United Nations Peace Operations 2009 In Review

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United Nations Peace Operations 2009 In Review

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United Nations Peace Operations 2009 In Review

  1. 1. United Nations Peace Operations 2009 YEAR IN REVIEW
  2. 2. A military officer of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) gives food to children. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 20 March 2009. (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) Interviews > > > 5 ] alain le Roy, Under-secretary-General for Peacekeeping operations 8 ] susana Malcorra, Under-secretary-General for field support Table of conTenTs 2 ] Introduction: new strategies to help peace Peacekeeping in africa > > > operations meet today’s demands 27 ] MonUc — a watershed year for the protection 11 ] a new Horizon for peacekeeping of civilians 13 ] In Memoriam 31 ] The long journey to sustain peace in Darfur 15 ] Women in Peacekeeping: The power to empower 33 ] UnMIs tackles a rough year in southern sudan 20 ] blue helmets prepare to go green 36 ] a year of transition for MInURcaT 22 ] Thousands join Un Volunteers for the challenge 37 ] supporting peace operations in somalia 25 ] Protection of civilians by peacekeepers gets 38 ] Progress towards peace in somalia new impetus 39 ] côte d’Ivoire’s electoral process moves ahead 42 ] Peacebuilding: consolidating the gains of peacekeeping 41 ] security council downsizes UnMIl based on achievements on the ground 44 ] a more promising outlook in Haiti 46 ] DDR evolves to meet new challenges on alert in the Middle east > > > 47 ] Training and transparency in conduct 48 ] UnIfIl’s strategic communications: actions speak and discipline louder than words 54 ] Helping pave the road to peace in cyprus 51 ] Unsco helps Gaza recover from January conflict 55 ] The Un mission in Georgia ends 52 ] UnTso remains active in the Middle east 57 ] Timor-leste: towards selfsustainability, social 52 ] UnDof acts to keep the peace in the Golan Heights cohesion and development 60 ] an unsettling year for the mission in afghanistan Peace operations facts and figures > > > 62 ] Iraq: coping with a “Herculean task” 67 ] Top 10 troop contributors 64 ] nepal’s peace process falters 67 ] surge in uniformed Un peacekeeping personnel 65 ] stability maintained in Kosovo from 1991-2009 65 ] UnMoGIP monitors ceasefire in Jammu 67 ] Top 10 Providers of assessed financial contributions and Kashmir 68 ] United nations peacekeeping operations 70 ] United nations political and peacebuilding missions Cover photo: A member of the Nepalese contingent participates in a medal 72 ] Peacekeeping contributors award ceremony in recognition of their service to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti. Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 20 March 2009. (UN Photo by Logan Abassi)
  3. 3. One UN, One family grieving as On 12 January 2010, two weeks after this publication, intended to cover events of the previous year, was finished, tragedy befell the country of Haiti and the UN peacekeeping mission deployed there. The true scale of the losses was still unknown at the time of this writing. The mission known as MINUSTAH was decimated. Its top leadership, including two of peacekeeping’s most formidable and beloved men, was gone. International civil servants from countries around the world lay under the rubble alongside dozens of their Haitian colleagues. Whatever the ultimate count, the loss of UN staff was by far the greatest for any single event in peacekeep- ing’s 62-year history. And yet as soon as the shaking stopped, Hédi Annabi (Tunisia) the survivors carried on. The people of Haiti, and their colleagues, Special Representative of the needed them. Secretary-General and Head of Mission, MINUSTAH For this edition, we had decided to change the headline of our annual MINUSTAH story. Instead of the usual rendition of “grim but looking better,” the 2009 headline reads, “A more promising outlook for Haiti.” Indeed, MINUSTAH was making a difference. Se- curity had improved. A better life for Haitians seemed almost imag- inable. The cornerstones for a sustainable peace were being laid. Haiti was not just a “duty station” for rotating peacekeepers. It was a passion and a place where many — especially those who served there recently — believed that peacekeeping could make a differ- ence, even after five different missions to that island country. Haiti challenged the traditional norms and practices of peacekeeping. Luiz Carlos da Costa (Brazil) Peacekeeping became “robust,” and challenges were met, creatively Principal Deputy Special and in friendship with the Haitian people. Representative of the Secretary-General And now, as Haiti begins to recover from its apocalypse, we think of our colleagues who devoted their lives to peacekeeping and to Haiti. Colleagues, friends, spouses, bosses, assistants,…soldiers, lawyers, police officers, political analysts, human resources managers, civil administrators — the entire spectrum of a UN peacekeeping mis- sion was represented in this terrible event. As a UN family, we have lost some of our most cherished elders and many, many siblings. And yes, some of their small children as well. To Hedi Annabi, one of peacekeeping’s most respected practitio- ners, and Luiz Carlos Da Costa, who recruited and sustained many of us in the job, and to our many colleagues in the UN in Haiti, we salute you and bid you farewell. We will always miss you. Douglas Coates (Canada) Acting Police Commissioner YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 1
  4. 4. Introduction: New strategies to help peace operations meet today’s demands The United Nations’ response to conflicts from emerging or re-emerg- the UN peace and security system conflict and political crises evolved ing and to reduce the dependence to the physical renovations that in 2009, as once again UN peace and stress upon peacekeeping. began at UN Headquarters in New operations were at the centre of York in 2009, telling world leaders global efforts to protect the vul- This publication concerns peace gathered for the September 2009 nerable and nurture fragile peace operations in the field, including General Assembly, all over the globe. peacekeeping operations led by the Department of Peacekeeping “Our United Nations will be com- With its largest deployment ever Operations (DPKO) and political pletely renovated. Our common on the ground, the Departments of missions and peacebuilding sup- ambition is to make this outward Peacekeeping Operations and Field port offices led by DPA. Both types renovation the symbol of our in- Support began a major reform effort of peace operations are supported ward renewal. to perfect the tool of UN peace- by the Department of Field Support keeping as the Organization’s flag- (DFS), itself in the midst of craft- “That is why we have placed such ship peace and security activity. ing a new strategy for more effi- emphasis on building a stronger cient support to its vast, diverse United Nations for a better world. At the same time, in the Department and far-flung operations. We have made progress in deliv- of Political Affairs (DPA) and the UN ering as one UN. We have made peacebuilding entities, other tools Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon strides in getting peacebuilding were being refined to better prevent compared his vision of changes in right, so that societies emerging A UN armoured personnel carrier is transported in Kerfi, Eastern Chad, as a local man and his donkey look on. N’Djamena, Chad. (UN Photo by Olivia Grey Pritchard) 2 YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS 2
  5. 5. Brazilian and Uruguayan boats from war do not slide back than 120,000 women and men Defining the parameters of leave Grosses Cayes Island. Brazil- into conflict. We have sharp- from 116 countries were serv- peacekeeping in order to ian UN peacekeepers, in coordina- ened our tools of mediation ing under the blue flag in 15 make it more effective in tion with Uruguayan UN peacekeep- ers, distribute food and provide and diplomacy so that we peacekeeping operations and the face of contemporary medical care to two isolated com- can stop crises from escalat- two special political missions, global conflicts, reduced munities in Grosses Cayes Island. ing into broader and more led by DPKO in Africa, in Asia, resources and high expecta- Les Cayes, Haiti. January 2009. costly tragedies. We created in Europe and in the Middle tions of success is part of (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) the Department of Field Sup- East—an historic high. (DPA the objective of the “New port, and we are developing was fielding another 11 field- Horizon” project, a far- the ‘New Horizon’ strategy to based political missions or reaching dialogue among all make peacekeeping more ag- peacebuilding support offic- the partners of peacekeeping ile and effective. es.) And this growth is not just launched this year by Alain numerical: today’s peacekeep- Le Roy and Susana Malcorra, “In this, we need the strong ers and peace operation per- Under-Secretaries-General support of Member States, just sonnel are increasingly called for Peacekeeping Operations as we do to secure the safety upon to deploy into desolate and Field Support. of our brave staff serving in and precarious environments dangerous places, too many of and to perform increasingly “Over the course of the last whom have lost their lives in complex and sensitive tasks. year there has been an in- the causes we all serve.” Fulfilling these difficult man- tense and broad debate dates comes at a high price: within the United Nations Today’s UN peace operations more than 100 UN staff died on how we can meet these are truly a global endeavor. while serving on UN peace op- challenges,” Mr. Le Roy said. At the end of 2009, more erations in 2009 alone. “What this debate has dem- YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 3
  6. 6. onstrated is the strength of the the capacity of UN actors to fulfill partnerships within and outside global commitment to UN peace- these important mandates. the UN system. keeping. Equally, however, it has highlighted the strains on the The need for such attention grew Working closely with DPA and peacekeeping system.” particularly critical in the Dem- DPKO, the Peacebuilding Commis- ocratic Republic of the Congo. sion, Fund and Support Office also Other developments of the past With mandates both to protect took on new missions and sup- year in peacekeeping include the civilians and to support the na- port for post-conflict strategies observance of women’s role in tional armed forces of the demo- and projects proposed by national peacekeeping during the Inter- cratically elected government of authorities in several countries to national Day of UN Peacekeepers. the DRC, the UN mission, MONUC, keep international support flowing As 2010 marks the 10-year anni- faced an extremely difficult di- after peacekeepers depart. DPKO versary of Security Council reso- lemma in fulfilling these core also began exploring what peace- lution 1325, the role of women tasks in 2009, when the Congo- building tasks should and could be in peace processes is certain to lese army was accused of crimes undertaken by peacekeepers and receive even greater attention in against civilians during MONUC- how to deploy civilian staff more the coming year. backed operations. quickly to strengthen rule of law in a post-conflict country. Peacekeeping missions gained Facing complex peace and se- new mandates to protect women curity challenges in Africa, the In its second year, the DPKO Of- and children from sexual violence UN strengthened its partner- fice of Rule of Law and Security during armed conflict, with Se- ship with and support to African Institutions (OROLSI) supported curity Council resolution 1888, Union peacekeeping endeavors, UN missions to help national approved unanimously in Septem- most actively in 2009 in Somalia authorities consolidate lasting ber 2009. Secretary-General Ban and Darfur. peace by establishing justice and called it “a call to action (and) security systems. Taking a holistic an ambitious platform for intensi- The Department of Political Affairs approach to the rule of law within fying this struggle.” The previous also focused greater emphasis on peacekeeping, OROLSI links un- year, with its resolution 1820, the field operations in 2009. der one entity disarmament, de- Council had determined that sex- mobilization and reintegration of ual violence used in conflict con- Secretary-General Ban had tasked combatants; training and support stituted a threat to sustainable DPA with developing the politi- to police, justice officials and cor- peace and security. Peacekeeping cal tools of diplomacy and media- rection officers; security sector re- operations were tasked with re- tion to reduce the massive cost of form and the removal of mines and porting on and preventing where conflicts and their aftermath, and unexploded ordinance. possible, sexual violence in con- to render DPA a more mobile and flict and post-conflict situations operational platform for conflict “We are …the only organization where they are deployed. prevention, peacemaking and post- that can deploy comprehensive conflict peacebuilding, according peace operations integrating mili- How peacekeepers and others can to DPA Under-Secretary-General B. tary, police and civilian compo- fulfill Security Council mandates Lynn Pascoe. nents,” Secretary-General Ban told on the protection of civilians in an audience in Ireland in 2009. general was also probed and tested For DPA, this has meant adopting a in 2009, and an independent re- stronger culture of action; profes- In 2010, the UN will continue port commissioned by DPKO and sionalizing mediation and strength- to strengthen its comprehensive the Office for the Coordination of ening electoral assistance—both peace and security apparatus, Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is- as tools for conflict prevention; while the tasks of UN peace opera- sued in late December promised strengthening its management and tions promise to grow even more to form a basis for strengthening staffing of field operations and its crucial, complex and in demand.  4 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  7. 7. Interview with Alain Le Roy Under-Secretary-General Alain Le large number of countries and for earlier. Many lessons were learnt Roy leads the world’s second largest people who are in critical need. from the serious failures of the deployed military force (after that At the same time, it is an over- mid-1990s in Somalia, Rwanda of the US) and thousands of civilian whelming responsibility, as lead- and Bosnia. I was also struck by staff working on a wide variety of ing simultaneously 15 peacekeep- the outstanding dedication of tasks in 15 peacekeeping missions ing operations is obviously a very the peacekeeping staff both at operating around the globe, and at delicate challenge. The United Na- Headquarters and in the field. I UN Headquarters. He consented to tions is engaged in solving a large was impressed by the scope of do an interview on the challenges number of political crises around our tasks. DPKO and the Depart- facing UN peacekeeping. the world and is present in some ment of Field Support together of most difficult areas, such as the employ about 1,000 staff to sup- Question: You lead the largest Democratic Republic of the Congo port 115,000 peacekeepers de- peacekeeping deployment ever. (DRC) and Afghanistan. ployed in the field. In NATO, the How could you characterize your ratio is one headquarters staff first year in the job at the helm Q: What was your greatest surprise member supporting four people of the Department of Peacekeep- in coming to UN headquarters? on the ground. ing Operations? ALR: I had previously worked in Q: What are some of the recent Alain Le Roy: I will quote my pre- UN peacekeeping operations in achievements of peacekeeping? decessor, Jean-Marie Guéhenno, Sarajevo in 1995 and in Kosovo who said that the job is both ex- in 1999. I used to regularly come ALR: The media tend to mostly ceptional and overwhelming. It is to UN Headquarters then. When I focus on the difficulties we are exceptional because of the level took up my post in New York, I im- facing, for example, in the Sudan of responsibility involved and the mediately noticed the higher level and in the Democratic Republic of opportunity to provide a contri- of experience and professionalism the Congo. But in these two coun- bution to peace and security in a of the entire staff compared with tries, our peacekeeping opera- what I had experienced ten years tions are providing protection for Alain Le Roy (left), Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, during a visit to eastern DR Congo. Here, Mr. Le Roy is escorted to a MONUC military base by Force Commander General Babacar Gaye (right). 31 October 2009. (UN Photo by Ian Steele) YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 5
  8. 8. millions of people. In Darfur, more In Lebanon, UNIFIL allowed the tions at the time when the Brahimi than two million internally dis- Lebanese Army’s return to the Report was published. placed persons need protection. In south of the country in 2006 for the Kivu provinces in eastern DRC, the first time in years, and on So, during my first month in of- over 10 million people may be many occasions the mission pre- fice, I launched the “New Horizon” threatened by violence. Although vented a deadly escalation of inci- process with the goal of forging a we try every day to contribute to dents. Since 2006, there have been greater consensus on the future the protection of civilians in these no casualties along the Blue Line direction of UN peacekeeping be- two countries, this essential task between Israel and Lebanon. These tween three essential partners: the is an extremely complex one to are just a few examples among a Security Council who decides on fully implement. host of others of how ‘blue helmets’ the deployment of our peacekeep- are protecting every day hundreds ing operations; the troop and po- We have also launched a reflection of thousands of lives. lice contributing countries and the on ways to improve peacekeeping UN Secretariat, which plans and entitled “New Horizon.” Q: “New Horizon” is an idea you manages these operations in order inspired and is described else- to adapt UN peacekeeping to to- At the operational level, much where in this publication. Briefly, day’s new realities. progress was made in most of our what was your thinking in creat- missions. In Liberia, for instance, ing it and what are you hoping to Q: You traveled to several mission UNMIL contributed to the exten- achieve through this process? areas this year: what impressed sion of state authority throughout you most? the country, the training of the ALR: Before assuming my post Liberian National Police and the here, in August 2008, I reread the ALR: This was the acknowledge- strengthening of rule of law insti- Brahimi Report1. It appeared to me ment expressed by the local popu- tutions. In Burundi, the implemen- that while most recommendations lation in countries where peace- tation of the 2007 Peace Agree- remained entirely valid, they dated keeping missions are operating. ment is almost completed, and back to the year 2000, a period The people I met in Lebanon, Hai- presidential elections are sched- when less than 25,000 peacekeep- ti, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, the Su- uled for 2010. ers were deployed on the ground. dan, in the DRC….in other words Therefore, 10 years later, it seemed in every county of operation, con- In Haiti, MINUSTAH has contrib- essential to re-examine the Bra- veyed to me not only their key uted significantly to the restora- himi report, to review the recom- concerns, but also their apprecia- tion of security. A priority for the mendations that had not been fully tion for the work of the United United Nations now is to consoli- implemented and to analyze the Nations. Also, while I witnessed date the security gains by foster- new challenges facing peacekeep- extremely diverse situations, each ing economic development and ing, particularly with regard to the time I noted the incredible enthu- attracting investment. This is why surge in demand for personnel and siasm and strong dedication of the the Secretary-General appointed the increased complexity of our staff serving, sometimes in very former US President Bill Clinton as peacekeeping mandates. difficult living conditions. his Special Envoy to Haiti. Today, peacekeeping missions work Q. You have made visiting and In Timor-Leste, President José in a broad range of areas including talking to Troop-Contributing Ramos-Horta recently stated in Security Sector Reform (SSR); Disar- Countries (TCCs) and potential an address to the Security Council mament, Demobilization and Rein- TCCs a priority. What are the that without the United Nations’ tegration (DDR) of former combat- prospects for future TCCs? assistance, his country would have ants; strengthening of rule of law fallen into chaos. Today, UNMIT institutions and electoral support. ALR: All of the main troop-and (the UN mission in Timor-Leste) Today, the number of personnel in police-contributing countries that is progressively handing over law UNAMID (The UN-African Union Mis- I visited expressed their pride and enforcement responsibilities to the sion in Darfur) alone is higher than their willingness to continue to Timorese police. that of all the peacekeeping opera- participate in peacekeeping op- 1 Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, 21 August 2000 (A/55/305, S/2000/809) 6 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  9. 9. Alain Le Roy, Under-Secretary-Gen- erations and, if possible, to security, which we have asked during the first months of eral for Peacekeeping Operations, step up their contribution. of Member States. We also need 2010, significant progress will greets a representative of a local However, it is important – and to strengthen prevention and be achieved, drawing on the community in West Darfur. Darfur, Sudan. 14 July 2009. (UN Photo this one of the objectives of protection arrangements. proposals that we submitted by Nektarios Markogiannis) “New Horizon”- to share more to Member States. equitably the contribution to Q. What should we look peacekeeping, including with forward to in 2010 for UN From an operational viewpoint, developed countries. peacekeeping? all current peacekeeping mis- sions must continue to work Q. Terrorist and criminal at- ALR: We are hoping to reach a toward the stabilization of the tacks threatened and claimed common position within the Se- situations they are facing, so the lives of UN staff in the curity Council and the General as to be able, sooner or later, field this year. How do these Assembly’s Special Committee to withdraw. Since the origin risks affect peacekeeping in on Peacekeeping Operations- of UN peacekeeping, 63 mis- general? the so-called “C34 Committee” sions were established and 48 on priority issues on today’s were closed. Our goal is never ALR: It is clear that over the peacekeeping agenda such to maintain a permanent peace- past few years, UN personnel as the protection of civilians, keeping presence. have often become a target, robust peacekeeping and the although they are, by defini- strengthening of operational For our operations in the DRC tion, deployed to protect the capacities and the linkage with and in the Sudan, 2010 will be population. This is a major peacebuilding activities. We a particularly challenging year. issue. Therefore, we need to need to reform collectively the However, we will continue to take all the necessary steps peacekeeping tool to make it do our utmost for peace to per- to strengthen the security and more effective and more ca- sist in all the countries where safety of UN staff. This will re- pable of meeting today’s chal- we are deployed.  quire an increased budget for lenges. I sincerely hope that YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 7
  10. 10. Interview with Susana Malcorra Under-Secretary-General Susana Mal- services based on a few principles. of services. We hope to get these corra heads the Department of Field One is to get there faster at the centres in places that can be de- Support, which provides logistical beginning with a more modularized fined as family duty stations so our and operational support to more approach, to do a better job of pre- staff will have options to serve on than 120,000 UN personnel on glob- deployment preparation…and im- missions…in places that can bet- al field operations. prove services so that we can not ter accommodate the planning of only get the goods there, but also a career. There would be staff wel- Question: Ms. Malcorra, you have get them up and running. We are fare opportunities. We’re planning come up with a new strategy for trying to build rosters to have peo- all this to be more effective, but supporting peacekeeping. What ple available to be deployed, but also more efficient, mindful that is the basic objective? also to sign agreements with gov- resources are a key question these ernments and private companies to days among Member States. Susana Malcorra: Our people have have a stand-by capacity. done an incredible job trying to Q: Give us an idea of the scope of address the increasing challenges. Another important element: we the challenge you face in your job. But we realized that we had to have grown to a size where we think through a different way of have large missions located in ar- SM: We run an operation that is running this business, because the eas where we can share certain close to $9 billion. Of that, peace- business has changed in the last resources among missions, with keeping is close to $8 billion, and few years, not only in size, but regional service centres. This will some of the special political mis- also in complexity. We are trying to give us economies of scale, bet- sions are also our responsibility. establish a new way to deliver our ter quality and a more stable base We also support the African Union Susana Malcorra, USG for Field Support, visits peacekeepers in Darfur. (UN Photo) 8 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  11. 11. Under-Secretary-General Susana Mal- in AMISOM (Somalia). So we supply lines that sometimes what we are trying to put corra during a visit to the DR Congo. have a very diverse set of are 2,000 kilometres, partly together. We need incen- Here, Ms. Malcorra arrives in Bukavu, missions that we are respon- without roads as in Darfur tives for people so they can South Kivu, accompanied (from left to right) by General Ghumman, Cdr. South sible for. And they take place and Chad, or when you think value the fact they are first Kivu Brigade and Aliou Sene, MONUC in very remote areas, where about getting to Mogadishu, on the ground. …We need Head of Office, Bukavu. we literally don’t have any- where many of our ships have agreements established 26 August 2009. thing from which we can start been shelled, that’s the type with some governments to (MONUC Photo by Jacqueline Chenard) growing, areas where security of challenge we face. All of help us with certain ca- and safety are sometimes very this, together with the dif- pacities…We’re working on low, where sometimes you’re ficulty of bringing people agreements with the private not necessarily welcomed. In on board, the right people, sector that will allow us to that context, being able to at the right time, and then have certain services on establish a mission that will retaining them for the long stand-by, such as contrac- serve 20-30,000 people is our term,…: that is also our tors to build up camps with biggest challenge. We need challenge. a much faster turn-around. to do that in a way that ad- But we need to do it in a dresses the needs of the peo- Q: What needs to be done way that isn’t very expen- ple who are being deployed to speed up deployment of sive, and we need to make to live in reasonable accom- staff on missions? sure we can find contrac- modations, to have water, to tors in all regions of the have reasonable food service, SM: I don’t see a single an- world….No single solution to have some welfare capaci- swer to this. We need a com- will fix all the problems, but ty. And when you think about bination of tools, and that’s that is our target. YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 9
  12. 12. Q. You’ve proposed reducing SM: The Secretary-General was at Q. What has been the effect of the environmental footprint the helm of the notion of creating changes in UN conduct and dis- of peacekeeping. How can you a global secretariat, so that people cipline policy on sexual exploita- green the blue helmets? in the field and headquarters will tion by peacekeepers? be considered the same. This notion SM: …. Peacekeeping operations do of our staff in the field being sec- SM: Recognition of the problem have a huge impact on the ground, ond class bothered him, bothered is at a much higher level. We dis- from the water we need, to the dis- me, bothered all of us. This was cuss it every single time we meet posal of waste, to the equipment something that we did, and it was with Member States providing we leave behind. So we are trying approved by the General Assembly troops or police. We have a very to design our camps with the en- last year. Now you can apply to solid system to address the prob- vironment in mind. More standard- a job anywhere in the Secretariat lem and expeditiously get infor- ized and modularized approaches and you are an internal applicant. mation to Member States so they are part of it. Another example: We were aiming at another piece can follow up. We have a track- we spend a huge amount of money of reform, to bring our staff to an ing system that shows that feed- bringing in fuel to light the camps. equivalent level with the funds and back is starting to come in. Are Today those lights can be served programmes, especially in hardship we there? No we aren’t. The fact by solar panels or wind power. This duty stations and non-family mis- that the General Assembly decided would reduce the need for fuel but sions. That piece was not accept- the troop-contributing countries also make us more efficient and in- able to Member States. They felt should handle this on their own dependent, as we wouldn’t need a our proposal was not ready. So we is very important because now supply line. So there’s an environ- are going back next year to work they are in charge of raising the mental impact and a safety impact. on this. Our missions are not fam- bar in their own countries. It’s The challenge is to be able to pro- ily duty stations, and the notion of had a very important effect. The duce specifications so that we get a second household requires some difficulty for us is getting the fi- the right solutions. kind of compensation. nal result (of an investigation) may take a bit longer. We need to Q. How will the ongoing changes Q. How can we attract more wom- persuade everybody that one case in staff recruitment affect peo- en to peacekeeping? is too many, even though when ple interested in joining peace- you see that we deploy more than keeping? SM: We are going up in numbers of 200,000 military and police in one leaders and that’s a good sign as the year, the numbers are very mini- SM: We are working closely with more women you have in leadership, mal. And we do that by putting on the Office of Human Resource Man- the more they will be focused on pressure and keeping it at the top agement (OHRM) on a new system bringing more women on board. Not of our agenda. being introduced in 2010 which to say our male colleagues aren’t will be much more open, more doing that, but it’s always good to Q. What is on the agenda in 2010? user-friendly and will allow people have a trickle-down from leadership. to track their own application. We Our main problem is in mid-career, SM: Hopefully the Member States are working hard to establish solid because retaining women in their will endorse our support strategy rosters. A lot of changes are hap- thirties, women who have made a so that we have the opportunity to pening at the same time. We may choice to have a family, not only to change the way we do business. We not be able to see the result for a work, and retain them in the places have many challenges in the places little while. The main thing is to where we serve, is very difficult. We where we are deployed, and you simplify the process. And we need need to first improve the conditions never know what new ones may to be able to easily assess the skills of living in those places, but also come in situations that may dete- and profiles of people and to allow we need to improve conditions for riorate. Our biggest work will be to them to see if they fit the profiles them to return should they take streamline human resources reform required. some time off. Being able to keep so we can deliver qualified, skilled track of those who left and welcome people as our missions need them. Q. How will the changes benefit them back and not penalize them is That will be my first priority.  field staff? part of what we need to do. 10 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  13. 13. A New Horizon for peacekeeping Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visits the Tavan Tolgoi Peace Operations Support Training Centre, near Ulaan- baatar, Mongolia, where the nation’s troops are trained before service with the United Nations. 26 July 2009. (UN Photo by Eskinder Debebe) As UN peacekeeping entered its after its principle author) would and ongoing reforms. In response, 61st year, Member States and the have its 10-year anniversary. Both the two new Under-Secretaries- UN Secretariat were asking funda- were reviewed in 2009, setting the General responsible for peace and mental questions about the future stage for agreement in 2010 on security issues—Alain Le Roy and directions of this flagship activity the way forward. Susana Malcorra—embarked on a of the Organization. Begun in 2008 dialogue with UN Member States and brought to fruition in 2009, Second, serious challenges were about future directions, with the the “New Horizon” process became facing UN peacekeeping on the goal of agreement on a set of the main organizing framework for ground, putting the peacekeeping achievable targets for strengthen- a major review of the future of UN machinery under real strain. These ing UN peacekeeping. peacekeeping. included new conflict in the Demo- cratic Republic of the Congo; con- The process commenced at a retreat Several factors prompted the Sec- tingency planning for a possible called by Secretary-General Ban Ki- retariat’s decision to launch the operation in Somalia and the on- moon with the Security Council in New Horizon project. First, 2010 going challenges of deploying op- March 2009. Later that month, New would be a key year for two ongo- erations in Darfur and Chad-Central York University’s Center on Inter- ing reform and review efforts. The African Republic. UN peacekeeping national Cooperation—a peace- Peace Operations 2010 agenda laid was also driving transition efforts keeping think tank—produced a out by the Department of Peace- in Timor-Leste, Haiti and Liberia, study entitled Building on Brahimi. keeping Operations (DPKO) in late while facing political challenges in DPKO and DFS produced their own 2005 would reach its conclusion. Kosovo, Afghanstan and Georgia. “non-paper” in July, called An And the Report of the High Level This remarkable slate of activity Agenda for Partnership: Charting a Panel on UN Peace Operations (bet- slowed the full implementation of New Horizon for UN Peacekeeping. ter known as the Brahimi Report, planned structural improvements “New Horizon” sought to promote YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 11
  14. 14. the notion of a global peacekeep- ments such as robust peacekeep- as requested and better guidance ing partnership organized around ing, protection of civilians and on tasks such as protection of ci- three key themes: (i) renewing the critical peacebuilding tasks. vilians. Troop contributors cited peacekeeping partnership around a critical capability gaps that con- shared vision; (ii) translating that New Horizon also highlights the strained the ability of missions to partnership into effective action on centrality of a clear political strat- deliver with the mobility and in- the ground; and (iii) building to- egy, adequate support, effective tensity required today, such as in- gether a system that could support mission planning and management, telligence capabilities and air and UN peacekeeping in the future. faster and more effective deploy- ground mobility assets, particular- ment and enhanced generation of ly helicopters. They urged better The authors concluded that the suc- donor resources. The base of troop training and more substantial hu- cess of UN peacekeeping rests on and police contributors should be man resources and procurement re- a global peacekeeping partnership expanded, as the developing world forms to ensure that the necessary between the Security Council, Gen- currently provides the majority of people, goods and services could eral Assembly, troop-and finance- uniformed peacekeepers, and a be deployed more quickly. Delays contributing countries and the Sec- new field support strategy focused in the delivery of UN equipment, retariat. But this partnership would on innovation, flexibility and ac- logistical support and reimburse- have to devise new and better ways countability should be developed. ments were also noted as issues of managing peacekeeping. With that sapped the contributors’ will the unparalleled scale and diversity Not since the year 2000 had there and ability to participate. of operations ongoing in 2008-9, been such activity related to UN peacekeepers have been required peacekeeping. The major financial contributors to do more, often in dangerous en- wanted the Security Council to be vironments, with more constrained In parallel to the Secretariat ef- more aware of the budgetary impli- resources than in the past. Mean- fort and against the backdrop of cations of its mandates. While the while, the peacekeeping personnel, the still-unfolding global financial peacekeeping budget had grown in administrative and financial systems crisis, the United Kingdom and real terms (to $7.8 billion in 2009- have not kept pace. More flexible France launched a process within 10), peacekeeping remained inex- and responsive planning for and de- the Security Council to examine pensive when compared with other ployment of peacekeeping missions UN peacekeeping. A series of de- major military expenditures, and will be required to meet these chal- bates through the first half of the the costs reflected real operational lenges. New Horizon recognizes the year culminated on 5 August with necessities. However, they sought imperative to create a new way of a Presidential Statement that laid a stronger performance culture and doing business, including a global out the Council’s recommenda- more realistic performance expec- support system to deliver more ef- tions and commitments relating tations, and they wanted to explore fective peacekeeping and to protect to peacekeeping. alternatives to large peacekeeping the personnel and resources that operations, as financial constraints Member States have provided. At the same time, the Security Coun- seemed sure to grow in 2010. cil Working Group on Peacekeeping, The New Horizon document pro- chaired by Japan, began its own di- In late 2009 this process culminat- posed a range of practical rec- alogue, particularly with the troop- ed with the delivery by the Secre- ommendations that the peace- contributing countries. Canada tary-General of two critical reports keeping partnership should seek also initiated a seminar series for to the General Assembly, which set to achieve in the coming years. diplomats and field practitioners. the stage for GA action on peace- These included: agreement on Other stakeholders also expressed keeping in 2010. The Report to the the role of UN peacekeeping and their concerns. Troop contributors Special Committee on Peacekeeping clarification of what peacekeeping and field missions highlighted the Operations presented key policy can and cannot do, based on the need for more meaningful consul- priorities that would require GA agreed principles of peacekeep- tation with the Secretariat and the support, such as the protection of ing. To succeed, this partnership Security Council; the importance of civilians, robust peacekeeping and will need consensus on key tasks, realistic mandates with sufficient peacebuilding tasks by UN peace- particularly controversial require- resources to deliver them as well keepers. The report also suggested 12 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  15. 15. a longer term approach to address- faster deployment of goods and of the process thus far has been a ing critical capability gaps and services, a new regional service commitment to continue meaning- aligning training and equipping centre concept to provide consoli- ful consultation between the three requirements with the demands of dated support services to multiple key peacekeeping partners: the UN modern UN peacekeeping. missions, as well as reforms to fi- Secretariat, contributing countries nancing mechanisms and human and the Security Council. The chal- The second report, the Field Sup- resources management. lenge in 2010 will be to translate port Strategy, laid out a compre- that enhanced commitment into hensive set of reforms for the Additional priorities emanating real progress at the policy level business of logistical and ad- from the New Horizon effort will and most critically to improve ministrative support to UN field continue to be pursued throughout support to peacekeeping missions operations, including options for 2010 and beyond. A clear result in the field.  In Memoriam Tragedies in Haiti and Afghanistan underscore sacrifices made by UN At a memorial service, a UN staff member mourns the deaths personnel of colleagues killed on 28 October 2009 in an attack on a The year 2009 once again demon- guest house in Kabul, Afghani- strated that the vital work carried stan. 3 November 2009. out by the United Nations in coun- (UN Photo by Eric Kanalstein) tries in the throes of or recovering from conflict carries grave risks, as 116 staff members lost their lives while serving with UN peacekeep- ing or political missions. Some United Nations staff died as a re- sult of direct attacks, including acts of terrorism. Others lost their lives to accidents or illness. The United Nations family mourns their deaths and honours their memory. Two dreadful days in October high- lighted the great dangers that in- dividual UN staff members face on behalf of the global organization. On 9 October, a horrific accident took the lives of six peacekeepers from Uruguay and five from Jordan when a plane from the UN Stabili- zation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) crashed in a mountainous area of southeastern Haiti. The plane had been on a regular reconnaissance flight when it crashed into the side of a mountain in the Fonds- Verrettes area, about 45 kilometres YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 13
  16. 16. UN peacekeepers pay their respects to 11 of their fellow soldiers killed in an aircraft accident, at a memorial service in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 13 October 2009. (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) from the capital, Port-au-Prince. be lowered, an honour normally re- ghanistan armed not with guns It was the largest loss of life for served for Heads of State. or bullets. They came with a more UN peacekeeping in a single day in powerful weapon – hope. Hope several years. Less than one month after that fa- for a better day for Afghanistan tal plane crash, terrorists disguised and a commitment to help its At a moving ceremony in Port-au- as Afghan police officers attacked people build a better world and a Prince, members of the peacekeep- a guest house in Kabul and bru- better future,” Secretary-General ing mission and Haitian officials as tally killed five UN staff members Ban said. well as the public heard a solemn and injured nine more. Jossie Esto but inspiring message read by MI- of the Philippines, a UNV Volunteer Less than a week after the attack, NUSTAH’s chief on behalf of Secre- who worked with the UN Devel- the Secretary-General paid an un- tary-General Ban Ki-moon. opment Programme (UNDP) elec- announced visit to Kabul to express tion team; Louis Maxwell, a close his solidarity with the UN staff. He “Those we remember today were protection officer from the United also went to Dubai to meet with patrolling from the skies, but they States; Lawrence Mefful, a UN se- some of the UN staff members who could see something farther on curity officer from Ghana; Yah Lyd- were injured in the attack. the horizon: a brighter and more ia Wonyene, a UNV/UNDP elections hopeful future for all the people of officer from Liberia; and Teshome While these two tragedies—along Haiti,” Secretary-General Ban said. Mendefro Ergete, an Ethiopian na- with the attack on the World Food tional from UNICEF, were killed in Programme in Islamabad in Octo- To show the Organization’s soli- the attack. ber which left five staff dead—may darity with the fallen peacekeep- have been the most high-profile ers, the Secretary-General ordered “The men and women who gave deadly incidents, they were cer- that the flag at UN Headquarters their lives today came to Af- tainly not the only ones for UN field 14 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  17. 17. staff. Peacekeepers serving with personnel who regularly risk their General has urged survivors to draw the African Union – United Nations own safety to remove landmines inspiration from the example of Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) have —have been killed or injured in a those who have died: “We should faced extreme dangers. The kill- number of different locations. be proud of their achievements, ing of five Rwandan peacekeepers and determined to pay meaningful in two separate incidents in early More than 2,500 brave men and tribute to their sacrifice. They have December raised the number to 22 women have fallen since the UN not only helped populations in dire peacekeepers killed in Darfur due first undertook peacekeeping work need, they have also honoured to direct acts of violence since the in 1948. their countries and the United Na- beginning of 2008. tions. Their service will remain a These UN staff leave behind more source of hope and inspiration to Elsewhere in Africa and around than family and friends: they also all of us who carry on their life- the world, UN military and police leave an enduring legacy of cour- saving work for peace.”  personnel have met similar fates. age and compassion that no bullet Military and civilian de-miners— can ever destroy. The Secretary- Women in Peacekeeping: The power to empower The special role of women During wartime, women suffer ter- rible atrocities, from physical abuse to the collapse of their societies. During peacekeeping, women are not only key beneficiaries of the United Nations presence, they are also often its best asset. Aware of this, the UN has been working to recruit more women to peacekeeping in all fields and at all levels. The Departments of Peace- keeping Operations and Field Sup- port have joined forces to bring in greater numbers of female troops, police, human rights monitors and other staff. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon continued his efforts to increase the number of women in senior Signe Poulsen (second from right), a human rights officer of the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), and two officers of the vul- nerable persons unit of the Timorese National Police, interview the mother of a victim of domestic violence, Dili, Timor-Leste. 5 January 2009. (UN Photo by Martine Perret) YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 15
  18. 18. Women peacekeepers from Nigeria extend a friendly hand to local children as they patrol Martissant, Port au Prince, Haiti. 24 April 2009. (UN Photo by Marco Dormino) peacekeeping posts, most re- also play a major role in helping encourages others to participate in cently appointing Ameerah Haq empower women to rebuild their local peace processes. of Bangladesh, a veteran United war-torn countries. Nations official with wide experi- Susana Malcorra, Under-Secre- ence in crisis areas, to become “The point is not to achieve gender tary-General for Field Support, his Special Representative and parity for its own sake. The impera- concurred: “We have a long way Head of the UN Integrated Mis- tive is to draw on the unique and to go both with the military and sion in Timor-Leste. powerful contribution women can the police.” make,“ said Secretary-General Ban Experience has proven that wom- who has implored Member States to Civilian peacekeepers en peacekeepers can perform the contribute more female personnel to the UN. “Female staffers can of- The UN has had some success re- same roles, to the same standards ten better communicate with local cruiting and promoting women and under the same difficult con- women, generating a greater sense civilian peacekeepers—working in ditions as their male counter- of security while serving as an ex- civil affairs, human rights, elec- parts. And in many cases, women ample of women’s empowerment.” tions, security sector reform, logis- are better-placed to carry out tics, medicine, public information peacekeeping tasks. Whether in- “We have done a lot but we need and beyond. Thirty percent of these terviewing victims of sexual and to do a great deal more,” agreed UN staffers are female. A similar per- gender-based violence, working in peacekeeping chief Alain Le Roy, centage of women staff the Depart- women’s prisons, assisting female noting that women peacekeep- ments of Peacekeeping and Field ex-combatants during demobiliza- ers make a critical contribution in Support at the UN Headquarters tion and reintegration into civilian areas such as security, reform of in New York. They have helped UN life, or mentoring female cadets state institutions and support to peacekeeping operations achieve at police academies, women per- political processes. And their work tangible results on the ground. sonnel are at an advantage. They 16 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  19. 19. “I know that women can make a Women had no voice whatsoever UN Police huge difference in peacemaking, in what was happening to them, peacekeeping and peacebuild- their families, and their country…. The UN Police have doubled the ing because I’ve seen it and been So I became determined that we in representation of women in their part of it,” said Margaret Novicki, the UN would give them a voice by ranks over the past three years, to a senior UN Department of Public whatever means possible.” 8 percent. But DPKO is far from Information official and a former satisfied with this number.The UN chief of public information for UN She teamed up with a grassroots needs more female police officers peacekeeping operations in Sierra activist, Zainab Bangura, to orga- to better protect and assist women Leone and Liberia. nize the first nationwide women’s against rampant sexual abuse dur- mobilization for peace, on Interna- ing armed conflict. “By including At an ceremony dedicated to tional Women’s Day, in March 2001. female police among our ranks, women peacekeepers in New York, Women from around Sierra Leone we foster a safe environment for Novicki spoke of her experience came out and marched, demanding victims to get the help they need upon joining the UN peacekeeping that their leaders come back to the and deserve,” stated the Secretary- mission in Sierra Leone nearly a de- peace table. General. “And by enabling victims cade ago: to feel secure enough to come “They eventually did and with the forward and press charges against “I was acutely aware that some- UN’s help, peace came to Sierra perpetrators, we fight the culture thing was wrong with the bigger Leone,” Novicki said. In addition, of impunity that has prevailed for picture: men were in complete Ms. Bangura became a UN peace- too long.” control of the instruments of war keeper in next-door Liberia, and and peace, and women were the then Sierra Leone’s first woman Anne-Marie Orler, DPKO’s deputy innocent and invisible victims. foreign minister. police adviser, said that equal par- A UN police officer from Thailand and a Timorese national police officer visit the family of a victim of domestic violence in Gleno, Timor-Leste. 16 December 2009. (UN photo by Martine Perret) YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 17
  20. 20. ticipation of female police officers In September 2009, a delegation lice Unit from India to the UN Mis- at the United Nations empowers of female police officers from UN sion in Liberia. Their deployment the female population to report peacekeeping missions and their still stands as a great success: not cases of sexual and gender-based national counterparts, as well only have the officers helped make crimes. “Much more can be done if as representatives from police- the streets of Monrovia safer, they we have more female officers,” she contributing countries to the UN, have also set a shining example pointed out. reached out to hundreds of female for the women and girls of Libe- police officers worldwide at a train- ria, substantially boosting Liberian In seven United Nations peacekeep- ing conference organized by the women’s interest in joining their ing missions—Timor-Leste, Liberia, International Association of Wom- own police service. Kosovo, Sudan, Haiti, Burundi and en Police in the US city of Seattle. Sierra Leone—UN police divisions Some 625 policewomen participat- The Indian policewomen’s pres- have helped create national spe- ed in the conference, expressing a ence in Liberia “demonstrated that cialized units that investigate and keen interest in UN policing. women can play an increasingly assist victims of gender-based and crucial role in the establishment sexual violence. The following month, the UN- of the rule of law in post-conflict INTERPOL Ministerial Meeting ad- countries,” said the Secretary- To build on this success, the DPKO opted a declaration affirming the General’s Special Representative in police division launched a drive positive contributions of female Liberia, Ellen Margrethe Løj. to recruit more female police of- police officers in peacekeeping op- ficers, aiming to reach 20 per- erations. “To have strong, confident and ca- cent of UN police in 2014. “The pable women police officers in that long-term goal is, of course, to This interest followed widespread environment sends all the right mes- have 50-50” as the gender ratio, media coverage of the 2007 deploy- sages,” said Andrew Hughes, DPKO’s stressed Ms. Orler. ment of an all-female Formed Po- police adviser until late 2009. “If Sergeant Dora Doroye (left), of the UN Mission in Liberia, briefs members of the Ghanaian battalion before leading a patrol through Buchanan, Liberia. 17 April 2009. (UN Photo by Christopher Herwig) 18 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  21. 21. these women can do it…then why keepers and to encourage them to vilian roles, as well as in positions can’t women who are in this society contribute more, the Departments of leadership. do the same thing? The answer is … of Peacekeeping Operations, Field they can and they should.” Support, and Public Information On 19 June 2008, the Security Coun- decided to dedicate the Interna- cil adopted resolution 1820, encour- Military tional Day of UN Peacekeepers, aging troop and police-contributing May 29, in 2009 to the theme, countries to deploy a higher per- The percentage of women serving centage of women peacekeepers “Women in Peacekeeping: The as military personnel in UN peace- or police to UN peacekeeping mis- Power to Empower.” keeping missions remains at only sions to protect civilians, includ- 2 percent. The small number of ing women and children, and to The three departments, together women soldiers serving with the prevent sexual violence against with the field operations, orga- UN can be explained by the lack of women and girls. nized events at UN Headquarters in women serving in militaries around New York and at UN offices around the world (especially in combat With resolution 1888 of 2009, the world. A major multi-media units). But many militaries have which aimed to further strength- exhibit was on display at UN Head- much higher percentages of women en the efforts of the internation- quarters, and photo exhibits, lec- in their national forces than their al community to combat sexual tures and round-table discussions contributions to the UN indicate. violence in armed conflict, the were held in several countries. UN DPKO remains engaged with Mem- Security Council acknowledged Television created a video (“Wom- ber States to ensure that they con- that the presence of women en in Peacekeeping: The Power tribute more women to the UN. peacekeepers encourages local to Empower”), which was viewed in UN sites globally and via You- women to participate in the na- South Africa, Ghana and Nigeria tional armed and security forces, Tube (http://www.youtube.com/ are among the troop-contributing thereby helping to build a secu- watch?v=vAuFQj9xBYc). countries that should be com- rity sector that is accessible and mended for sending large numbers Security Council support for responsive to all. of women peacekeepers, according women peacekeepers to DPKO’s deputy gender adviser, Looking ahead Comfort Lamptey. The UN Security Council has passed three resolutions that highlight the With the tenth anniversary of res- “Female peacekeepers inspire, by importance of deploying women olution 1325 coming in 2010, the their very example, women and girls peacekeepers. United Nations can rightly claim in the often male-dominated world,” that it has strengthened its com- said UNIFIL Force Commander Ma- The first, adopted on 31 October mitment to increasing women’s jor-General Claudio Graziano, where 2000, was landmark resolution participation in UN peacekeeping many Ghanaians are deployed. 1325 on “Women and Peace and and made measurable progress in Security,” which recognized that 2009. The Secretary-General, se- Sergeant Dora Dordoye, who leads women bear the brunt of armed nior peacekeeping officials, the Se- a team of nine Ghanaian soldiers conflicts, and thus should have curity Council and Member States deployed in Liberia, said that just a central role in their prevention have all stressed the need for like her male counterparts, she is and resolution. The resolution more women peacekeepers. Prog- there to serve the local population. stressed the importance of wom- ress on this front would enable “I am trained to be a professional en’s equal participation and full peacekeeping missions to better soldier to be called upon to carry involvement in peace processes serve the communities that they any assignment at any time.” and in efforts for the maintenance are deployed to help and build and promotion of peace and se- lasting peace in countries recov- Outreach to Member States curity. It called for an expansion ering from war.  of the role and contribution of To help raise the profile of this women in UN peacekeeping opera- important issue, to thank Member tions, in military, police, and ci- States for providing women peace- YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 19
  22. 22. Blue helmets prepare to go green Environmental issues such as ecologically mindful mission ronmental policy, objectives Guatemalan peacekeepers con- competition for dwindling or footprint,” she told the Gen- and control measures to be duct a tree-planting campaign lucrative resources often lie at eral Assembly this year. implemented throughout the at a school in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 26 January 2009. the heart of conflict. Conflict lifetime of the operation. (UN Photo by Damir Milinovic) in turn can devastate habitats, In June 2009, Alain Le Roy, Each mission is also required making recovery to sustainable Under-Secretary-General for to design an environmental peace a hard road. Recently, Peacekeeping, promulgated action plan and create a post peacekeeping mandates have an Environmental Policy for of environmental officer. begun to address these issues. UN Field Missions to develop And work is under way at UN baselines and objectives for Key areas to be covered by Headquarters on ways to de- missions on environmental is- mission environment policies ploy large peacekeeping opera- sues. “Each mission will take include waste, energy, water, tions with a reduced impact on actions to integrate environ- hazardous substances, wild the environment. mental measures into its plan- animals and plants and cul- ning and operations in order to tural and historical resources As green consciousness grows avoid and minimize the impact management. Each mission among peace operation plan- of activities carried out by the also must develop an emer- ners, new ways are being mission and its staff on the gency management plan for sought to “green” peacekeep- environment and to protect environmental crises. ing. The goal, according to human health from such envi- Susana Malcorra, Under-Sec- ronmental impact,” according Missions are to follow the en- retary-General for Field Sup- to the policy objectives. vironmental laws of host coun- port, is to “achieve a more The directive requires that tries and where there are none environmentally sensitive, each mission establish envi- or only a few, to follow multi- 20 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS
  23. 23. Natural resources fuel lateral environmental agreements to responsibility to ensure that their set their own minimum standards. presence and operations have a conflict in DRC minimal ecological footprint and Since 2003, the Security Council has also The policy is an attempt to address do not aggravate environmen- considered the environment in the con- the fact that peacekeeping can in- tal degradation, which may be a text of conflict over natural resources. advertently contribute to environ- dimension of the conflict," said The Democratic Republic of the Congo mental degradation in the rush to Steiner recently. (DRC), surrounded by nine neighbouring deploy. In clearing areas for camps, countries, remains the world’s leading ex- for example, trees are removed— “A more environmentally respon- ample of the financial losses and human even in arid environments. In addi- sible aproach requires new think- suffering caused by illegal trafficking tion to felling hundreds of trees for ing and capabilities,“notes DPKO’s in natural resources. Foreign and local its camps in Darfur, for example, New Partnership Agenda. armed groups compete with the Govern- the UN peacekeeping and humani- ment for the control of metal and mineral tarian community decided to help Some UN operations have em- deposits in particular. They are extracted the local economy by purchas- barked on pilot projects to reduce and exported illegally, and some of the ing building bricks in situ instead mission impact on the land. In Su- proceeds from sales abroad are used for of importing them. This sudden dan, UNMIS and the Government the illegal importation of weapons to market for bricks and other wood of Sweden are investing $5 million sustain the fight for control. products spurred Darfurians to cut to introduce technologies for the and burn even greater amounts of treatment of waste, wastewater On 30 November 2009, Council resolution forest—already in serious decline- and efficient use of water and en- 1896 on the DRC again recognized the -to produce them. ergy on military posts with a goal “linkage between the illegal exploitation of a 30 percent reduction in water of natural resources, illicit trade in such This could exacerbate the conflict, consumption, 25 percent in ener- resources and the proliferation and traf- which many, including Secretary- gy expenditures and 60 percent of ficking of arms as one of the major fac- General Ban Ki-moon, have said waste volume. tors fuelling and exacerbating conflicts was caused at least in part by in the Great Lakes region of Africa….” dwindling resources. DPKO’s “New Thirteen missions are also participat- Horizon” agenda notes, “Threats ing in UNEP’s Billion Tree Campaign, The November resolution asked the such as environmental chang- having pledged or planted approxi- international Group of Experts, estab- es…..threaten many States and mately 118,000 trees in 2009. lished to monitor arms flows, to report contribute to growing political on the purchasing, sourcing, acquisition and security instability.” Also during the past year, DFS and processing of mineral products from completed the field missions’ the DRC. It called on the Government The Departments of Peacekeeping greenhouse gas emissions in- of the DRC and neighboring states to Operations and Field Support are ventory, requested by the Chief exchange information on illegal traf- joining forces with the UN Envi- Executives Board of all UN orga- ficking with MONUC and the Group of ronmental Programme (UNEP), nizations in 2007. Results were Experts. It also called on Member States whose Executive Director Achim published in UNEP’s “Moving to- to take measures to ensure that import- Steiner has taken a keen interest ward a Climate-Neutral UN: the ers and consumers of Congolese min- in finding creative ways both to UN System’s Footprint and Efforts eral products “exercise due diligence on address the environmental roots of to Reduce It,” launched at the UN their suppliers and on the origin of the conflict and to alleviate any stress Climate Change Conference in Co- minerals they purchase,” including by on the environment that might be penhagen on 15 December. keeping import and export statistics for caused by a UN operation. gold, cassiterite, coltan and wolframite. In preparing the inventory for The Council recommended that import- "The primary role of interna- missions, DFS looked at the green- ers and processors also adopt policies tional peacekeeping forces and house gases (GHG) and their car- and codes of conduct to prevent indi- aid agencies is to keep the peace bon dioxide equivalent, emitted by rect support to armed groups in the DRC and support vulnerable communi- air travel (commercial, troop rota- through illicit trading. ties during difficult and distress- tion and UN flights), road travel, ing times. But they also have the refrigerants, power generation and YEAR IN REVIEW 2009 21
  24. 24. power purchases. (They did not in- clude shipment of materials.) Thousands join UN Volunteers The findings, which DFS believes are underestimated—indicate that for the challenge peace operations emitted about 1 million tons CO2-equivalent (in Conditions in UN peacekeeping operations through the United 2008), nearly two-thirds of that of and political missions can be very Nations Volunteers (UNV) pro- the entire UN, or 1.7 million tons. challenging for personnel who gramme. Their motivations are as must be on alert and operational diverse as their talents, yet the Roughly speaking, the study despite personal discomforts and common thread binding them to- showed that the amount of CO2eq separation from friends and fam- gether is their desire to contrib- emitted in 2008 for the whole year ily. Yet every year thousands of ute to peace and development. (about nine tons per staff member) people join UN peace operations on a peacekeeping mission was a as UN Volunteers. Approximately 30 percent of in- ton more than that for a resident ternational civilian peacekeep- of the European Union. And when In 2009 more than 2,500 people ing personnel are UNVs, and they compared to residents of the host participated in peacekeeping play an important role in UN countries, the peacekeeping pro- duction of CO2-equivlent gases was far greater, i.e., 0.04 tons of CO2-equivlant per person in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example. In short, peacekeep- ing operations behave like devel- oped countries while operating in developing countries. In 2008, DFS added a dedicated post at UN Headquarters to coordi- nate environmental initiatives, to help mainstream the issue in all op- erational activities and to develop a framework to help the missions implement the environmental pol- icy. It will develop environmental guidelines and a GHG emissions re- duction strategy by the end of 2010 along with training materials,—all to raise awareness and understand- ing of the importance of the en- vironment to peacekeepers’ daily lives, to those of the local commu- nity they work with and for, and to the resolution of conflict and pro- motion of peace.  UN Volunteer Filippo Busconi from Italy attends a meeting with village elders to build trust and coordinate future activities, Ganachour IDP Site, Goz Beida, Chad. 15 April 2009 (UNV Photo by Harald Franzen) 22 UNITED NATIONS PEACE OPERATIONS

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