2.2: Strengthening Women’s Entrepreneurship (see Box 3) have been slow to recognize the importance (including gender gaps in legal and economic rights), and need to explicitly take gender into account. In the expanding awareness of women’s success as entrepreneurs, case of public-private dialogue, the last three years and increasing women’s voice in investment climate have seen a marked improvement in terms of gender policy circles are important steps to achieve these inclusion. However, this was not an organic develop- results. ment and proactive leadership and commitments were needed. This absence of women from investment-reform Notes dialogue and programs is costly on many levels. Women 1 Economies are divided among income groups according to 2010 GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. in the private sector tend to have different experiences The groups are: low income, US$995 or less; lower-middle of legal, regulatory, and administrative barriers to busi- income, US$996–US$3,945; upper-middle income, US$3,946–US$12,195; and high income, US$12,196 or more. ness than their male counterparts. Women can be disad- 2 Hallward-Driemeier et al. 2011. vantaged by barriers ranging from legal frameworks that deny them rights to land or property to sociocultural 3 See www.enterprisesurveys.org. factors that prevent them from engaging in business 4 See, for example, Mead and Lindholm 1998; Minniti 2009. without the consent of their husbands, which limits their 5 World Bank 2001; Hallward-Driemeier et al. 2011. mobility and capacity to network, or which subjects 6 Hallward-Driemeier and Rasteletti, 2010. them disproportionately to sexual or other forms of 7 Hallward-Driemeier et al. 2011. harassment from public officials. 8 Hallward-Driemeier et al. 2011. An important initiative in Africa is the recent establishment of the Africa Businesswomen’s Network 9 Hallward-Driemeier forthcoming. (ABWN) as an umbrella organization aimed at support- 10 Bloom et al. 2007. ing various national hubs to develop women’s business 11 Hallward-Driemeier and Aterido 2009. associations. A specific part of ABWN’s mandate is 12 Arrow 1962; Jones and Barr 1996. to share their member organizations’ experiences, to 13 Dessing 2002; Grossbard-Shechtman and Neuman 1998. strengthen their capacity to provide better services for 14 Gajigo and Hallward-Driemeier 2010.86 their members, and to lobby for policy changes in the 15 Hallward-Driemeier and Aterido 2009. business environment that would be favorable to female entrepreneurs. Their members have shown an interest 16 Djankov et al. 2006. in expanding their advocacy work to include reforming 17 Hallward-Driemeier and Aterido 2009. remaining gaps in women’s economic rights. As such, 18 See World Bank 2001, 2007; Klapper and Parker 2010 for reviews ABWN is helping address all of the four approaches of the literature. advocated here to improve the efficacy and authority 19 Aterido et al. 2010. FinMark Trust operates out of South Africa, primarily by the United Kingdom’s Department for International of women’s voices in shaping improvements in the Development (DFID), with the goal of making financial markets business environment. work for the poor. See www.finmark.org.za. 20 de Mel et al. 2008, 2009. 21 See http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/33/42289479.pdf. Conclusion 22 World Bank 2010, available at wbl.worldbank.org.