrastructure designed to respond to increased rainfall and flooding. n Green walls and roofs are being planted and maintained, including on more than twenty municipal buildings and alongside major in-city highways. n A census is currently underway that will assess the health of every tree in BA. To date, 100,000 interventions have been made to reinforce the city’s “tree health.” n Rainwater management systems have been improved via two new major drainage canals, as well as enhanced reservoir capacity, etc. n Anti-dengue fumigation has resulted in a 70% reduction in reported cases of the disease. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact
  • 18. 34 35 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Santa Fe de la Vera Cruz, Argentina Mayor Mario Domingo Barletta Population 521,759 Territorial Extension 268 km2 ARGENTINA MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n A public bicycle lending program, “Subite a la Bici” (“Get on Your Bike”) was implemented, offering reduced automotive emissions, personal wellbeing, and com- munity enhancement. Creating bicycle-friendly cultural and cycling safety awareness is also part of the program. n The city acquired three articulated bus units whose emissions standards are 50% better than traditional buses. They will operate on routes throughout the city’s most congested downtown streets. n Light-rail as part of Santa Fe’s regional public transport mix is a key element in the Rail Infrastructure Plan presented by the municipal government. n The 10-hectare, thirteen-year-old Altos de Noguera landfill has been closed and re- forested as a public greenspace. The property has been sealed to avoid aquifer leakage; work treating leachates is underway, in preparation for biogas extraction. n As mentioned, landfill biogas will be harvested, rather than released into the at- mosphere, mitigating the effects of global warming. n A former municipal commissary will become the city’s first biodigestor, a technology that enhances the benefits of biomass and biogas harvest. n Biogas will turn garbage into a source of municipal revenue. The city is currently calling for bids in order to confer an extraction concession. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The “Santa Fe Recycles” Program contin- ues to expand, and in recent years has elicited a 54% increase in recyclable waste materials collection. n Separated garbage collection now reach- es 100% of served Santa Fe households and businesses, and enjoys a 75% community-wide compliance rate. n As part of ongoing public space recuperation ef- forts, three open-air landfills were closed and con- verted into public greenspace. n Santa Fe’s Sub-Ministry for the Environment has to date established five “Clean Spots” where informal refuse collectors are able to separate garbage and recuperate recyclable and reusable materials. n The city’s ongoing “Greenbelt” project seeks to improve local soils’ rainwater absorp- tion and reduce flood probabilities, via the gradual widening of green areas between streets and sidewalks as well as increased use of ground cover vegetation. n An aggressive public tree planting, maintenance and culling program continues to be carried out. The city has also established response protocols to address the effects of adverse climatic effects in public greenspaces. n The Santa Fe City Botanical Garden has been fully restored and attracts thou- sands of visitors weekly. n A city botanical nursery has been established with four major cultivation areas de- signed to raise trees for use in public greenspaces. n Santa Fe received the prestigious UN Sasakawa Prize for disaster risk reduction, along with recognitions by the World Health Organization and the UN Environmental Program. n New municipal legislation seeks the gradual elimination of plastic bags through measures such as community education efforts and informal campaigns undertaken in cooperation with local supermarkets.
  • 19. 36 37 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium Minister-President Charles Picqué Minister for the Environment Evelyne Huytebroeck Population 1,089,538 Territorial Extension 161.4 km2 Total Investment (energy sector in 2009) €42,000,000/$57,960,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Brussels’s “exemplary buildings” program responds to the fact that 70% of the city’s emissions derive from structures. It selects and subsidizes energy- and environmentally- exemplary construction and renovation projects. To date 300,000 m2 have been reno- vated, achieving a 75% energy savings. Success has been such that this year’s resources may not meet demand. n Starting in 2015 new municipal construction must meet passive energy standards and renovations must comply with low energy-consumption standards. n In 2015, the Brussels Environmental Administration will move into Europe’s largest passive energy building, featuring 15,000 m2 of space. n The city’s “Ecological Energy and Construction House” offers information and ad- vice on materials and rational energy use as an aid in the acquisition of green loans and rebates, identifying needed renovations and offering simple suggestions like thermostat valve installation. n The city offers rebates on energy-saving construction and renovations. Between 2004 and the present, more than 81 million rebates have been paid, resulting in 600 mil- lion euros’ worth of low- and renewable-energy investments. n Brussels’s “Local Action Plan for Energy Management” works to foster enhanced energy use at the city’s major cultural landmarks while taking into consideration ele- ments such as energy-mapping, energy accountability, energy organization managed by a single responsible party, potential improvements identification and a corresponding action plan. Implementation reduces participating buildings’ energy consumption by 5% to 20%, without heavy investment. n The city’s “Enduring Neighborhoods” program seeks large-scale energy transforma- tions in the city’s overall building stock, through measures that promote high energy and environmental standards. n By 2018, Brussels’s new mobility plan seeks to reduce overall traffic volume by 20% over 2001 statistics. n The city’s public transportation offering will be enhanced through the creation of new subway lines, increased frequency and movement toward more bus and streetcar friendly areas. The clear objective is to make public transportation more attractive. n Street parking spaces are to be progres- sively reduced in lieu of alternative strategies. Business parking spaces will be limited based on location and access to public transportation. n All new municipal vehicles will be required to meet minimum “eco-scores” (overall pollution scores based on CO2 emissions, air and noise pollution, etc). Scores will grow more stringent annually. n “Active” modes of transportation such as walking and cycling will be extensively promoted in Brussels, largely through measures such as pedestrian-only streets, bike paths and shared public bicycles. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n A regional assessment of climate change effects is currently being undertaken to propose measures for best anticipating and reducing climate change impacts. n Since recent rainfall frequency/intensity variation—like- ly attributable to climate change—has led to increased flooding, the region has drafted a rainfall management plan. Contemplated measures include containing and re- ducing the impact of soil impermeability and enhancing the region’s drainage systems n Focus will be placed on those systems as a means of creating the most accurate rainwater discharge system. n Construction will be prohibited in at-risk zones. n The oak and beech populations of the city’s Soignes Forest Park will undergo health inventories to moni- tor their vulnerability to environmental stressors; the park’s management plan will adapt to maintain or im- prove the trees’ regeneration and adaptation capacities. The Minister E. Huytebroeck at the model building « L’Espoir » (The Hope) that bonds perfectly together the social, environmental and energetic concerns of our time (© J.-B. Maréchal). Evelyne Huytebroeck, Minister for the Environment, Energy and Urban Renovation of the Brussels-Capital (© J.-B. Maréchal). Belgium
  • 20. F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact La Paz, Bolivia Mayor Luis Antonio Revilla Herrero Population 840,044 Territorial Extension 2011.91 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $220,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. San Carlos de Santa Cruz, Bolivia Mayor Serafín Espinosa Mamani Population 22,550 Territorial Extension 120,640.6 hectares Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $3000 USD *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The La Paz municipal government sponsored and promoted “An Hour for the Plan- et” on 26 March 2011. Observances including extinguishing lights on the city’s principal boulevard, and a call on citizens and business owners to turn off lights and unplug de- vices—easy to take measures that “give the planet a breather.” n The city effectively reduced the impact of environmentally destructive obser- vances surrounding the 23 June feast of San Juan via education and awareness cam- paigns. Previously, San Juan observances, particularly bonfires (often fueled by discarded tires) produced so much pollution that the city airport would have to be closed. 2011 program outcomes represented a 30% decrease from the previous year and community support grows annually. n Since 90% of La Paz’s greenhouse gas emissions are derived from automotive exhaust, the city created “Clean Air Week,” from 5 to 9 September. Program activities included motorist awareness and training events, with special emphasis on preventive measures that reduce emissions. n City plans call for significant mass transit fleet upgrades for improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. n A system for vehicular inspections—and the corresponding inspection stations—will be established, a first for Bolivia. n La Paz maintains Bolivia’s most ecologically friendly landfill, which meets strict in- ternational standards for biogas and leachate control. n Biogas will be harvested for energy use. n Leachate liquids will be processed to obtain water that will be repurposed for greens- pace watering. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city has undertaken hydraulic infrastructure upgrades that improve water stor- age as well as protect reservoirs. n Water management plans are to be devised for 27 protected areas and will take into consideration factors such as food security, water supply and demand, expanding agricultural development and urban planning. n A municipal development plan in effect until 2040—informed by in-depth territo- rial, technical, social, environmental and cultural planning—will oversee containment of La Paz’s urban footprint, currently just 3% of its overall territorial extension, as well as maintenance of the remaining 97%’s rural character. n Water-resource vulnerability studies will be undertaken to identify necessary cli- mate change mitigation measures. n Numerous water-resource infrastructure upgrades will form part of a Metropolitan Water and Hygiene Plan, including replacing obsolete distribution networks, dams to support aquifer recharge and expand reser- voir space, and the elimination of current distribu- tion-system leaks. n La Paz sponsors “AH2ORRREMOS,” a water con- servation effort aimed at adolescents and children designed to create awareness among the genera- tion whose actions will be critical to environmental health. Participants learn everyday habits that help protect water resources. n Solar canopies were installed in rural areas to fortify long-term food security measures. n La Paz has reforested 65 hectares of territory in or- der to adapt to increasingly heavy rainfall and landslides. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n San Carlos de Santa Cruz has forbidden forest, crop and garbage burning, and actively enforces this norm via local law enforcement. n The city has undertaken reforestation efforts through government-institution partnerships. n New legislation forbids logging as well as hunting and fishing. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city has constructed a sanitary sewage system to abate flooding and water table pollution. 39 bolivia 38
  • 21. 40 41 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact brazil Belo Horizonte, Brazil Mayor Marcio Araújo de Lecerda Population 2,375,151 Territorial Extension 331 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment R$16,000,000/$9,166,427 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n A municipal environmental sustainability certification program was launched on 1 July 2011. It promotes reduced water and energy consumption, in addition to diminished solid waste, by encouraging local businesses to adopt greenhouse-gas-reduc- ing technologies. n Municipal certification will guide Belo Horizonte 2014 World Cup sustainabil- ity projects, in compliance with Brazil’s national World Cup environmental guidelines, which recommend social and environmental impact reduction as observed at World Cup activities in Germany and South Africa. n Municipal policy and legislation, via the city strategic plan, has institutionalized a commitment to reduce overall city emissions by twenty percent by 2030. Important miti- gation legislation was passed in May 2011. n Via competitive bidding, the city has commissioned a “Municipal Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” as well as the elaboration of a “Greenhouse Gas Emis- sions Reduction Plan” designed to achieve established goals by proposing emissions control and reduction measures. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Biogas exploitation has allowed Belo Horizonte to convert a major pollutant and greenhouse gas into a source of energy and public revenue. n A former city landfill was deactivated in 2007 and replaced with a biogas-fueled power plant that produces 4.2 MW of clean energy per hour—enough to supply a city of 30,000. The plant began operations in January 2011. n Controlled methane recapture from solid waste provides energy taken from a 30- year, 20-million metric ton debris accumulation. Methane has ceased to be Belo Hori- zonte’s second-largest source of air pollution. The project was a first in Minas Gerais state, and distinguishes Belo Horizonte from almost all other Brazilian cities. Best of all, the initiative generates energy and revenue. n Contractors extract landfill gases—50% methane, 49% CO2 and 1% other gases— via underground tubes leading from the former landfill to the processing plant. n Over the coming 10 years, the project will eliminate the release of 2 million metric tons of CO2 and CO2-equivalent gases. It is the most modern facility of its kind in Brazil. n The garbage-generated energy is sold to local energy providers to be distributed to consumers.
  • 22. 42 43 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact brazil Curitiba, Brazil Mayor Luciano Ducci Population 1,750,000 Territorial Extension 434 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city’s Forum for Climate Change undertakes ongoing carbon emissions and carbon-sink inventories, designed to inform municipal plans for mitigation and adap- tation over the medium- and long-term. n Concrete mitigation actions included ongoing expansion of the city’s dedicated bus lane system via larger vehicles and enhanced stations, express lanes, biofuel, fleet upgrades, etc. n Migration of buses to soy-based biofuels has reduced bus emissions by 50% over traditional vehicles. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Residents of at-risk neighborhoods, prone to flooding as well as contami- nation because of the at-risk settlements themselves, have been moved to munici- pally sponsored housing on higher ground. n The city’s flood mitigation system has been enhanced, including new, high- capacity drainage systems in four neighborhoods. n A drainage master plan is being devised to incorporate six local river valleys and will provide flood control and monitoring systems. n The master plan will also address pollution and the prevention of illegal settlement along riverbanks, as well as provide accumulation basins, monitor sewage levels and establish protocols for cleaning and drainage.
  • 23. 44 45 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Diadema, Brazil Mayor Mario Wilson Pedreira Reali Population 386,039 Territorial Extension 31 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n A pioneer effort in Brazil, Diadema has instituted the Vida Limpia program for sepa- rated garbage collection, noted for its social-inclusion element involving commu- nity associations. Community groups receive per-ton remuneration and licenses to com- mercialize the collected refuse. Seven collection points will be built or expanded by 2012. Community groups currently collect over 100 metric tons of garbage monthly. n Solar power and water efficiency systems have been installed in eight local schools as well as a clinic. n The city upgraded its entire bus fleet of 172 units to new, energy-efficient biodiesel 0Km models. n The city has planted 2100 trees throughout the city. n Diadema instituted numerous environmental education programs including a puppet theatre that instructed children on garbage separation and water conservation, reaching audiences of 9000. Another program facilitated nature studies in city parks. n The city supported “Car-Free Day” activities. n Diadema participates in São Paulo State’s vehicular inspection program, which both reduces emissions and enhances fuel efficiency. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n In conjunction with the federal government, Diadema opened a new reservoir with enhanced efficiency and hygiene technologies that will serve 60 thousand residents. n New systems allow for 75% of Diadema’s drinking water to be delivered via the force of gravity, saving energy and reducing supply loss. n The city’s water loss prevention plan is a complete success, outperforming initial projections. brazil
  • 24. 46 47 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Manaus, Brazil Mayor Amazonino Armando Mendes Population 1,850,000 Territorial Extension 11,000 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $248,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Manaus has undertaken an extensive Greenhouse Gas Inventory that considers emissions sources such as energy, industrial activity, residential emissions, commercial emissions, and emissions derived from transportation, waste materials, government op- erations and the agricultural/forestry industry. Both CO2 and CO2-equivalent gases are to be inventoried. n The resultant action plan should identify public and private entities able to contribute to greenhouse gas emissions mitigation and will consider measures such as industrial regulation, guidelines, economic incentives, clean-technology adoption and changes in citizen behaviors. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Manaus is elaborating an extensive area urban and rural zones, designed to inform disaster-abatement infrastructure and protocols that allow officials to anticipate situa- tions and relocate at-risk families, with an emphasis on flood and landslide adaptations. brazil
  • 25. 48 49 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Mayor Eduardo Paes Population 12,000,000 Territorial Extension 1,225 km2 brazil MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Rio de Janeiro is in the midst of numerous upgrades to the transportation system, including three new dedicated-lane, articulated bus lines; and ongoing expansion of the subway system. The bus system is being migrated to lower emissions fuels with a 20% biodiesel objective for 2020. n Improvements to traffic efficiency reduced bus emissions by 9%. n A new municipal solid waste treatment center has been inaugurated, equipped for biogas harvest, which will be an energy resource in 2012. n City recycling programs have been launched. n Rio’s public lighting has migrated to energy-efficient LED technology. n Solar-energy water heating systems will be installed in the city’s public housing. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The municipal government has organized the Carioca Forum on Climate Change: a 26-member advisory board in- cluding municipal officials, business interests and representatives from civil society that serves to advise and drive the city’s climate change and sustainability agendas. The forum has raised consciousness of climate change issues with the public at large. n The city has devised a climate-change contingency plan, which includes emer- gency-response training at the community level, the opening of a municipal “situation room,” and health team response strategies for tropical disease outbreaks on the city’s hottest days. n A city adaptation plan will be created to incorporate responses to sea-level rise via enhanced drainage, sanitation and urbanization models. n Rio’s municipal port will be renovated to adapt to rising seal levels. n City programs promote sustainable public housing that complies with green build- ing standards.
  • 26. 50 51 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact São Paulo, Brazil Mayor Gilberto Kassab Population 11,244,369 Territorial Extension 1523.5 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n São Paulo has reaffirmed the priority of public transportation through major invest- ments in bus, subway and rail lines as well as new public transportation fleet vehicles. n It has enhanced public transportation fleet regulation through annual inspections to assess greenhouse gas emissions and overall vehicle conditions. n City energy use is to be rationalized via time-monitoring and performance veri- fication. n Energy-rationalization legislation stimulates other initiatives, encouraging new technologies, the adoption of alternative energy resources and investments in surplus energy commercialization equipment. n Efficiency, conservation and reduced natural resource consumption standards in new and existing buildings are to be implemented. n Reducing solid waste, encouraging recycling and enhancing reverse logistics, as well as composting, are priorities for the city’s solid waste-management strategies. n Incentives have been provided for handling organic waste as well as for increasing the use-life of landfills and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The concept of a compact São Paulo calls for public policies in support of the imple- mentation of sustainable regional urban cores with increased densities and enhanced thor- oughfare and transport support. n A high-capacity transport system seeks to attenuate life-work balance. n Per-inhabitant greenspace expansion and rehabilitation enhances quality of life and improves soil permeability. n The city’s 100 Parks Program has expanded total urban greenspaces to 80; its Linear Parks Program seeks to rehabilitate and re-appropriate natural resources, especially water and riverbeds, along with factors that enhance quality of life, health and education. n The city’s health authorities take environmental health into consideration as a key resource to citizen quality of life, carrying out actions to monitor and control climate- change-related health risks. brazil
  • 27. 52 53 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact canada North Vancouver, Canada Mayor Darrell Mussatto Population 48,000 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city has established the following emissions reduction targets: 25% below 2007 levels by 2020 for city operations and an overall community reduction of 15% below 2007 levels by 2020. n The municipal government has retrofitted government installations to include lighting efficiency and sensor upgrades, building controls installation and enhanced roof area insulation. n The city’s fleet has added electric and hybrid vehicles. n LED streetlights are being piloted in key areas, reducing energy use by 40% upon full implementation. n Waste audits of garbage produced at city hall and in city thoroughfares and greens- paces were completed, identifying enhanced recycling and composting opportunities. n A travel offset fund totaling $30,000 CAD was established to provide non-formal offsets to municipal staff business travel. n In spite of increased service levels and a growing population, as well as the completion of new library and police headquarters facilities, the city’s government administra- tive-related emissions reductions have been tremendous: currently 5% below 1995 levels, a remarkable achievement. n 2010 saw the city become the first municipality in British Columbia to institute density bonussing zoning bylaw amendments that assure high energy-efficiency stan- dards in virtually all new North Vancouver construction. n The city substantially expanded sustainable transportation routes, including its off- road pedestrian/cycle “Spirit Trail” network and a pedestrian/cycle overpass link across an existing rail line. n Numerous city businesses participated in “Climate Smart” training requiring green- house gas emissions inventories as well as reduction strategies. n North Vancouver partnered with non-profit organizations to provide in-school en- ergy conservation and waste reduction programs that motivate behavior changes at home and at school. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n In conjunction with a nationwide consor- tium of municipalities, North Vancouver has participated in a milestone process for the cre- ation and implementation of an Adaptation Plan as well as guidelines for monitoring—and outcomes disclosure—related to implemented plan actions. n Greener streets have been created via rain gar- dens and tree plantings that reduce the urban “heat island” effect and mitigate road runoff/sediment transport to sensitive river ecosystems. n Currently the city is undertaking climate change-related risk map- ping focused on sea-level rise and storm surges. Results will be made public and will inform revised minimum building elevation codes. n North Vancouver has partnered with local agencies in the creation of Loulet Farm, an urban farm occupying underutilized city property. The project fosters local food pro- duction and enhanced local food security; produce from the 2011 growing season was made available to the community at an onsite farmers’ market.
  • 28. 54 55 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Lautaro, Chile Mayor Renato Hauri Gómez Population 35,236 Territorial Extension 901 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $14,500,000 CLP /$30,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Lautaro will close its municipal dump within the next three years, for the control of biogas and leachate emissions. The space will be converted to public parkland. n The city will install two municipal “clean centers” featuring receptacle fixtures along with information regarding their proper use for recycling. The city will maintain the facilities impeccably; community-based efforts will be responsible for awareness and education. Centers will be located in high-traffic, high-population-density areas. n Municipal employees will receive energy efficiency training from a professional in- structor who will present practical workshops that encourage home and workplace en- ergy savings. n City legislation will permit appropriate fines for environmental and public health guide- line non-compliance. n Rural Energy Independence programs will reduce deforestation by providing residents with alternatives to wood as a domestic fuel. n The city will partner with a local university to devise an emissions map that can serve as a reference for future municipal climate change mitigation actions. n Two studies have been undertaken to guide the construction of a new, state-of-the-art sanitary landfill and the selection of alternative treatments for wastes that reach the landfill. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city will carry out voluntary environmental certification as a means of estab- lishing a commitment to ecological sustainability when it comes to government activities, infrastructure, personnel, internal procedures and public services. CHILE
  • 29. 56 57 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact CHILE Quilpué, Chile Mayor Mauricio Viñambres Adasmet Population 158,000 Territorial Extension 537 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $6,073,171 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n 11.4 Km of roads were paved, a 10% advance on the city deficit. n The city’s forestation and reforestation program improved and cleaned public spaces throughout the city. n Reforestation education programs were offered to public school students. n The city carried out community reforestation workshops, meetings and awareness efforts. n Reforestation programs were created for the public schools. n Quilpé has established 19,350 m2 of greenspace n The future planting of 120,000 trees has begun with over 400 units, 350 of which are at least 1 meter high. n An ambitious glass, plastic, battery, pa- per and tetrapak recycling program is in place. n have been placed throughout the city
  • 30. 58 59 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact CHILE Santiago, Chile Mayor Pablo Zalaquett Said Population 5,481,800 Territorial Extension 2273.7 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The municipal government is in the process of drafting a city Energy Efficiency Policy. n The municipal government has published its “Commitment to Energy Efficiency.” n Tax franchises have been granted for thermal solar systems as a means of encourag- ing the market for this technology. Benefits fall to construction companies that incorpo- rate solar technologies in new-home construction. n The city government will undertake an energy evaluation of two installations that account for 60% of its energy use. n Santiago carried out community-based awareness classes on domestic energy efficiency derived from alternative strategies carried out by the community itself. n The city hosted the first Latin America Energy Efficiency Expo, designed to foster awareness of energy efficient technologies and strategies. n Santiago published its Regional Air Pollution Abatement Plan, designed to reduce lo- cal atmospheric emissions. n The city also published its “Green Buying Guide” for municipal acquisitions, calling for environmentally friendly purchases that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. n Santiago is currently calculating its direct activities carbon footprint. Results will be published at year’s end. n The city has amended its principal urban planning instrument to incorporate incen- tives for sustainable construction including renewable/alternative energy and green roofs/façades. n The city participated in “Earth Hour” observances by extinguishing lights on princi- pal public monuments and buildings in March 2011. n The “Santiago Recycles” solid waste management program was studied and car- ried out in 2010 and 2011, seeking—among other objectives—to identify waste treat- ment alternatives that avoid sanitary landfill use, a principal source of methane. n City limits were expanded by 10,000 hectares of which 3000 will be reserved as greenspaces, calling for 200,000 new trees to be planted in the next twenty years. n Chile’s ongoing “Change Your Truck” program offers subsidies to owners of obso- lete trucks, allowing them to make efficiency improvements. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Biodiversity vulnerability studies were undertaken and determined that Chile’s cen- tral region—due to the dynamism of its ecosystems, and which includes Santiago—will be the site of the greatest vegetation-related changes. n Adaptation measures for the agricultural and forestry sectors were identified; fruit trees in agricultural areas surrounding Santiago exhibit the greatest vulnerabilities. n Water resource vulnerabilities were identified, indicating that the Maipo Valley— principal source of the city’s water supply—will exhibit severe shortages (between 30% and 50%) by the end of the century. n Erosion-process vulnerability for 2020 was assessed; potential losses could be as much as 100 metric tons per hectare annually. n Mechanisms in support of climate change adaptation/mitigation technologies development, transference and adoption—aimed at Chilean business entities including those in Santiago—have been applied at the pre-investment and investment stages.
  • 31. 60 61 F I R ST ANNUAL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Kaohsiung, Chinese Taipei Mayor Chen Chu Population 2.77 million Territorial Extension 2986.1 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Kaohsiung actively supports an enhanced mobility network that allows citizens to walk, bike, use buses and subways and in general depend less on motorcycles and pri- vate automobiles. n The use of hybrid/electric cars is also supported. n The city subsidizes solar photovoltaic installations, solar water heaters, lique- fied petroleum gas vehicles and motorcycle upgrades. n Tied to green building subsidies, the city maintains a green building accreditation system. n Kaohsiung promotes an Energy Service Company system that helps communities and industries improve energy efficiencies. n The city’s green building standards and accreditation system certifies buildings in compliance with standards related to biodiversity, greenery, rainwater conservation, energy conservation, carbon reduction, waste reduction, indoor environments, water resources and sewage/waste management improvements. n A city-brokered Integrated Energy and Resource Project involves ten industries and encourages them to reuse energy and heat harvested from waste. n The city’s “solar roof project” encourages citizens to lease their roofs to energy com- panies for the installation of photovoltaic cells. n Its Building Energy-Manager System seeks to decrease building carbon emissions through more efficient systems and enhanced resource management/use. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n In response to increased rainfall and flooding—as well as stresses to the water provi- sion system—Kaohsiung has developed a regional adaptation strategy that includes a model water reclamation plant as well as sewage treatment plants equipped with recycling systems that repurpose reclaimed water for industrial use. The strategy also decreases vulnerability to increasingly frequent drought episodes. n The city has made a renewed commitment to effective integrated drainage sys- tem management. n Rivers have been dredged for intense rainfall- induced flood prevention. n Comprehensive soil and water conserva- tion strategies have been adopted to abate and mitigate landslides. n Disaster response protocols including a warning system, emergency rescue system, refugee resettlement protocol and disaster- avoidance system have been enacted. n The city’s “Adaptation Policy-Making Project for Climate Change in Kaohsiung” project seeks to reduce anticipated climate change effects on city security and development and will consider water resource management, urban flood preven- tion, coastal management, eco-system conservation, landslide control, public sanitation measures, fisheries re- source management and social economy. n The city will government will assess fees to local businesses whose revenues will be devoted to adaptation strategies. Chinese Taipei 2009 World Game Main Stadium.This stadium is notable for its eco-friendliness: the solar panels on the stadium roof generate 1.14 million kWh of electricity per year, thus reducing 660 tons of annual carbon dioxide output. In addition, all the raw materials used in the main stadium are 100% reusable and made in Taiwan.
  • 32. 62 63 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact costa rica San Jose, Costa Rica Mayor Johnny Araya Monge Population 350,000 (1.3 million metropolitan area) Territorial Extension 44.62 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n As the largest greenhouse gas producer in Costa Rica—a nation whose president pledged that it would be carbon-neutral by its 2021 bicentennial—San José takes an integrated approach to climate change mitigation that includes environmental mea- sures as well as considerations such as city planning, urban renewal and public transportation. n 2011 marks the beginning of a strategic environmental management plan that will be in effect until 2016. n Public universities have become centers for municipal air pollution monitoring. Data gathered will inform future mitigation measures. n Accords have been reached with local industry to regulate the release of green- house gases into the atmosphere. n The city will plant 50,000 trees throughout the urban area in order to absorb CO2, maintain the urban ecosystem, regulate water cycles, fortify soils and reduce city tem- peratures. The trees will be planted in riverside urban greenspaces, biological corridors and along city streets. n San José’s urban planning guidelines will propose a new, sustainable paradigm for the city, to include high-density, mixed-use development; reduced private vehicle traffic; and a halt to development in nearby rural and protected areas. n An integrated, multi-modal transportation grid, focused on sectors and critical tasks—and united along a non-polluting streetcar corridor—will replace the city’s obso- lete “hub-and-spoke” transportation model. n Public parks, boulevards and other public spaces will be constructed or rehabilitated as a means of returning spaces dominated by automobiles to human beings, thereby encouraging pedestrian mobility. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Climate change has become an overarching consideration in city management, especially as part of its Urban Master Plan as well as City Development Plan for the next five years. n San José has undertaken hydraulic infrastructure upgrades to reduce damage aris- ing from an increasing incidence of flooding and landslides. n In partnership with other public and private entities, the city takes a leadership role in extensive disaster-prevention education and outreach activities aimed at the public at large.
  • 33. 64 65 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Cuenca, Ecuador Mayor Paúl Granda López Population 505,585 Territorial Extension 332,000 hectares Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $2,440,712 USD *Exchange rate as of November 2011. ecuador MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Cuenca has undertaken technical and feasibility studies in order to implement a large- scale public transportation system. n Environmental monitoring systems have been implemented. n Environmental best-practices guidelines have been devised for a number of local activi- ties and have been accepted by the principal players in their respective sectors. n 1444 metric tons of separated inorganic garbage have been recycled. n The city has planted 7863 trees and 3227 shrubs in public greenspaces as well as within and without city educational centers. n Cuenca’s VIA VIVA project provides a 4.5 urban parkway, off-limits to motor vehicles, designed to promote and expand bicycle use. n Educational activities at local high schools and other community entities instruct cy- clists on proper in-city bike usage. n Non-motorized mobility events promote bicycle use. n The city has developed 19 Kms of pedestrian/cyclist paths that include horizontal and vertical signage. n The 2009 Emissions Inventory has been updated to inform, adjust and redefine the city’s climate change agenda. n An automated air-quality measurement station has been inaugurated, offering real- time information on climatic conditions. n The city’s Development and Territorial Ordering Plan identifies key zones for environ- mental rehabilitation, including areas where commercial and residential activities do not comply with municipal zoning guidelines. n Non-native tree species will be replaced by endemic, sustainable varieties. n The municipal risk-management authority participated in reforestation activities for landslide-affected communities. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city has created urban and rural environmental commit- tees designed to support ecological clubs and facilitate the provision of educational materials to rural communities. n 11,844.58 hectares of forest reserve have been declared in order to protect water resources. n The city implements risk-management studies and measures including sewer cleaning, landslide stabilization techniques and underground water discovery activities designed to avoid landslides. n Risk zones have been identified in relation to floods, landslides and water shortages. n The municipal Development and Territorial Ordering Plan informs soil-use and permit- ted development policy.
  • 34. 66 67 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Quito, Ecuador Municipality of the Metropolitan District of Quito Mayor Augusto Barrera Population 1,607,734 Territorial Extension 372 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $180,000,000 USD *Exchange rate as of November 2011. ecuador MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Quito is developing a rigorous and sustainable public/private transportation sys- tem that includes such measures as dedicated-lane metrobus corridors; 80 new articulat- ed buses; a final phase of planning for the city’s subway system; weekly restricted private auto circulation based on license plate numbers; and obligatory vehicle inspections that reduce emissions and enhance road safety. n The city maintains an advanced policy for solid waste management that includes separated garbage collection for businesses, methane capture at landfills, new solid waste management legislation and oversight agencies, as well as community involve- ment. n Quito is committed to energy efficiency and alternative energy sources, as mani- fested in such measures as solar heating for new public housing and municipal pools; photovoltaic panels at public transport stops; and a large-scale feasibility study regarding photovoltaic energy for the entirety of the municipal government. n The city’s “Eco-Office” project calls for responsible resource consumption in all municipal offices. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Quito maintains an integrated disaster-management system whose achievements have included relocating 1500 at-risk or displaced families. n The city continues to expand its system of protected natural areas, including the creation of two new areas totaling over 30,000 hectares. Additionally it seeks protected status for five more such areas. A new 12,000-hectare public park is in its final construc- tion stages. n In conjunction with 105 additional entities, Quito has planted 480,763 trees. n 64,369 hectares of potable water reservoirs are managed and maintained. n The city’s “Green Network”—a system of green, tree-laden corridors connecting city parks—continues to expand and develop. n 1800 m2 of green roofs have been installed on nine municipal buildings. n The Pita Puengasí water provision system— responsible for some 30% of the city’s total supply—has implemented a climate change adaptation plan. n Plateau areas have been acquired for en- hanced drinking water provision. n Local river clean-up projects are in their final bidding phases. n Best environmental practices education programs are carried out in local primary and secondary schools. n The Casa Ecológica Mediagua ecological learn- ing center has been established for children and young people at the city’s water museum. n City-sponsored environmental outreach, education and awareness activities have included a National Young Peoples’ Climate Change Convention, which produced a Youth Commitment and Action Plan and a subsequent “Quito Youth Against Climate Change” program involv- ing 1200 students, 15 secondary schools, three NGOs and one university, designed to encourage and support youth participation in climate change policy, planning and local activities. n A first for any city in the world, Quito organized a national climate change sum- mit involving municipal authorities from all across Ecuador in order to draft the “Quito Climate Pact,” an accord that creates a single Ecuadorian registry of municipal climate change mitigation and adaptation activities.
  • 35. 68 69 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact el salvador Santa Ana, El Salvador Mayor Francisco Polanco Estrada Population 350,000 Territorial Extension 400.1 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $2,295,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Major public transportation lines have been rerouted to increase efficiencies and reduce fuel consumption while providing enhanced service to passengers. n Open landfills have been closed and upgraded to prevent rainfall seepage and consequent greenhouse gas production. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Reforestation projects have been planned and will be carried out on former coffee fields. Appropriate hardwood species are to be planted; ground cover will reduce runoff and prevent flooding in certain city areas.
  • 36. 70 71 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Brest Métropole Océane, France Mayor François Cuillandre Population 214,504 Territorial Extension 22,000 hectares Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment € 2,256,000 /$3,104,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Brest’s Climate Plan calls for improvements in mobility and public transportation, overall housing stock and infrastructure, energy efficiency, renewable energy produc- tion/distribution via heat capture and cogeneration, sustainable lifestyle outreach and education efforts, and cross-community engagement with sensible/efficient energy use. n Concrete plan actions include or will include - The city’s first streetcar line - A management and control scheme for the heat network - Photovoltaic installations in two municipal buildings - In-school energy efficiency awareness programs - Energy-provision studies for commercial development zones - An energy efficient public lighting program - Support for car-pooling programs - Complete energy efficiency overhaul of a local school. france
  • 37. 72 73 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact france Plaine Commune Region, France (encompassing the cities of Saint-Denis, Pierrefitte, L’Île-Saint-Denis, Epinay, La Courneuve, Stains, Villetaneuse and Aubervilliers) President Patrick Braouezec Population 353,791 Territorial Extension 42.7 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The community partnership is currently drafting its Climate Change Action Plan that establishes climate-change related goals and provides for their financing. It features 100 proposals designed to reduce greenhouse emissions, conserve energy, etc. n The community unanimously adopted its Territorial Climate and Energy plan in March, designed to promote and reinforce the regional commitment to greenhouse gas and energy-use reductions. n The community environmental strategy will be carried out in a serious, efficient, unified, responsible, preventive and adaptive manner, via four principal tactics: exemplary government conduct, associative dynamism, shared participation, and a coherent public policy commitment to relevant social, environmental and economic considerations. n To date 28 (of a total of 77) actions have been undertaken and five successfully completed. n Enhanced, energy-efficient public lighting is to be financed and installed. n A future local energy authority is to be created and charged with major decision- making power, as a means of multiplying actions and creating a regional forum for energy and renewable-energy-related promotion and study.
  • 38. 74 75 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Nantes Métropole, France Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault Population 580,000 Territorial Extension 523.5 km2 france MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Ongoing education and outreach efforts have expanded citizen awareness of cli- mate change issues. n The city established an environmental hotline to help citizens find concrete solutions to reduce their carbon footprints and environmental impacts through changes in habit and public transportation use. n City-sponsored climate advisors assist high-energy-consumption entities to adopt upgraded energy approaches. n The city plans to build nearly 5000 low-energy-consumption housing units yearly. Units include passive energy savings and solar water heating. n The city has made a significant investment in its suburban cycling program, with a goal of 20% cycle use by 2030. Projects include safer lanes and secure bicycle park- ing. Subsidies for bike-related parking, electric bicycle acquisition and shared public bike systems will be provided. n Nantes seeks to lead by example and will reduce emissions throughout municipal operations: wastewater reuse at city processing plants, biogas cogeneration, solar energy for heating and lighting requirements, etc. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Climate change has led to the execution of a flooding-risk assessment map for the Loire estuary area, to update thinking on flood-related challenges and threats. n Nantes partners with a local research insti- tute to study the role of plant life in the urban ecology, specifically as related to cli- matology, hydrology and energy management. Focus areas include urban plant typologies, impact modeling, climate evaluation in relation to urban plants and plants’ perceptive/social impacts. n Nantes has created an experimental tool to identify future adaptation measures in public policy related to Biodiversity ; Environ- ment ; Water Resources ; Natural Risks, Health ; Agriculture – Forestry – Fishing, Energy ; Transport Networks and Infrastructures; Tourism and Population Movements ; Habitat, Urbanism and the Built Framework ; Financing and Insurance; Governance ; Population – Information - Education, Services-Research ; Regulation Adaptation; Crisis Management and Organizational Resilience. n The city is undertaking a climate-related risk study to inform its adaptation strate- gies. Climate data, the physical situation of the urban zone and adaptation capabilities assessments are key considerations in a diagnosis of vulnerabilities until 2050.
  • 39. 76 77 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Orleans, France Mayor Grouard Serge Population 113,257 Territorial Extension 27.48 km2 france MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n A greenhouse gas emissions diagnosis was completed in 2010 and its findings will inform a Regional Action Plan that will allow the city to achieve its 20% by 2020 reduc- tion goal, a savings of 120,000 metric tons of CO2-equivalents. n Heat networks will be migrated to biogas consumption by 2015, reducing regional emissions by 11%. Infrastructure implementation began in 2011. n A large-scale roof improvement program has been started by the city to increase citizen awareness and reduce heat/energy loss through local roofs. Current plans call for 500 roof upgrades as well as accelerated rates in upcoming years. n A high-speed rail corridor is in its planning phases. n The city added a second streetcar line, reorganized its bus system and encour- ages bicycle and electric vehicle use. n Infrastructure improvements to municipal installations for energy savings will be carried out through 2014. n Public pool renovations upgraded its energy efficiency rating from D to B. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Regional programs have fostered significant water use reductions since 2005. n Increased flooding threats have lead to citywide preparedness drills and simulated evacuations. n The city’s Biodiversity Plan seeks to reinforce adaption strategies for local fish and insect species as a means of strengthening local greenspace resistance. n A citywide public and private tree census is to be undertaken, to inform protection policies. n The city publishes a forestation “best-prac- tices” guide for citizens. n City advisory policies and codes encourage increased migration to green roofs and walls. n A zero-pesticides policy promotes differentiated management, biological protec- tions, street environment renovations, preserves water resources and enhances human, plant and animal health.
  • 40. 78 79 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Paris, France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë Population 2,225,000 Territorial Extension 105 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n In accord with Paris’s Climate Action Plan, Paris pledges to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions by 25%—and municipal government emissions by 30%—by 2020. n The city awarded contracts for public lighting efficiency programs that will conserve 50 GWh in fewer than ten years; 100 in-school retrofits will provide a 2000 metric-ton CO2 savings. n 4500 heavy-duty thermal renovations will save 9000 metric tons of CO2. n Streetcar lines were expanded. n “Waterbus” public river transportation feasibility studies were undertaken. n Renewable energy efforts included ongoing support of solar and geothermal en- ergy installations as well as water recapture at a city school. n The city joined with the Île-de-France area to form a regional environmental authority. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n In collaboration with other national and international authorities, Paris undertaking a risk-assessment and -analysis of urban heat islands. n 3.5 hectares of new greenspace have been inaugurated. A total of 30 hectares will be cre- ated by 2014. n The city adopted a biodiversity preser- vation and strengthening plan in November 2011. france inauguration de logements sociaux. Planchat Vignoles 28 rue Terre-Neuve, 2008/10/06. Bertrand Delanoë,Architecte Edouard François. Photographe: Henri Garat. Inauguration de logements sociaux 74 rue saint-Antoine Planchat Vignoles 28 rue Terre-Neuve, 2008/10/06. Bertrand Delanoë rondissement Photographe:Anne Thomes
  • 41. 80 81 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Kyoto, Japan Mayor Daisaku Kadokawa Population 1.47 million Territorial Extension 827.9 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment ¥ 452 million/$5,792,410 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Kyoto strengthened its “City Ordinance on Global Warming Countermeasures” in 2010, setting a goal of a 25% greenhouse emissions reduction by 2020 and a 40% reduction by 2040, based on 1990 levels. n The “Do You Kyoto?” carbon credit scheme allows small and medium business to acquire carbon offset credits passed on to larger, more polluting industries. Credits pro- duced in Kyoto are used in Kyoto. Proceeds from larger industries are returned to small and medium business development projects. n Kyoto sponsors environmental education at local schools: the place where today’s families and tomorrow’s citizens will create a low-carbon society. Sessions include mentor workshops where participating families receive energy-saving kits for domestic use and education, home-visits for energy-savings assessment and general guidance. n The city encourages and supports the implementation of community-generated ex- perimental energy-conservation projects. japan
  • 42. 82 83 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Nagoya, Japan Mayor Takashi Kawamura Population 2,266,517 Territorial Extension 326.43 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The latest verified numbers demonstrate that Nagoya’s greenhouse gas emissions have been reduced by 11% over 1990 figures. n For residents, the city subsidizes home-use solar and thermal power systems and encourages citizens to gauge and reduce their carbon footprints using a munici- pally provided “Eco-Life Ruler” that quickly measures a household’s emissions in com- parison to those of other families. n Recent commercial emissions output reductions of some 430,000 metric tons have been supported by city programs that partner with big business and that have offered nearly 2000 one-on-one assessment and counseling visits to small and medium- sized businesses. The city also publishes extensive literature on energy-saving techniques. n Eco-friendly driving habits and reduced vehicular emissions are encouraged through the “Eco Drivemasters” program, which helps businesses train employees in environmental best practices. To date, more that 2500 drivers have been designated as “masters.” n Nagoya’s “Tactical Plan for a Low-Carbon City”—a concrete action plan to be in effect until 2020—is currently being completed, as first phase of planning that will extend to 2050. Scholars, residents, businesses and NPOs will all contribute to the plan’s directives regarding the creation of the low-carbon city, increased use of natural energy, etc. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Rainwater osmosis via recapture sys- tems has reduced flooding, sewer accumu- lation and runoff. Construction of advanced rainwater osmosis facilities continues to be undertaken. n The city actively abates greenspace loss and increases green area coverage via its “Area Greenification System,” reducing the heat island effect and enhancing citizen quality of life. A first for Japan, it establishes minimum-percent- age greenspace requirements on new-plot construc- tion above certain dimensions. As of March 2011, 695.6 hectares of green area had been created, bringing the city’s greenification rate to 14.9% n The city supports continuing environmental education via more than 100 classroom courses as well as fieldwork op- portunities in local natural environments. japan
  • 43. 84 85 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 mexico Aguascalientes, Mexico Mayor Lorena Martínez Rodríguez Population 797,010 Territorial Extension 960.5 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $439,158,858 MXN/$32,264,772 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. n An Integrated Solid Waste Management System increases citizen participation through education/outreach efforts and events, helping foster a culture of reduced waste, materials reuse, responsible consumption and garbage separation. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The Línea Morada (“Purple Line”) Program rehabilitates wastewater treatment plants and drainage systems to reduce scarcity and aquifer depletion, as well as diminish electricity and con- sumer, commercial and industrial water consump- tion, enhancing water availability for city greenspaces. Rehabilitation of the Vistas de Oriente plant will provide sufficient water for the Línea Verde Greenbelt’s first two de- velopment phases. n A Municipal Territory Ecological Organizational Plan regulates soil use and commercial activity throughout the city via a natural resources and biodiversity management charter whose directives are ordered by considerations of environmental suitability, quality and vulnerability. n The city’s Integrated and Sustainable Water-Use Program assures adequate provi- sion through sustainable reclaiming and reuse measures and re-posits water’s real value in agricultural, domestic and industrial environments. n The Urban Infrastructure Climate Change Adaptation Program alters city codes to foster enhanced thermal balance and resource conservation in new-home construc- tion, with a focus on improved ventilation, natural lighting, solar water heating, gray- water reuse and low-energy lighting, among other technologies. n A Municipal Environmental Risk Atlas establishes response protocols to biodiversity and social wellness threats, along with strategies for reducing drought-related ecological and human costs. n Urban Solid Waste Separation is promoted via all appropriate media and requires organic/inorganic separation in residences, offices, public spaces, markets, schools, busi- nesses and government offices, etc. n A green roof has been installed above city offices, reducing urban heat concentration and providing energy savings, along with notable aesthetic benefits. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n A first in its category, the Línea Verde Greenspace is a 15 km-long, 50-hectare park designed to enhance environmental and social conditions along the city’s east side. Phase 1 created a 11-hectare space of which 6.5 are dedicated greenspaces that call for plant- ing grasses, shrubs, herbaceous species and 1300 new trees drawn from 19 local species, expected to reach over 4 meters high each. n The city’s forestation and reforestation program improved climatic conditions via the cultivation of 300,000 plants placed in urban and semi-urban areas. All species are appropriate to local environmental conditions, and destined for 100 hectares of both urban and natural areas. n The Municipal Climate Action Plan defined and drove mitigation/adaptation ac- tions to improve community health and reverse environmental/ecosystem degradation in Aguascalientes. n Natural Conservation Priority Areas were identified in order to conserve natural environments throughout the city’s different bio-geographical and ecological regions, particularly fragile ecosystems, to assure environmental balance as well as ongoing green program continuity. n The “En Auto No Contamines” (“Don’t Pollute When You Drive”) Program reduces greenhouse emissions and atmospheric pollutants in city-owned vehicles through inspec- tion and certification norms. n Landfill biogas recapture programs reduce harmful gas emissions at the city’s Cum- bres and San Nicolás landfills. Methane is captured and reused for energy production. n The Non-Polluting Vehicles program reduces overall motor vehicle numbers through bicycle-use promotion including road-sharing activities, appropriate infrastructure up- grades and bike paths. n The city initiated a Street Lighting Modernization and Energy-Savings Program that will switch current 150-watt sodium vapor lighting to improved 100-watt metallic additive technologies, providing a 33% energy savings. n Improvements to the Municipal Vehicle Fleet Parking Area reduced atmospheric pollutants. n A Municipal Integrated Environmental Management Plan reduced negative im- pacts on the part of city employees and service providers via an integrated solid waste management program focused on reduce, reuse and recycle principles, as well as en- hanced “green” supplies procurement. n The city’s Forest Fire Reduction Program prevents CO2 release as well as biodiversity loss through prevention and first-response actions that reduce burn extension. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact
  • 44. 86 87 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact mexico Chetumal, Quintana Roo Mexico Mayor Carlos Mario Villanueva Tenoriox Population 222,000 Territorial Extension 11,600 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Chetumal has resolved to the be the first city in the world to convert its entire public lighting stock, both in town and in rural areas, to energy-saving LED bulbs. The conver- sion will save 29,218,980 watts yearly, the equivalent of removing nearly 40,000 cars from the road for ten years. n The city’s Urban Development and Environment Department continues a wide-rang- ing reforestation program including activities such as enhanced emphasis on planting local species and reforesting public parks and greenspaces, schools, etc. n Enhancements to the 7.27-hectare Zazil ecological park will conserve local plant species and create new wildlife habitats. n Strict controls for cutting down trees have been imposed. n Citizen environmental complaints are being actively investigated and resolved. n Soil-use and zoning regulations now dictate required greenspace percentages. Densely populated areas must maintain 25% of total space free for greenspace, residen- tial areas require 65%. n Original vegetation and physical features must be maintained in new subdivisions. n Wide roadway medians allow for preservation of middle-aged and mature native- species trees for increased CO2 capture and reduced horticultural investment. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Risk diagnoses have been carried out at establishments that produce large quantities of solid wastes, indicating pollution mitigation steps to be taken. n The city sponsors education and outreach efforts focused on environmental preser- vation and protection via in-classroom workshops, monthly bulletins and public triptych advertising. n Based on increasingly strong rains, droughts, forest fires and more frequent hurricane events, the city recognizes the critical nature of sustainable climate change adapta- tions and is additionally committed to increased citizen participation. n Agreements with the World Bank will provide in Chetumal.
  • 45. 88 89 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact mexico Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico Mayor Marco Adán Quezada Martínez Population 819,543 Territorial Extension 9219.33 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $208,477,000.00/ MXN/$15,213,528 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city established the Guardián Ecológico program, which has redoubled compli- ance, vigilance and enforcement efforts, including an empowered inspection team, citi- zen complaint protocols, and updated environmental guidelines for critical urban zones, natural areas, and water resources. Citizen reception has been positive. n The city is carrying out plans and implementing first-stage improvements for a sus- tainable public transport system. Innovations include a 20 Km + central transporta- tion corridor featuring dedicated bus lanes fed by 19 secondary bus routes. n The new corridor will create jobs and increased efficiencies will reduce green- house gas emissions, particularly from the city bus fleet. n The city has undertaken feasibility studies to determine how best to incentivize citizens and businesses to implement energy-saving technologies. n LED lighting is to be installed in all new developments. n An up-to-five-year incentive is offered to citizens who install solar-water heating systems. n The city will subsidize wastewater recapture and reuse systems in new subdivisions. n Chihuahua is on its way to achieving its goal of 80,000 new trees planted. n The city has actively partnered with leading private-sector entities to participate in federal programs that help businesses increase competitiveness through environmental upgrades and energy savings. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n A recent freeze killed 22,000 trees. As part of the city’s overall reforestation plan, they will be replaced with endemic species better able to resist local climate extremes. Some 9000 trees have been replaced to date.
  • 46. 90 91 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact n Cuatro Ciénegas has initiated a number of water-conservation projects involving awareness efforts and infrastructure up- grades. n Infrastructure upgrades—especially in the case of irrigation systems—will include covering principal canals, installation of pres- surized irrigation systems, etc. Once opera- tional, the upgrades will increase water distri- bution efficiency from 60% to 95%; per-parcel application efficiency will increase from 53% to 75%. n Water savings will be used to restore area wetlands previously diminished by drought, reducing temperatures and supporting local flora and fauna habitats. The project is currently 40% complete, as is restoration of the Garabatal River. Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico Mayor Santos Garza Herrera Population 13,013 Territorial Extension 7860.6 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Cuatro Ciénegas initiated its Symbio-Ecological Induced Biodegradation Program (acronym in Spanish: BISE M-10) to reduce pollutants and enhance public health in city areas near a local slaughterhouse. Animal blood, feces, fat, etc. are disinfected and sprayed with harmless biodegradation elements in preparation for a six-month compost- ing process whose end product is organic fertilizer. Liquid slaughterhouse wastes are processed and repurposed for watering area greenspaces. n As a result of BISE M-10 (see note above), slaughterhouse methane and CO2 pro- duction has been reduced by 70%; water consumption is down 50%; odors and vermin have been remarkably reduced. Health boons include safer working conditions, enhanced food safety and the creation of new greenspaces throughout the city. n A strategic plan has been established for the construction and operation of a new integrated solid wastes treatment center to replace the city’s previous open landfill. Biogas will be captured at the new facility, reducing greenhouse gas emissions; additional benefits include reduced vermin and leachates as well as enhanced public health. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The design for a new wastewater treatment plant to replace the current system of open, untreated wastewater reservoirs was begun in June 2010. New technologies will allow for water reuse in greenspaces and agricultural areas; mitigate wastewater infiltra- tion into local aquifers; the resultant treated water will become the foundation for the city’s first municipal plant nursery. n These more plentiful, yet sustainable, water supplies support agricultural produc- tion even in times of drought. mexico
  • 47. 92 93 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact mexico Mexico City, Mexico Mayor Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon Population 8.8 million Territorial Extension 1,484 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $2,860,508,844 MXN / $220,039,141 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n 745 government-supported housing units have been constructed featuring 1,042 m2 of solar-energy collecting roofs. As a result, greenhouse emissions have been reduced by 441 tons. n Businesses employing more than 51 individuals must incorporate solar-powered water heating systems for the provision of at least 30% of their annual energy consumption. n The Ecobici public bicycle system has been a resounding success, offering public shared bicycles for short hauls and intermodal transportation. The system incorporates 1200 bicycles, 90 stations and more than 35,000 registered users for a total of 2,286,766 trips in the period covered by this report. n The Metrobus Rapid Transit System (BRT) has replaced obsolete mid- to low-ca- pacity buses for high-capacity, cutting edge technology models. A new 17 Km line was inaugurated featuring 54 new articulated bus vehicles and an initial demand of 120,000 riders daily. n 1,632 obsolete and inefficient taxis have been replaced via a program that pro- vides financial support to drivers, motivating voluntary participation. n The “Lázaro Cárdenas Zero-Emissions Corridor” renovated dedicated-lane trolley- bus infrastructure and added established stops. The 36.6 Km corridor serves 39 neigh- borhoods and 87,000 passengers daily. Its 120 electric trolleybuses reduce emissions by 8280 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. n The “Eje 2-2A Sur Zero-Emissions Corridor” features 30 trolleybuses along a 19 Km corridor serving 30,000 passengers daily. It reduced CO2-equivalent emissions by 3376 tons in 2011. n High-capacity, energy-efficient buses have replaced 325 low-capacity, polluting, un- safe and obsolete mini-buses, reducing emissions by 752 metric tons of CO2 equivalent. n The city has begun operating hybrid and natural gas buses in public transpor- tation systems and has received its first electric automobiles, which will be fueled at Latin America’s first photovoltaic charging stations. 100 electric vehicles are to be in operation by 2012. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Mexico City’s climate change observatory provides real-time information on weather phenomena and greenhouse gases that contribute to world climate change. The obser- vatory’s Chapultepec Park location has received 214,918 visitors. n The city’s Virtual Climate Change Center (VCCC) provides expert data and technical assistance to government agencies, and has devised climate change scenarios for the city corresponding to 2020 and 2050. The VCCC receives technical and other supports from the Mexico City In- stitute for Science and Technology and the National Autonomous University of Mexico’s Atmospheric Sciences Center. n The city’s Central Mexico Heirloom Corn Protection Program promotes agri- cultural species diversity, particularly in corn, amaranth and prickly pear cactus, as well as supporting ongoing agrosystem adaptations. n City programs in support of ecological ser- vices conservation in community ecological reserves involve 13,521 hectares of natural areas within the city, benefitting 16 agricultural nuclei that are the areas’ stewards. Sixteen community brigades have been formed to strengthen protection/conservation efforts and increase community participation. n The “Re-Green Your City” reforestation program is the largest greenspace rescue program in the city’s history. To date, 213 citizen committees have planted 232,748 trees, shrubs, groundcover and ornamental plants, helping mitigate local flooding and reduce the urban “heat island.”
  • 48. 94 95 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Naucalpan de Juárez, Estado de México, Mexico Mayor María Otilia Olivares Villagómez Population 833,779 Territorial Extension 155.7 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $114,724,061 MXN/$8,477,871.61 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n 40,000 street lights were converted from 250 to 100-150 watt illumination, which resulted in the following emissions reductions: from 38,124 to 17,268 metric tons of CO2; from 2772 to 1260 metric tons of SO2; and from 1356 to 612 metric tons of NO2. n Reforestation campaigns planted more than 120,955 trees using advanced horticultural technologies and were carried out in conjunction with the public at large, schools, businesses, boy scouts, members of civil society, NGOs and the Mexican Army. Technological advances allowed for less tree attrition and enhanced planting-day ef- ficiencies. n Enhanced landfill supervision—overseeing the proper placement of several daily tons of solid waste and designed to facilitate the ultimate capture of biogas for energy generation—was carried out. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The following local ravines were cleared of debris: Camino a las Minas (6496 cubic meters of material removed); Honda Par-Vial (22,344 cubic meters of material removed); Peine San José de los Leones (5054 cubic meters of material removed); Arroyo San Mateo (49,672 cubic meters of material removed); and Andador Azucena (4074 cubic meters of material removed). n Citizen education efforts were carried out in support of urban tree stock, tak- ing on such issues as proper pruning and care to avoid danger; easy-to-grow species identification by soil and urban environment type; and the benefits, particularly atmo- spheric, offered by abundant tree populations. n Awareness campaigns were directed at all sectors of the Naucalpan population via informative workshops and events emphasizing sustainability and recycling, largely in the city’s primary and intermediate schools. The importance of separating garbage and the legal strictures governing the practice were also presented. n Battery and tire recycling programs were enacted, leading to the proper isolation of over 14,700 kg of toxic waste. mexico Before After
  • 49. 96 97 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact mexico Puebla, Puebla, Mexico Mayor Eduardo Rivera Pérez Population 1, 539, 859 Territorial Extension 542.31 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $319,717,814 MXN/$23,700,269 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Puebla created a municipal Ministry of the Environment and Public Services. n A local landfill has been equipped for biogas extraction. n In conjunction with state authorities, Puebla inaugurated construction of its first ded- icated-lane metrobus line. n Feasibility studies undertaken for the construction of a new solid waste treatment center. n Legislation has been proposed requiring new residential construction incorporate hy- brid solar/gas technologies. n Reforestation programs planted 15,297 trees throughout the city. n The city carried out 1603 environmental code violation investigations. n 450,000 trees will be cultivated at the municipal nursery for urban reforestation. n The city received 70,000 trees through donations from a number of public entities. n Puebla has designated 6482.66 hectares as Protected Natural Areas. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city has cleared and dredged three criti- cal regulating basins. n Municipal Civil Protection Authorities have established emergency notification proto- cols for at-risk zones. n Ongoing disaster drills continue to be supported. n 200 new streets have been paved; an- other 800 are scheduled to be paved. n Puebla sponsors a municipal “Environmental Culture Promotion” program featuring work- shops on reforestation, local birds, reuse strategies, urban tree management, energy conservation, etc. Presentations have reached 5699 participants. n Major streets are closed to vehicular traffic on Sundays and given over to cyclist use. n The city offers tree management workshops for the certification of municipal contractors. n UN Development Council experts have conducted solar water heater legislation work- shops. n Puebla has established temporary work programs, recruiting personnel from five lo- cal communities, to provide greenspace-rescue, soil-restoration, planting and park- maintenance services (among others). n 33 public, private and citizen entities have solicited Greenspace Adoption conces- sions. n Eighteen local riverbeds have been cleaned and replanted. n Protected Area management plans have been adopted. n The city’s “Don’t Throw it on the Floor” program encourages garbage separation. n Officials from the Mexico City municipal government presented workshops for the implementation of city programs supporting environmentally friendly procurement and paper/energy conservation in city offices.
  • 50. 98 99 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact mexico Tepetlaoxtoc, Estado de México Mexico Mayor Amado Islas Espejel Population 27,944 Territorial Extension 172.38 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $439,158,858 MXN/$32,264,772 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. Villa de Zaachila, Oaxaca Mexico Mayor Adán López Santiago Population 22,000 Territorial Extension 54.86 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Tepetlaoxtoc has implemented its first-ever environmental protection statutes. n The city is actively pursuing reforms in solid waste management, including the closure of a clandestine landfill previously tolerated by city officials, which had gravely polluted a nearby river and constituted an eyesore and health hazard. Solid waste is now deposited at a remote landfill; transportation and maintenance expenses are met by user pickup payments. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Zaachila has carried out a garbage-burning prevention awareness campaign. n Reforestation of communally-held and municipal lands will be undertaken. n Composting of organic waste materials collected at city parks. n The city cleaned and restored La Zanja Arroyo. n 5000 mango and walnut trees will be planted for 2012 Reforestation day. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n More environmentally friendly pavements were chosen for roads serving the Bar- rio de Guadalupe neighborhood. n Water-conservation awareness programs for schools and the public at large. n Reforestation campaigns continue to be sup- ported, with 27,000 local-species trees planted throughout the city and in nearby protected ar- eas. Citizen participation is supported through workshops and informative talks in schools and other public spaces. n Tepetlaoxtoc will host its second environ- mental fair.
  • 51. 100 101 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact new zeland Wellington, New Zealand Mayor Celia Wade-Brown Population 197,700 Territorial Extension 290 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $450,000+ NZD/$358,967+ USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Wellington’s target is to reduce emissions by 30% in 2020 and by 80% by 2050. n The goal of stabilizing emissions at 2001 levels has been achieved. n Wellington’s climate change efforts were recognized with the New Zealand 2011 Green Ribbon award for greenhouse gas reductions. n City programs foster household-energy and resource-use reduction through en- ergy retrofits and related projects in 1500 households annually, resulting in a 1-metric- ton-per-residence CO2-e savings. n Commercial energy reduction programs assist small and medium businesses in the identification and implementation of energy savings opportunities. n Wellington participates in the “Carbon War Room Program,” linking the business and finance sectors for emissions reduction. City officials recently discussed Wellington- specific options with program representatives. n Ongoing dialogue with building experts seeks to devise levers for driving energy- efficiency awareness and change in the commercial construction sector. n The city supports electrical vehicle use, coordinating a pilot program with local busi- nesses and setting up the city’s first electrical charging station. n Enhanced public transportation services and systems are to be carried out. n To date, city forests have provided Wellington with over 3500 carbon credits (valued at 83,000 NZD) and the city expects to earn as much as $500,000 NZD by January 2013 through committing other forests to carbon-sink schemes. n Ongoing efforts explore opportunities for planting on marginal land for pest control, increased biodiversity, enhanced recreation, and improved citywide carbon outcomes. n The city has devised a carbon management policy charged with looking at least-cost op- tions for acquiring carbon credits to be handed over to the government as part of waste sector emissions trading schemes. n Wellington is testing a microwave pyroly- sis system for sewage sludge disposal and energy generation. n GIS systems data analysis will enable the city to assess municipal fleet size and capabili- ties. n The city has promoted community engage- ment on climate change among a full range of stakeholders. n Greenhouse gas inventories have been updated as ref- erences for municipal government policy. n The city explores developments in clean-tech industries such as electric vehicle induction charging, marine energy testing, and generating energy from waste. n The city is developing an ongoing program of climate change actions to be in- cluded in long-term strategic planning.
  • 52. 102 103 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact peru Etén, Peru Mayor José Alejandro Ñiquen Sandoval Population 10, 673 Territorial Extension 84.78 km2 Santa Rosa, Peru Mayor Pablo Chegni Melgarejo Population 10,903 Territorial Extension 21.5 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment 15,000 nuevos soles/$5541 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Designed to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions, the city has created an Industrial Arts Park in anticipation of future economic growth which will be governed by strict environmental guidelines. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n City reforestation plans call for 1000 new planted areas, especially near local edu- cational facilities. n Runoff treatment facilities have been inaugurated to prevent river and ocean pol- lution. n The city will presently undertake environmen- tal and solid waste management education activities in support of garbage separation. n Area wetlands have been decontaminated and restored. n Refuse incineration is prohibited. n An integrated solid waste management plan has been elaborated. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Santa Rosa completed a Solid Waste Characterization study and Solid Waste Man- agement plan. n A garbage-separation plan is in place.
  • 53. 104 105 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Philippines Ligao, Philippines Mayor Linda P. González Population 101,179 Territorial Extension 24,640 hectares Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment Php313, 004,938 /$7,257,958 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Numerous reforms have led to environmental legislation calling for—among other norms—increased fishery management, regulations regarding livestock penning, a prohi- bition of open garbage burning and enhanced solid waste management. n Ongoing training for disaster risk-reduction, solid waste management and refor- estation is supported by the city. n Reforestation activities involve all sectors of society, from schoolchildren to seniors. To date, 324,745 trees have been planted as part of the program’s 75,000-annual-tree target. n Municipal installations have migrated to environmentally friendly lighting. n The city actively supports two municipal nurseries. n Ligao has undertaken an intense effort to sustain and improve its mangrove for- ests, through measures such as expansion, clean-up, etc. n The city pursues an integrated watershed ap- proach that protects forests, uplands, lands un- der cultivation, lowlands and coastal areas. n 295 hectares have been reforested at Mt. Masaraga. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n In uplands—a majority of city territory— Ligao promotes environmental conservation through across-slope planting, crop rotation, hill- side agricultural technologies and farm-village con- servation efforts including training in land manage- ment, vegetable production, etc. n A coastal resource management authority seeks sustain- able economic and social conditions for coastal communities, including a 153-hectare fish sanctuary and marine reserve. Ongoing underwater habitat assessment is carried out. n Ligao offers agricultural support training systems that allow farmers to intensify rice, corn and vegetable production. n The city promotes “home” gardens in schools and residences through its “Food Always in the Home” program. n Other agricultural programs include synchronized planting to break pest and dis- ease cycles, resistant/high-yield planting, organic farming through vermicomposting, and farm/animal wastes reuse. n Infrastructure enhancements have included flooding controls, improved drainage systems, solar crop dryers, the construction of a materials recovery facility, a new biodi- gestor and a new water-treatment facility.
  • 54. 106 107 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Lisbon, Portugal Mayor Dr. António Luis Santos Costa Population 489,562 (ap n area) Territorial Extension 84.6 km2 portugal MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTION n Lisbon installed 120 electric vehicle charging stations. n The city cut one hour from the schedule for lighting public monuments. n A more than € 1 million investment led to the construction of a bicycle and pedes- trian bridge connecting the city center to the city’s east side. n Studies leading to a new bicycle/pedestrian bridge to traverse existing highways was completed. n Lisbon refitted large portions of its central axis Duque d’Alba Avenue to create a car- free bicycle and pedestrian path. n The city offers a 10% property tax break on structures in compliance with A or A+ energy performance scores. n The Lisbon Master Plan for the next ten years has been approved and calls for 20% of the urban area (300 hectares) to be given over to greenspace. n As of 2011, solid waste production had been reduced by 7% (8000 metric tons). n A door-to-door recycling program has been instituted. n Two initial urban agricultural parks have been opened; eleven additional such parks will be created in the coming two years. n A plan for composting Lisbon’s Central Park will be completed and implemented in one year. n The majority of the city center has been declared a “reduced emissions area” for pre-EURO 1 standard vehicles. n A revised parking fee schedule creates three pricing levels, raising costs in the city center and encouraging high turnover. n A € 49.90 multi-modal monthly transit pass has been instituted which includes parking space, bus and subway access. n Local energy production units were installed in six schools and the municipal nursery. n 1420 traffic lights were converted to LED technology, leading to annual savings of 439 MWh (162 metric tons of carbon emissions). n Enhancements to street lighting will reduce municipal energy consumption by 791 MWh. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The recently approved Lisbon Master Plan for the next ten years calls for 20% more new greenspace and greenways (300 hectares) as well as enhanced permeability via green in- stallations on roofs and in back yards. n 12,889 trees will be planted over twelve months. n Two adult cycle training courses aimed at daily commuters have been carried out. n Three cycling promotion videos have been produced and broadcast. n At city offices, 22 September is “Bike to Work Day.” n “Bike-to-School” campaigns continue to be offered. n Ample bicycle parking has been added to markets and a 3000-employee municipal office. n A first area for lawn-alternative, Mediterranean context-adapted biodiverse pas- tures—requiring no water and featuring high CO2 and nitrogen capture rates—have been developed and installed.
  • 55. 108 109 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Oeiras, Portugal Mayor Isaltino Morais Population 172,063 Territorial Extension 45.8 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment € 989,90443/$1,363,289 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. portugal MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Oeiras advocates rational light vehicle use via three carpooling systems. n City buildings, facilities and equipment (except street lighting) are supported by en- ergy registration, monitoring and consumption systems. n 300 public housing units have received energy certification. n Street lighting enhancements—migration to LED and other more efficient bulbs, flow-regulators and new public lighting schedules in sparsely populated areas—will be carried out throughout the city. n Eco-driving training programs reached 95 students in 2011. n New development must comply with efficient public lighting standards. n Sustainable mobility plans will be established in conjunction with area office and tech industry parks. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Oneiras emphasizes greenspace manage- ment and reforestation. The city planted 1556 trees as part of its by-2017 target of 170,000 new trees planted. n Stipulations in the city’s master plan will rein- force its climate change resilience strategies. n All 9Km of city estuary front development will be required to introduce climate change scenarios that reduce erosion and other emer- gency risks. The amount of financial funds invested by Oeiras in climate action programs during 2011, was: Action Investment in 2011 SEAPO technical advice by the Environmental and Energy Municipal Agency of Oeiras 20.000,00€ Energy efficiency actions in Municipal Public Lighting 689.354,00€ Conservation of tree species 280.550,00€ Total 989.904,00€
  • 56. 110 111 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact rumania Pitesti, Rumania Mayor Tudor Pendiuc Population 180,000 Territorial Extension 5000 hectares Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment € 25,000,000/$ 34,397,365 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS: n Workshop participation: “Local Authority Actions for Reducing and Adapting to Climate Change (Bucharest, 2009); “The Cities of the Future: Towards Low Carbon Emis- sions” (Brasov, 2009). n The “Pitesti Post-Accession Strategy” plan charts out city development including criti- cal sustainable-growth projects. n The regional environmental protection agency inventories CO2 emissions at appli- cable local entities and imposes fines on non-compliant agents. n City-center traffic pollution is monitored and controlled by an emissions center established at Constantin Brancoveanu University. n Sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions have been reduced due to voluntary industrial upgrade investments, migration from diesel fuels and methane utilization for heating purposes. n A cross-city Green Corridor is to be cre- ated featuring more efficient traffic manage- ment, a 24.75-hectare park that creates a rec- reational barrier with the city’s most congested areas, urban renewal activities, environmen- tally-friendly parking featuring reforestation and interior greenspaces, solar heating for an Olympic-sized pool, thermally rehabilitated housing and integrated solid waste manage- ment. Arges is a county of Romania, in Walla- chia, with the capital city at Pitesti the second most important city in the southern region of Romania and a knot in the national roads net- work . In Arges County, in 2008, the situation of greenhouse gas emissions compared to years 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 is presented in the table below: No Greenhouse gases Emissions (tons/year) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1. Carbon dioxide 5.671.371,68 11.692.939,9 18.772.298,7 2.997.367,9 2.694.438,7 2. Nitric oxides 92.442,87 50.008,66 44.440,78 6.468,41 5.915,73 3. Nitrous oxide 2.167,4 10.764,63 18.369,51 10.573,41 10.578,03 4. Methane 17.851,33 35.687,69 24.710,85 20.242,91 21.4779,13 senegal Nioro du Rip, Senegal Mayor Dr. Ousmane Drame Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment € 12,000/$16,535 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city sponsors awareness training on the importance of energy-saving light bulbs and energy efficient ovens. n Reforestation efforts include a program designed to assure one tree for every resi- dence. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Due to landslide vulnerability, the city has begun the installation of retention tanks. n The city’s population works largely in agriculture and Nioro du Rip has undertaken ac- tions for the recovery of degraded lands as part of its overall support of sustainable agriculture.
  • 57. 112 113 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Cape Town, South Africa Mayor Patricia de Lille Population 3.8 million Territorial Extension 2502 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment € 4,250,000/$5,862,875 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. south africa MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Cape Town’s 2010 Energy and Climate Action Plan establishes eleven objectives prioritized to achieve energy security, low-carbon economic development, poverty al- leviation and resilience. Objectives include water conservation, 10% energy savings on municipal operations, 10% renewable or clean energy by 2020, a more compact and re- source-efficient city, more sustainable transport, adaptation/resilience to climate change, enhanced resilience in vulnerable communities and access to climate finance, among others. n The city’s “Residential Electricity Savings Campaign” and a rate increase have dramati- cally reduced electricity consumption: between 4% and 6% YTD. n Programs to install solar-powered water heaters in mid- to high-income households will be implemented, reducing household electricity consumption between 25% and 40%; Cape Town overall consumption will decline by at least 8%. n City buildings are being retrofitted for energy savings. Technology changes re- duce consumption by 11% and programs for behavioral change will likely double the percentage. n Retrofits to the Civic Centre, the city’s largest building, will be complete in 2012. n 86 solar water heaters have been installed in 44 municipal clinics. n Cape Town retrofitted 7765 streetlights and 11,527 traffic signals for a yearly energy savings of 4206 MWh, the equivalent of 4206 metric tons of CO2. n Forty city-employed drivers took part in “eco-driving” training for reduced fuel consumption. n Green Energy Certificates are now available for purchase thanks to an agreement between the city and the Darling Wind Farm. n Two new rapid transit routes were launched, leading to ticket sales of 413,293. n Green Cape—a renewable energy sector development agency—was inaugu- rated in conjunction with the provincial government. n The city is responsible for in-school envi- ronmental awareness training that reached 37,800 students. n 2011 saw the launch of the Climate Smart Cape Town Campaign, which promotes cli- mate change literacy and awareness among residents and decision-makers, and leads the way for the city’s participation in COP17. The Coalition includes businesses, NGO’s, aca- demia and the provincial government. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Cape Town’s agency for disaster risk-management host- ed its Resilience Summit, leading to a soon to be presented Climate Adaptation Plan. n Water-management research is currently being undertaken. n Among the first such projects in Africa, insulated ceilings, energy-efficient light- ing and solar-powered water heaters were installed in more than 2300 low-income housing units.
  • 58. 114 115 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact south korea Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea Mayor Kang Un-Tae Population 1,4680,000 Territorial Extension 501.25 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n In collaboration with local governments, banks and households, Gwangju operates an innovative “carbon-banking” system, a first for Korea. Citizens earn carbon points by voluntarily reducing water as well as electricity and gas energy consumption, and banks award cash-equivalent points. Subscription currently includes 38% of all city households. 100% subscription by 2012 is the goal. To date, 15,305 metric tons of emissions have been prevented, the equivalent of 5.5 million new pine trees. n The city’s Green Start network encourages citizens to participate in greenhouse gas emission reductions via education and outreach activities that teach them about steps they can take every day to reduce their carbon footprints. n The city sponsors a green model school program for ten local elementary school and sponsors professional climate education instructors trained at “Bitgoeul Climate University. n The city partners with large-scale buildings, businesses and institutions to encourage reduced emissions and participation in carbon trading schemes. n The city encourages reduced-emissions in large apartment complexes, offering cash prizes for voluntary resident energy savings and reductions. As of 2011, all eligible apartment complexes participated. n Gwangju hosted its internationally attended environmental summit in 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city will create densely planted forest paths called greenways to increase greenspace and reduce the urban heat island, largely along abandoned railroad tracks. Citizen participation has been a notable success. n The city adapted landfills for energy harvest, preventing landfill expansion, produc- ing 300 metric tons of fuel daily and reducing non-recycled landfill wastes by up to 90%. n Gwangju is fast become a production center for energy-efficient lighting manufac- ture, including LED technology. n The city is pursuing policies that will reduce public transportation emissions by 50% (over 2005 levels) by 2012. n The city’s 993-bus fleet successfully migrated to natural gas fuels in 2011. n City trucks have been replaced with low-pollution diesel vehicles.
  • 59. 116 117 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 spain Barcelona, Spain Mayor Xavier Trias Population 1,621,537 Territorial Extension 102 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Barcelona’s per-capita greenhouse emissions are some of the lowest in any city in the world—less than 4 metric tons. n The city’s Energy, Climate Change and Air Quality Plan 2011-2020 includes eighty- five environmental programs. Among the most significant are: - In-home energy consumption monitoring systems - Programs to foment energy conservation in the construction sector - Photovoltaic solar energy roof installation - An enhanced energy grid and power plant. - Programs promoting solar water heating in athletic clubs - Sustainable requisitions guidelines at public transportation offices - Optimization of power and water resources at public transportation offices - All-city solar energy feasibility studies - New transportation technologies such as electric motorcycles - Testing of traffic management systems with light control and environmental criteria - Improved bus network efficiency - Bus fleet migration to cleaner technologies - Clean fuels promotion at service stations - New solid waste management programs - Ongoing, all-city emissions monitoring - Real-time information on air-quality and weather forecasts - Testing of photocatalytic building materials for reduced NOx - Enhanced energy-saving guidelines for municipal installations and offices - Renewable energy measures in public buildings - Solar-concentration cooling system pilot projects - Modernization of public lighting systems - Light-pollution reduction measures - Environmental retro-fitting of city vehicles - Environmentally friendly garbage trucks. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Barcelona focuses on the health of its citizens as they face they face climate- change-related challenges, via its heat-wave response plan, ongoing communicable-disease monitoring and vector-control efforts. n Improved water-cycle management mea- sures include aquifer stewardship and water re- capture for greenspace watering, etc. Planned infrastructure will produce 670,000 m3 of re- generated water. n Rainwater retention capacities will be in- creased by 200% in coming years. n Alternative water resources and uses are being studied. n The city’s Green Strategic Plan calls for en- hanced knowledge and research on the role of city vegetation in temperature regula- tion, carbon capture and storage, and possible climate-related vulnerabilities. Knowledge gained will inform municipal policy. n Since 1979, Barcelona’s greenspaces increased from 458 to 1076 hectares. n Tree populations have more than doubled, to a total of 154,103, while potable water devoted to gardening purposes has decreased by 69%. n The city is actively working to protect its amphibian population, threatened by drought, toxic environments and habitat alteration. In a joint effort with the University of Barcelona, the city will establish amphibian breeding points, reintroduce individual animals, rescue tadpoles, improve habitats, remove predators, train park personnel to support amphibian populations, and create community awareness and goodwill through outreach campaigns. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact
  • 60. 118 119 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact spain Deputation of Barcelona, Spain Mayor Salvador Esteve i Figueras Population 5,507,813 Territorial Extension 7725.65 km2 Total Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment 2,200,000 € +/$ 3,022,844+ USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n Barcelona’s Deputation participation in International Sustainable Energy Action Plans—largely governing energy use related to municipal installations, property and street lighting—is expected to reduce the city’s carbon and carbon equivalent emis- sions by 2.5 metric tons. n Related to the above, city employees can participate in training courses on energy management, public lighting, thermal/photovoltaic solar-energy installations and municipal infrastructure audits. n The city has additionally participated in the “Energy for Mayors” and “Euronet 50/50” programs. Barcelona’s city government oversees the latter, and it has led to the adoption of energy savings and efficiency measures at thirteen regional schools. n The city drives neighborhood programs focused on issues related to biomass, co- generation, geothermal energy, etc. n The municipal government’s Resource Optimization Plan calls for renewable energy installations and upgrades as well as measures for enhanced energy savings and efficiency. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Principal adaptation measures have been largely focused on soil-use, climate-related crisis management, and sustainable water management. n Water cycle measures focus on consumption optimization and reduction, offering climate change mitigation due to reduced energy consumption related to potable water treatment, as well as adaptation in the form of an enhanced understanding of measures necessary to assure adequate water provision in the Mediterranean Basin. n Specific studies have been conducted to assess the availability of underground water sources. n A regional accord among eighteen municipalities—“The 21 Sustainability and Climate Change Combat Agenda”—calls for adaptation measures directly focused on cli- mate change. n The city’s “Environmental Sustainability Reports” inform urban planning on the local level. n Climate change adaptation legislation planned for 2011-2015 will offer direct sup- port to affected communities.
  • 61. 120 121 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact Turkey Istanbul, Turkey Mayor Kadir Topbas Population 12,573,836 Territorial Extension 5512 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The Istanbul BRT Metrobus system is one of the world’s most concentrated, allowing removal of 443 polluting buses (as well as 1316 minibuses) from city streets and fostering motorist migration to public transportation. The carbon savings equal 602 metric tons daily. n A fourth stage of the Avcilar-Beylikduzu Metrobus line will be completed in 2011. n 64% of the budget is destined for transportation investments. n Construction of 81 km of rail lines continues. n Solar energy powers 420 traffic sensors, 370 traffic measurement devices and 430 hazard signals, creating an 87% energy savings. n Energy-efficient bulbs in street lighting have reduced carbon emissions by 10,670 metric tons. n Solar-powered HVAC systems have been installed in municipal facilities, providing CO2-equivalent savings in excess 4120 metric tons. n Methane harvest for energy generation is planned through 2030. n Istanbul has created 19,575,000 m2 of new greenspace—a 60% increase within city areas. n 1,100,000 new trees have been planted since 2004, reducing CO2 emissions by 36,000 metric tons. n The city supports green roofs. n A 500,000-m2 forestation project will involve planting 30,000 saplings. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n To date, 131 km of creek bed rehabilitations are being undertaken by the city for flood control. n New pipelines provide 268 m3 of water for drought preparedness. n Municipal drivers and cab drivers have received eco-friendly driving instruction. n City homemakers have received
  • 62. F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 122 123 Los Angeles, United States Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Population 4,100,000 Territorial Extension 1216 km2 United States MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n The city will replace 140,000 incandescent bulbs with LED lights. To date more than 56,000 street light fixtures have been replaced. By the project’s completion, the savings will reach $10 million USD and it will have been the largest retrofit program in the world. n 20% of LA’s power comes from renewable energy—enough to power 750,000 households annually. Renewable energy went from 5% to 20% in five years thanks to the construction of the largest municipally owned wind farm in the world. n The city easily surpassed its goal of 13% renewable by 2015 and now seeks 33% by 2020. n The city’s water conservation efforts have kept overall demand steady for 30 years, despite a 1.5 million population increase. n LA’s per-capita water usage is the lowest of the nine cities in the US whose popu- lation exceeds 1 million, at 117 gallons per day. Since the base year of 2006-07, the city has reduced overall water consumption by a rate of 19%, with 24% savings in single- family households. n Low-Impact Development ordinances require new construction to capture rain- water as it falls using rain barrels, permeable pavement, cisterns, infiltration swales, etc. n Los Angeles’s recycling diversion rate is the highest in the US—65%. The mayor’s goal is 70% by 2013. n The city treats an average of 364 million gallons of wastewater daily; 20% is dedicated to power generation and the irrigation of parks, golf courses, cemeteries and greenspaces. n Last year the city recovered and reused more than 244,000 wet tons of biosolids. 44,000 tons were injected into 5300 food deep wells for the production of renewable energy, a tenfold increase since last year. n Commercial property owners can recover up to 100% of their energy-efficiency upgrade investments via the city’s Commercial Building Performance Partnership. n The city’s Green Angel campaign educates city employees about energy and wa- ter use at municipal installations and seeks to create a $1 million USD savings. n The city is retrofitting a significant portion of its public housing with energy efficient technologies and appliances. n The Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit Authority became the first bus fleet to be 100% powered by alternative fuels. n A city alternative fueling station provides LNG or LCNG fuels to city vehicles such as garbage trucks, street sweeping units, etc. n The city facilitates plug-in vehicle use, offering charge stations at city facilities, rebates and discounts for nighttime residential charging, and expedited permitting for charger installation. In LA, new construction must be plug-in vehicle charge installation ready. n The city sponsors biking festivals that have attracted 350,000 participants since April 2010. n City plans call for an eventual network of 1680 miles of interconnected bike lanes. n 90% of the city’s traffic lights have been synched to reduce idling times and carbon emissions. n The city has built over 35 new parks, add- ing 650 additional acres of open green spa- ce. n The port of Los Angeles now offers plug-in facilities for idling ships that allow them to turn off diesel engines and reduce emissions. n The port of Los Angeles has launched its first alter- native fuel tugboat. n The port bans all trucks manufactured by 1994; those built between 1994 and 2003 must be retrofitted to meet environmen- tal standards. Truck emissions have been reduced by 80%. n At the airport, a free “cell phone lot” was constructed so that motorists would not circle the airport while waiting to pick up passengers. n Centralization of shuttle services among six airport car rental agencies avoids the constant operation of shuttles hauling too few passengers. n Hotel shuttles at the airport have been ordered to reduce trips by 35% to avoid fees for over-limit trips. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n The city has partnered with the University of California at Los Angeles to develop a regional adaptation map that will project issues such as seal level rise, fire fuels and intensity, temperatures, water supply, climate and urban heat effects for 2041 and 2061. Findings will inform planning and infrastructure decisions. n In conjunction with Los Angeles County and the Los Angeles Regional Collaborative for Climate Action and Sustainability, the city has facilitated cooperation among nume- rous regional universities, city departments, transportation authorities, municipal gover- nments, etc., for the creation of an integrated and viable regional adaptation plan. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact
  • 63. 124 125 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 North Little Rock, Arkansas, United States Mayor Patrick Henry Hays Population 62,304 Territorial Extension 87.87 km2 MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n In line with its downtown master plan, North Little Rock instituted guidelines for sustainable downtown development, promoting walkable residential neighborhoods in the city’s central business district. n Grants from the US and Arkansas governments totaling $8.4 million are being dedi- cated to retrofitting existing or constructing new downtown housing. All retrofits and new structures comply with Energy Star guidelines. n Enhancements to the Arkansas Trail, a seventeen-mile scenic riverside bike path, were made throughout 2010 and 2011, leading to a bronze-level “Bicycle Friendly Com- munity” designation on the part of the League of American Bicyclists. n The city offered ongoing support to the River Rail Trolley streetcar, linking North Little Rock to Little Rock and popular downtown venues, which has reduced traffic and emissions, supports public transport use, and has strengthened pedestrian street traffic. n Two alternative public fueling stations—offering compressed natural gas and elec- tricity—were opened. n Three diesel sanitation trucks have been converted to operate on compressed nat- ural gas. n A fleet survey has been undertaken to determine which municipal vehicles should also undergo such conversions. n City services for recycling have been enhanced to include curbside recycling, which resulted in 2000 tons of recycled newspaper, aluminum, glass, and plastic; 39,613 cubic yards of lawn waste was composted and recycled. n The city continues to host and sponsor “Clean and Green,” Arkansas’s largest envi- ronmental education festival. n In partnership with the state highway authority, all highway lighting was converted to high-efficiency LED technology, offering substantial energy and financial resources savings. n Conversion of traffic signals to LED technology will save North Little Rock 26 mil- lion KWh over the life cycle of the bulbs. n The city encourages citizen participation in climate change mitigation activities through measures such as free residential energy audits and the distribution of ener- gy-saving kits containing efficient showerheads, compact fluorescent light bulbs and caulking. Enhanced light bulb energy efficiency equates to 900,000 KWh over the life of the bulbs. United States n North Little Rock continues to enhance the urban tree canopy, requiring—among other measures—a tree in parking areas for every six new spaces created, and additional planting of streetside trees as stipulated in the city’s mas- ter plan. Estimated carbon sequestration due to the tree canopy is 57,000 metric tons an- nually. n Methane capture from the city’s landfill provides electricity to power approximately 4500 residences. n A citizen’s green agenda spearheaded a num- ber of sustainability initiatives in 2010-2011, in- cluding LEED silver standards for any new mu- nicipal building (or remodeling) in excess of 5000 square feet and street lighting standards that reduced night pollution. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n North Little Rock seeks to educate the next generation regarding environmen- tal awareness trough its seventh-grade “Living Wise” curriculum featuring individual, hands-on efficiency kits that demonstrate energy saving at home. Installed kit items are estimated to provide ten-year savings of 44,295,327 gallons of water; 184,859 therms of gas; 2,586,439 kWh of electricity; and 44,295,327 gallons of wastewater. Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact
  • 64. 126 127 F I R ST ANNU AL R E P O R T 2 0 1 1 Global Cities Convenant on Climate | The Mexico City Pact San Carlos, Uruguay Mayor Gregorio Quintana Population 37,000 Territorial Extension 1438.5 km2 Total Municipal Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Investment $945,000 USD* *Exchange rate as of November 2011. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE MITIGATION ACTIONS n San Carlos has undertaken modifications to its energy grid as a means of mitigation, substituting thermal, hydroelectric, wind and solar power where possible, including the installation of ten 2MW wind generators. n Numerous municipal plans generate significant electrical energy savings, principally through migration to LED street illumination and the subsidization of household solar water heaters. The former seeks to reduce electricity consumption for street lighting by 40%; solar water heating is expected to provide a 15% electricity savings on an activity that can account for up to 30% of household electricity use. MAJOR CLIMATE-CHANGE ADAPTATION ACTIONS n Residents of flood-prone zones—often the city’s most economically vulnerable popula- tions who could not afford to move on their own—have received relocation support and now live in more than 30 new housing devel- opments equipped with adequate and modern electrical, water and hygienic services. n Faced with increasingly intense rains and subse- quent sewer-system collapses, erosion, and pavement destruction, thoroughfare construction codes have been updated for enhanced rainwater channeling and roadway impermeability. n Increasingly high winds and consequent tree destruction has led to renewed tree planting programs that utilize shorter species less likely to be felled or to cause dam- age due to adverse climatic events. uruguay