1. Microfinance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfinance
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Microfinance refers to the provision of financial services to
low-income clients, including consumers and the
self-employed. The term also refers to the practice of
sustainably delivering those services. Microcredit (or loans to
poor microenterprises) should not be confused with
microfinance, which addresses a full range of banking needs
for poor people.
More broadly, it refers to a movement that envisions “a
world in which as many poor and near-poor households as
possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of Community-based savings bank in Cambodia. There
high quality financial services, including not just credit but are a rich variety of financial institutions serving
also savings, insurance, and fund transfers.” Those who
promote microfinance generally believe that such access will
help poor people out of poverty.
1 The challenge
2 Boundaries and principles
3 Debates at the boundaries
4 Financial needs of poor people
5 Ways in which poor people manage their money
6 Current scale of microfinance operations
7 "Inclusive financial systems"
8 Microcredit and the web
9 Evidence for reducing poverty
10 Microfinance and Social Interventions
11 Other criticisms
13 See also
15 External links
Traditionally, banks have not provided financial services to clients with little or no cash income. Banks must
incur substantial costs to manage a client account, regardless of how small the sums of money involved. For
example, the total revenue from delivering one hundred loans worth $1,000 each will not differ greatly from the
revenue that results from delivering one loan of $100,000. But the fixed cost of processing loans—of any
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2. Microfinance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfinance
size—is considerable: assessment of potential borrowers, their repayment prospects and security; administration
of outstanding loans, collecting from delinquent borrowers and so on. There is a break-even point in providing
loans or deposits below which banks lose money on each transaction they make. Poor people usually fall below
In addition, most poor people have few assets that can be secured by a bank as collateral. As documented
extensively by Hernando de Soto and others, even if they happen to own land in the developing world, they may
not have effective title to it. This means that the bank will have little recourse against defaulting borrowers.
Seen from a broader perspective, it has long been accepted that the development of a healthy national financial
system is an important goal and catalyst for the broader goal of national economic development (see for example
Alexander Gerschenkron, Paul Rosenstein-Rodan, Joseph Schumpeter, Anne Krueger etc.). However, the efforts
of national planners and experts to develop financial services for their nations' majorities have often failed since
World War II, for reasons summarized well by Adams, Graham & Von Pischke in their classic analysis
'Undermining Rural Development with Cheap Credit'.
Because of these difficulties, when poor people borrow they often rely on relatives or a local moneylender,
whose interest rates can be very high. An analysis of 28 studies of informal moneylending rates in fourteen
countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa concluded that 76% of moneylender rates exceed 10% per month,
including 22% that exceed 100% per month. Moneylenders usually charge higher rates to poorer borrowers than
to less poor ones. While moneylenders are often demonized and accused of usury, their services are
convenient and fast, and they can be very flexible when borrowers run into problems. Hopes of quickly putting
them out of business have proven unrealistic, even in places where microfinance institutions are very active.
Over the past centuries practical visionaries from the Franciscan monks who founded the community-oriented
pawnshops of the fifteenth century, to the founders of the European credit union movement in the nineteenth
century (such as Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen) and the founders of the microcredit movement in the 1970s (such
as Muhammad Yunus) have tested practices and built institutions designed to bring the kinds of livelihood
opportunities and risk management tools that financial services provide to the doorsteps of poor people. While
the success of Grameen Bank (which now serves over seven million poor Bangladeshi women) has inspired the
world, it has proved difficult to replicate this success in practice. In nations with lower population densities,
meeting the operating costs of a retail branch by serving nearby customers has proven considerably more
Although much progress has been made, the problem has not been solved yet, and the overwhelming majority of
people who earn less than $1 a day, especially in the rural areas, continue to have no practical access to formal
sector finance. Microfinance has been growing rapidly with $25B currently at work in microfinance loans. It is
estimated that the industry needs $250 billion to get capital to all the poor people who need it. The industry
has been growing rapidly and there have been concerns that the rate of capital flowing into microfinance is a
potential risk unless managed well.
Boundaries and principles
Theoretically, microfinance may encompass any efforts to increase access to, or improve the quality of, financial
services poor people currently use or could benefit from using. For example, poor people borrow from informal
moneylenders and save with informal collectors. They receive loans and grants from charities. They buy
insurance from state-owned companies. They receive funds transfers through remittance networks (like Hawala).
They bury jewellery in secret places near their homes, ask relatives to look after their money, and save for family
weddings by raising chickens.
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There are not many bright lines that can sharply distinguish microfinance from similar activities. Claims could be
made that a government that orders state banks to open deposit accounts for poor consumers, or a moneylender
that engages in usury, or a charity that runs a heifer pool are engaged in microfinance. Furthermore, correcting
the problem of access is best done by expanding the number of financial institutions available to them, as well as
the capacity of those institutions. In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on expanding the diversity
of those institutions as well, since different institutions serve different needs.
Some principles that summarize a century and a half of development practice were encapsulated in 2004 by
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) and endorsed by the Group of Eight leaders at the G8 Summit on
June 10, 2004:
1. Poor people need not just loans but also savings, insurance and money transfer services.
2. Microfinance must be useful to poor households: helping them raise income, build up assets and/or cushion
themselves against external shocks.
3. “Microfinance can pay for itself.” Subsidies from donors and government are scarce and uncertain, and
so to reach large numbers of poor people, microfinance must pay for itself.
4. Microfinance means building permanent local institutions.
5. Microfinance also means integrating the financial needs of poor people into a country’s mainstream
6. “The job of government is to enable financial services, not to provide them.”
7. “Donor funds should complement private capital, not compete with it.”
8. “The key bottleneck is the shortage of strong institutions and managers.” Donors should focus on
9. Interest rate ceilings hurt poor people by preventing microfinance institutions from covering their costs,
which chokes off the supply of credit.
10. Microfinance institutions should measure and disclose their performance – both financially and socially.
Microfinance can also be distinguished from charity. It is better to provide grants to families who are destitute, or
so poor they are unlikely to be able to generate the cash flow required to repay a loan. This situation can occur
for example, in a war zone or after a natural disaster.
Debates at the boundaries
There are several key debates at the boundaries of microfinance.
Practitioners and donors from the charitable side of microfinance frequently argue for restricting microcredit to
loans for productive purposes–such as to start or expand a microenterprise. Those from the private-sector side
respond that because money is fungible, such a restriction is impossible to enforce, and that in any case it should
not be up to rich people to determine how poor people use their money.
Perhaps influenced by traditional Western views about usury, the role of the traditional moneylender has been
subject to much criticism, especially in the early stages of modern microfinance. As more poor people gained
access to loans from microcredit institutions however, it became apparent that the services of moneylenders
continued to be valued. Borrowers were prepared to pay very high interest rates for services like quick loan
disbursement, confidentiality and flexible repayment schedules. They did not always see lower interest rates as
adequate compensation for the costs of attending meetings, attending training courses to qualify for
disbursements or making monthly collateral contributions. They also found it distasteful to be forced to pretend
they were borrowing to start a business, when they were often borrowing for other reasons (such as paying for
school fees, dealing with health costs or securing the family food supply). The more recent focus on inclusive
financial systems (see section below) affords moneylenders more legitimacy, arguing in favour of regulation and
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efforts to increase competition between them to expand the options available to poor people.
Modern microfinance emerged in the 1970s with a strong orientation towards private-sector solutions. This
resulted from evidence that state-owned agricultural development banks in developing countries had been a
monumental failure, actually undermining the development goals they were intended to serve (see the
compilation edited by Adams, Graham & Von Pischke). Nevertheless public officials in many countries hold a
different view, and continue to intervene in microfinance markets.
There has been a long-standing debate over the sharpness of the trade-off between 'outreach' (the ability of a
microfinance institution to reach poorer and more remote people) and its 'sustainability' (its ability to cover its
operating costs -- and possibly also its costs of serving new clients -- from its operating revenues). Although it
is generally agreed that microfinance practitioners should seek to balance these goals to some extent, there are a
wide variety of strategies, ranging from the minimalist profit-orientation of BancoSol in Bolivia to the highly
integrated not-for-profit orientation of BRAC in Bangladesh. This is true not only for individual institutions, but
also for governments engaged in developing national microfinance systems.
Microfinance experts generally agree that women should be the primary focus of service delivery. Evidence
shows that they are less likely to default on their loans than men. Industry data from 2006 for 704 MFIs reaching
52 million borrowers includes MFIs using the solidarity lending methodology (99.3% female clients) and MFIs
using individual lending (51% female clients). The delinquency rate for solidarity lending was 0.9% after 30 days
(individual lending—3.1%), while 0.3% of loans were written off (individual lending—0.9%). Because
operating margins become tighter the smaller the loans delivered, many MFIs consider the risk of lending to men
to be too high. This focus on women is questioned sometimes, however. A recent study of microenterpreneurs
from Sri Lanka published by the World Bank found that the return on capital for male-owned businesses (half of
the sample) averaged 11%, whereas the return for women-owned businesses was 0% or slightly negative.
Microfinancial services are needed everywhere, including the developed world. However, in developed
economies intense competition within the financial sector, combined with a diverse mix of different types of
financial institutions with different missions, ensures that most people have access to some financial services.
Efforts to transfer microfinance innovations such as solidarity lending from developing countries to developed
ones have met with little success.
Financial needs of poor people
In developing economies and particularly in
the rural areas, many activities that would be
classified in the developed world as financial
are not monetized: that is, money is not used
to carry them out. Almost by definition, poor
people have very little money. But
circumstances often arise in their lives in
which they need money or the things money
In Stuart Rutherford’s recent book The Poor
and Their Money, he cites several types of
Financial needs and financial services.
Lifecycle Needs: such as weddings, funerals, childbirth, education, homebuilding, widowhood, old age.
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Personal Emergencies: such as sickness, injury, unemployment, theft, harassment or death.
Disasters: such as fires, floods, cyclones and man-made events like war or bulldozing of dwellings.
Investment Opportunities: expanding a business, buying land or equipment, improving housing, securing a
job (which often requires paying a large bribe), etc.
Poor people find creative and often collaborative ways to meet these needs, primarily through creating and
exchanging different forms of non-cash value. Common substitutes for cash vary from country to country but
typically include livestock, grains, jewellery and precious metals.
As Marguerite Robinson describes in The Microfinance Revolution, the 1980s demonstrated that “microfinance
could provide large-scale outreach profitably,” and in the 1990s, “microfinance began to develop as an industry”
(2001, p. 54). In the 2000s, the microfinance industry’s objective is to satisfy the unmet demand on a much
larger scale, and to play a role in reducing poverty. While much progress has been made in developing a viable,
commercial microfinance sector in the last few decades, several issues remain that need to be addressed before
the industry will be able to satisfy massive worldwide demand. The obstacles or challenges to building a sound
commercial microfinance industry include:
• Inappropriate donor subsidies
• Poor regulation and supervision of deposit-taking MFIs
• Few MFIs that meet the needs for savings, remittances or insurance
• Limited management capacity in MFIs
• Institutional inefficiencies
• Need for more dissemination and adoption of rural, agricultural microfinance methodologies
Ways in which poor people manage their money
Rutherford argues that the basic problem poor people as money
managers face is to gather a ‘usefully large’ amount of money.
Building a new home may involve saving and protecting diverse
building materials for years until enough are available to proceed with
construction. Children’s schooling may be funded by buying chickens
and raising them for sale as needed for expenses, uniforms, bribes, etc.
Because all the value is accumulated before it is needed, this money
management strategy is referred to as ‘saving up’.
Often people don’t have enough money when they face a need, so
they borrow. A poor family might borrow from relatives to buy land, Saving up
from a moneylender to buy rice, or from a microfinance institution to
buy a sewing machine. Since these loans must be repaid by saving after the cost is incurred, Rutherford calls this
‘saving down’. Rutherford's point is that microcredit is addressing only half the problem, and arguably the less
important half: poor people borrow to help them save and accumulate assets. Microcredit institutions should fund
their loans through savings accounts that help poor people manage their myriad risks.
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6. Microfinance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfinance
Most needs are met through mix of saving and credit. A benchmark
impact assessment of Grameen Bank and two other large microfinance
institutions in Bangladesh found that for every $1 they were lending to
clients to finance rural non-farm micro-enterprise, about $2.50 came
from other sources, mostly their clients’ savings. This parallels the
experience in the West, in which family businesses are funded mostly
from savings, especially during start-up.
Recent studies have also shown that informal methods of saving are
Saving down very unsafe. For example a study by Wright and Mutesasira in Uganda
concluded that “those with no option but to save in the informal sector
are almost bound to lose some money – probably around one quarter
of what they save there.”
The work of Rutherford, Wright and others has caused practitioners to reconsider a key aspect of the microcredit
paradigm: that poor people get out of poverty by borrowing, building microenterprises and increasing their
income. The new paradigm places more attention on the efforts of poor people to reduce their many
vulnerabilities by keeping more of what they earn and building up their assets. While they need loans, they may
find it as useful to borrow for consumption as for microenterprise. A safe, flexible place to save money and
withdraw it when needed is also essential for managing household and family risk.
Current scale of microfinance operations
No systematic effort to map the distribution of microfinance has yet been undertaken. A useful recent
benchmark was established by an analysis of ‘alternative financial institutions’ in the developing world in
2004. The authors counted approximately 665 million client accounts at over 3,000 institutions that are
serving people who are poorer than those served by the commercial banks. Of these accounts, 120 million were
with institutions normally understood to practice microfinance. Reflecting the diverse historical roots of the
movement, however, they also included postal savings banks (318 million accounts), state agricultural and
development banks (172 million accounts), financial cooperatives and credit unions (35 million accounts) and
specialized rural banks (19 million accounts).
Regionally the highest concentration of these accounts was in India (188 million accounts representing 18% of
the total national population). The lowest concentrations were in Latin American and the Caribbean (14 million
accounts representing 3% of the total population) and Africa (27 million accounts representing 4% of the total
population). Considering that most bank clients in the developed world need several active accounts to keep their
affairs in order, these figures indicate that the task the microfinance movement has set for itself is still very far
By type of service “savings accounts in alternative finance institutions outnumber loans by about four to one.
This is a worldwide pattern that does not vary much by region.”
An important source of detailed data on selected microfinance institutions is the MicroBanking Bulletin. At the
end of 2006 it was tracking 704 MFIs that were serving 52 million borrowers ($23.3 billion in outstanding loans)
and 56 million savers ($15.4 billion in deposits). Of these clients, 70% were in Asia, 20% in Latin America and
the balance in the rest of the world.
As yet there are no studies that indicate the scale or distribution of ‘informal’ microfinance organizations like
ROSCAs and informal associations that help people manage costs like weddings, funerals and sickness.
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Numerous case studies have been published however, indicating that these organizations, which are generally
designed and managed by poor people themselves with little outside help, operate in most countries in the
"Inclusive financial systems"
The microcredit era that began in the 1970s has lost its momentum, to be replaced by a ‘financial systems’
approach. While microcredit achieved a great deal, especially in urban and near-urban areas and with
entrepreneurial families, its progress in delivering financial services in less densely populated rural areas has been
The new financial systems approach pragmatically acknowledges the richness of centuries of microfinance
history and the immense diversity of institutions serving poor people in developing world today. It is also rooted
in an increasing awareness of diversity of the financial service needs of the world’s poorest people, and the
diverse settings in which they live and work.
Brigit Helms in her book 'Access for All: Building Inclusive Financial Systems', distinguishes between four
general categories of microfinance providers, and argues for a pro-active strategy of engagement with all of them
to help them achieve the goals of the microfinance movement.
Informal financial service providers
These include moneylenders, pawnbrokers, savings collectors, money-guards, ROSCAs, ASCAs and input
supply shops. Because they know each other well and live in the same community, they understand each
other’s financial circumstances and can offer very flexible, convenient and fast services. These services
can also be costly and the choice of financial products limited and very short-term. Informal services that
involve savings are also risky; many people lose their money.
These include self-help groups, credit unions, and a variety of hybrid organizations like ‘financial service
associations’ and CVECAs. Like their informal cousins, they are generally small and local, which means
they have access to good knowledge about each others’ financial circumstances and can offer convenience
and flexibility. Since they are managed by poor people, their costs of operation are low. However, these
providers may have little financial skill and can run into trouble when the economy turns down or their
operations become too complex. Unless they are effectively regulated and supervised, they can be
‘captured’ by one or two influential leaders, and the members can lose their money.
The Microcredit Summit Campaign counted 3,316 of these MFIs and NGOs lending to about 133 million
clients by the end of 2006. Led by Grameen Bank and BRAC in Bangladesh, Prodem in Bolivia, and
FINCA International, headquartered in Washington, DC, these NGOs have spread around the developing
world in the past three decades; others, like the Gamelan Council, address larger regions. They have
proven very innovative, pioneering banking techniques like solidarity lending, village banking and mobile
banking that have overcome barriers to serving poor populations. However, with boards that don’t
necessarily represent either their capital or their customers, their governance structures can be fragile, and
they can become overly dependent on external donors.
Formal financial institutions
In addition to commercial banks, these include state banks, agricultural development banks, savings banks,
rural banks and non-bank financial institutions. They are regulated and supervised, offer a wider range of
financial services, and control a branch network that can extend across the country and internationally.
However, they have proved reluctant to adopt social missions, and due to their high costs of operation,
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often can’t deliver services to poor or remote populations. The increasing use of alternative data in credit
scoring, such as trade credit is increasing commercial banks' interest in microfinance.
With appropriate regulation and supervision, each of these institutional types can bring leverage to solving the
microfinance problem. For example, efforts are being made to link self-help groups to commercial banks, to
network member-owned organizations together to achieve economies of scale and scope, and to support efforts
by commercial banks to ‘down-scale’ by integrating mobile banking and e-payment technologies into their
extensive branch networks.
Microcredit and the web
Due to slow progress in developing quality savings services for poor people, peer-to-peer platforms have
developed to expand microlending through individual lenders in the developed world. Kiva launched in 2005
(United States) and MicroPlace in 2006 (United States), followed by MyC4 in 2007 (Denmark), Rang De (India),
dhanaX (India), Veecus and Babyloan.org (France), United Prosperity (United States) and United
Youth Development Organisation (United Kingdom) in 2008. The volume channeled through Kiva's peer-to-peer
platform is ~80 M USD so far. In comparison, the needs for microcredit are estimated about 250 bn USD as of
Most experts agree that these funds must be sourced locally in countries that are originating microcredit, to
reduce transaction costs and exchange rate risks.
There have been problems with disclosure on peer-to-peer sites, with some reporting interest rates of borrowers
using the flat rate methodology instead of the familiar banking Annual Percentage Rate.. The use of flat rates,
which has been outlawed among regulated financial institutions in developed countries, can confuse individual
lenders into believing their borrower is paying a lower interest rate than, in fact, they are. A recent industry-wide
initiative to bring disclosure to international truth in lending standards has been endorsed by many the key
stakeholders in microcredit pricing. For more information on peer to peer platforms, see microcredit and the
Evidence for reducing poverty
Some proponents of microfinance have asserted, without offering credible evidence, that microfinance has the
power to single-handedly defeat poverty. This assertion has been the source of considerable criticism. In
addition, research on the actual effectiveness of microfinance as a tool for economic development remains slim,
in part owing to the difficulty in monitoring and measuring this impact. At the 2008 Innovations for Poverty
Action/Financial Access Initiative Microfinance Research conference, economist Jonathan Morduch of New
York University noted there are only one or two methodologically sound studies of microfinance's impact.
Sociologist Jon Westover found that much of the evidence on the effectiveness of microfinance for alleviating
poverty is based in anecdotal reports or case studies. He initially found over 100 articles on the subject, but
included only the 6 which used enough quantitative data to be representative. One of these studies found that
microfinance reduced poverty. Two others were unable to conclude that microfinance reduced poverty, although
they attributed some positive effects to the program. Other studies concluded similarly, with surveys finding that
a majority of participants feel better about finances with some feeling worse.
In May 2009 the Innovations for Poverty Action in New Haven published a paper which found that those
randomized to receive financial training had higher profits, although other effects such as reducing "the
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proportion who reported having problems in their business" did not occur.
Microfinance and Social Interventions
There are currently a few social interventions that have been combined with micro financing to increase
awareness of HIV/AIDS. Such interventions like the “Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender
Equity” (IMAGE) which incorporates microfinancing with “The Sisters-for-Life” program a participatory
program that educates on different gender roles, gender-based violence, and HIV/AIDS infections to strengthen
the communication skills and leadership of women  "The Sisters-for-Life" program has two phases where
phase one consists of ten one-hour training programs with a facilitator with phase two consisting of identifying a
leader amongst the group, train them further, and allow them to implement an Action Plan to their respective
centres. Microfinance has also been combined with business education, and with other packages of health
interventions. The Village Organizations of BRAC (NGO) also combine microfinance with other social
There has also been much criticism of the high interest rates charged to borrowers. The real average portfolio
yield cited by the a sample of 704 microfinance institutions that voluntarily submitted reports to the
MicroBanking Bulletin in 2006 was 22.3% annually. However, annual rates charged to clients are higher, as they
also include local inflation and the bad debt expenses of the microfinance institution. Muhammad Yunus has
recently made much of this point, and in his latest book argues that microfinance institutions that charge more
than 15% above their long-term operating costs should face penalties.
The role of donors has also been questioned. The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) recently
commented that "a large proportion of the money they spend is not effective, either because it gets hung up in
unsuccessful and often complicated funding mechanisms (for example, a government apex facility), or it goes to
partners that are not held accountable for performance. In some cases, poorly conceived programs have retarded
the development of inclusive financial systems by distorting markets and displacing domestic commercial
initiatives with cheap or free money."
There has also been criticism of microlenders for not taking more responsibility for the working conditions of
poor households, particularly when borrowers become quasi-wage labourers, selling crafts or agricultural produce
through an organization controlled by the MFI. The desire of MFIs to help their borrower diversify and increase
their incomes has sparked this type of relationship in several countries, most notably Bangladesh, where
hundreds of thousands of borrowers effectively work as wage labourers for the marketing subsidiaries of
Grameen Bank or BRAC. Critics maintain that there are few if any rules or standards in these cases governing
working hours, holidays, working conditions, safety or child labour, and few inspection regimes to correct
abuses. Some of these concerns have been taken up by unions and socially responsible investment advocates.
Adams, Dale W., Douglas H. Graham & J. D. Von Pischke (eds.). Undermining Rural Development with
Cheap Credit. Westview Press, Boulder & London, 1984.
de Aghion, Beatriz Armendáriz & Jonathan Morduch. The Economics of Microfinance, The MIT Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2005.
Branch, Brian & Janette Klaehn. Striking the Balance in Microfinance: A Practical Guide to Mobilizing
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Savings. PACT Publications, Washington, 2002.
Christen, Robert Peck, Jayadeva, Veena & Richard Rosenberg. Financial Institutions with a Double
Bottom Line. Consultative Group to Assist the Poor, Washington 2004.
Dichter, Thomas and Malcolm Harper (eds). What’s Wrong with Microfinance? Practical Action, 2007.
Dowla, Asif & Dipal Barua. The Poor Always Pay Back: The Grameen II Story. Kumarian Press Inc.,
Bloomfield, Connecticut, 2006.
Gibbons, David. The Grameen Reader. Grameen Bank, Dhaka, 1992.
Helms, Brigit. Access for All: Building Inclusive Financial Systems. Consultative Group to Assist the
Poor, Washington, 2006.
Hirschland, Madeline (ed.) Savings Services for the Poor: An Operational Guide. Kumarian Press Inc.,
Bloomfield CT, 2005.
Khandker, Shahidur R. Fighting Poverty with Microcredit, Bangladesh edition, The University Press Ltd,
Ledgerwood, Joanna and Victoria White. Transforming Microfinance Institutions: Providing Full
Financial Services to the Poor. World Bank, 2006.
Mas, Ignacio and Kabir Kumar. Banking on mobiles: why, how and for whom? CGAP Focus Note #48,
Raiffeisen, FW (translated from the German by Konrad Engelmann). The Credit Unions. The Raiffeisen
Printing & Publishing Company, Neuwied on the Rhine, Germany, 1970.
Rutherford, Stuart. The Poor and Their Money. Oxford University Press, Delhi, 2000.
Wolff, Henry W. People’s Banks: A Record of Social and Economic Success. P.S. King & Son, London,
Maimbo, Samuel Munzele & Dilip Ratha (eds.) Remittances: Development Impact and Future Prospects.
The World Bank, 2005.
Wright, Graham A.N. Microfinance Systems: Designing Quality Financial Services for the Poor. The
University Press, Dhaka, 2000.
United Nations Department of Economic Affairs and United Nations Capital Development Fund. Building
Inclusive Financial Sectors for Development. United Nations, New York, 2006.
Yunus, Muhammad. Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism.
PublicAffairs, New York, 2008.
Microfinance in Tanzania
Microfinance open source (http://www.mifos.org)
1. ^ Ledgerwood, Joanna. Microfinance Handbook: an Institutional and Financial Perspective. Washington
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DC: The World Bank, 2000. 1. 19. ^ Graham A.N. Wright and Leonard Mutesasira. The
2. ^ See for example the official position of the sector's relative risks to the savings of poor people,
trade association. Consultative Group to Assist the Micro-Save Africa, January, 2001.
Poor. (http://www.cgap.org) Savings Services Are As 20. ^ Robert Peck Christen, Richard Rosenberg & Veena
Important As Credit: Deposit Services for the Poor. Jayadeva. Financial institutions with a double-
CGAP Donor Brief #4, June, 2002. bottom line: implications for the future of
3. ^ Robert Peck Christen, Richard Rosenberg & Veena microfinance. CGAP Occasional Paper, July 2004.
Jayadeva. Financial institutions with a double- 21. ^ Christen, Rosenberg & Jayadeva. Financial
bottom line: implications for the future of institutions with a double-bottom line, pp. 5-6
microfinance. CGAP Occasional Paper, July 2004, 22. ^ The MicroBanking Bulletin #15, Microfinance
pp. 2-3. Information eXchange, 2007, pp. 30-31.
4. ^ Hernando de Soto. The Other Path: The Invisible 23. ^ See for example Joachim de Weerdt, Stefan
Revolution in the Third World. Harper & Row Dercon, Tessa Bold and Alula Pankhurst,
Publishers, New York, 1989, p. 162. Membership-based indigenous insurance
5. ^ a b Adams, Dale W., Douglas H. Graham & J. D. associations in Ethiopia and Tanzania
Von Pischke (eds.). Undermining Rural (http://wiego.org/ahmedabad
Development with Cheap Credit. Westview Press, /con_papers.php#dercona.) For other cases see
Boulder & London, 1984. ROSCA.
6. ^ Marguerite Robinson. The Microfinance 24. ^ Brigit Helms. Access for All: Building Inclusive
Revolution: Sustainable Finance for the Poor World Financial Systems. CGAP/World Bank, Washington,
Bank, Washington, 2001, pp. 199-215. 2006, pp. 35-57.
7. ^ a b Helms, Brigit (2006). Access for All: Building 25. ^ http://www.microcreditsummit.org/pubs/reports
Inclusive Financial Systems. Washington, D.C.: The /socr/2007.html State of the Microcredit Summit
World Bank. ISBN 0821363603. Campaign Report 2007, Microcredit Summit
8. ^ a b Microfinance: An emerging investment Campaign, Washington, 2007.
opportunity. Deutsche Bank Dec 2007 26. ^ Turner, Michael, Robin Varghese, et al.
9. ^ http://www.citigroup.com/citigroup/microfinance Information Sharing and SMME Financing in South
/data/news080303b.pdf Africa, (http://www.infopolicy.org/_working/files
10. ^ Helms (2006), p. xi /downloads/South-Africa-compressed-web.pdf)
Political and Economic Research Council (PERC),
11. ^ a b c Helms (2006), p. xii
12. ^ Robert Peck Christen. What microenterprise credit
27. ^ http://www.dhanax.com/
programs can learn the moneylenders, Accion
28. ^ http://www.veecus.com/
29. ^ http://www.babyloan.org/en/home.html
13. ^ See for example Adrian Gonzalez & Richard
30. ^ http://www.unitedprosperity.org/
Rosenberg. The state of microfinance: outreach,
31. ^ Deutsche Bank research, Microfinance: An
profitability and poverty, Consultative Group to
emerging investment opportunity, December 0207,
Assist the Poor, 2006.
14. ^ The Microfinance Information Exchange.
MicroBanking Bulletin Issue #15, Autumn, 2007, pp.
32. ^ See the recent technical paper "Why we need
15. ^ McKenzie, David (2008-10-17). "Comments Made
transparent pricing in microfinance" on the problems
at IPA/FAI Microfinance Conference Oct. 17 2008".
with flat rate disclosure
/nc/what_is_it_about_women/. Retrieved on
33. ^ Including CGAP, the Asian Development Bank,
16. ^ See for example Cheryl Frankiewicz Calmeadow
Grameen Bank, BRAC, PlanetFinance, Calvert,
Metrofund: a Canadian experiment in sustainable
Accion International, WOCCU and JP Morgan. See
microfinance, Calmeadow Foundation, 2001.
17. ^ Stuart Rutherford. The Poor and Their Money.
Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2000, p. 4. isbn
34. ^ Dichter, T.. "Hype and Hope: The Worrisome State
of the Microcredit Movement". Consultative Group
18. ^ Khandker, Shahidur R. Fighting Poverty with
to Assist the Poor (CGAP). http://www.legalcity.net
Microcredit, Bangladesh edition, The University
Press Ltd, Dhaka, 1999, p. 78.
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ArticleID=8803808. Ndhlovu, L. X., Phetla, G., Morison, L. A., et al.
35. ^ Littlefield, Elizabeth; Morduch, Jonathan and (2007). Understanding the impact of a
Hashemi, Syed (2003-01-01). "Is Microfinance an microfinance-based intervention of women’s
Effective Strategy to Reach the Millennium empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner
Development Goals?" (pdf). FocusNote violence in South Africa. American Journal of Public
(Consultative Group to Assist the Poor) (24). Health.
http://www.cgap.org/docs/FocusNote_24.pdf. 40. ^ Dean Karlan and Martin Valdivia, Teaching
Retrieved on 2007-03-27. Entrepreneurship: Impact Of Business Training On
36. ^ Morduch, Jonathan (2008-10-17). "Comments Microfinance Clients and Institutions (Yale
Made at IPA/FAI Microfinance Conference Oct. 17 University, May 2009).
2008". Philanthropy Action. 41. ^ Stephen C. Smith, "Village Banking and Maternal
http://www.philanthropyaction.com and Child Health: Evidence from Ecuador and
/nc/cutting_edge_research_on_microfinance/. Honduras," World Development, 30, 4, 707 723,
Retrieved on 2008-10-17. April 2002
37. ^ Westover J. (2008). The Record of Microfinance: 42. ^ Microfinance Information Exchange, Inc.
The Effectiveness/Ineffectiveness of Microfinance MicroBanking Bulletin, Issue #15, Autumn, 2007, p.
Programs as a Means of Alleviating Poverty 48.
(http://www.sociology.org/content 43. ^ Muhammad Yunus and Karl Weber. Creating a
/2008/_westover_finance.pdf) . Electronic Journal of World Without Poverty: Social Business and the
Sociology. Future of Capitalism. PublicAffairs, New York,
38. ^ Karlan D, Valdivia M. (2009). Teaching 2007
Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on 44. ^ Brigit Helms. Access for All: Building Inclusive
Microfinance Clients and Institutions (http://poverty- Financial Systems. CGAP/World Bank, Washington,
action.org/sites/default/files 2006, p. 97.
/TeachingEntrepreneurship_revision_may2009_0.pdf) 45. ^ Farooque Chowdhury. The metamorphosis of the
. Innovations for Poverty Action. micro-credit debtor (http://www.newagebd.com
39. ^ Kim, J.C., Watts, C. H., Hargreaves, J. R., /2007/jun/24/oped.html) New Age, June 24, 2007.
 (http://www.mediterraneaonline.eu/it/09/view.asp?id=716) - Mediterraneaonline - Magazine of
- Micro Invest in Real Estate (http://www.Narkets.com)
Oikocredit (http://www.oikocredit.org/) , - Discover how you can help make a real difference – one life at
ACCION USA (http://www.accionusa.org/) , - Microfinance in the United States
Boulder MFT (http://www.bouldermicrofinance.org/) , - Training for Sustainable Development. Platform
for dialogue and critical thinking in microfinance.
microLINKS (http://www.microlinks.org/) , - a knowledge-sharing family of applications and tools
designed to improve the impact of USAID microenterprise programs and activities.
CGAP (http://www.cgap.org/) , Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
The Foundation for Development Cooperation (http://www.fdc.org.au) - Asia-Pacific Microfinance
MRA (http://www.mra.gov.bd/) , The central body to monitor and supervise microfinance operation of
Non-government organizations of Bangladesh
Financial Access Initiative (http://www.financialaccess.org/) , a joint program of Harvard, Yale, New York
University and Innovations for Poverty Action
Rural Finance Program (http://aede.osu.edu/programs/RuralFinance/) at The Ohio State University
UNCDF Microfinance Distance Learning Program (http://www.uncdf.org
Teaching microfinance to kids - OneHen.org (http://www.onehen.org/)
Microfinance in China (http://blackandwhiteprogram.com/report/what-microfinance-means-for-china
12 of 13 7/7/2009 8:36 PM
13. Microfinance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfinance
Microfinance India - State of the sector report 2006, 2007, 2008 (http://www.indiamicrofinance.com
Luxembourg Fund Labelling Agency for Microfinance Investment Vehicles (http://www.luxflag.org/)
myKRO.org - Exploring the World of Microfinance (http://www.mykro.org/)
The Banking with the Poor Network (http://www.bwtp.org/)
MicroCapital - The only source for daily, original, and substantiated microfinance news since 2005
Grameen Bank (http://www.grameen-info.org/) — The first microfinance institution, founded by
Kiva.org (http://www.kiva.org/) — Browse pictures and profiles of borrowers around the world
The SEEP Network (http://www.seepnetwork.org/Pages/Default.aspx) — The Small Enterprise Education
and Promotion Network
The MixMarket (http://www.mixmarket.org/) — MFI directory and resource
dhanax.com - (India) India's first online/offline P2P lending/borrowing/microfinance marketplace.
SeaMo (http://www.seattlemicrofinance.org/world-microfinance-map) The World Microfinance Map
FSDInternational.org (http://www.fsdinternational.org/) The Foundation for Sustainable Development
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microfinance"
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