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County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Emergency Survival Program Booklet 032112
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County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Emergency Survival Program Booklet 032112


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County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Emergency Survival Program Booklet 032112

County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Emergency Survival Program Booklet 032112

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  • 1. Emergency Survival Program Get it Together!A Guide to Emergency Preparedness Planning
  • 2. Preparedness Planning • Learn what to do to prepare your family for any emergency. • Create a disaster plan to be safe during and after a disaster. • Learn about all the different disaster kits to have in your home for yourself, your family, and your pets. • From dogs to cats to birds to horses, learn what else you can do to protect your pets. • Learn how back to school is a great time to update your emergency plans and kits. • Learn the seven essential steps to earthquake safety and planning.
  • 3. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Make a Plan emergency plan. If you’ve already developed a plan, take time now to review and update it. Plan to Be Safe During a Disaster h Practice “drop, cover, and hold on” to be safe during an earthquake. h Identify safe spots in every room, such as under sturdy desks and tables. h Learn how to protect yourself no matter where Create A Disaster Plan you are when a disaster strikes. Will everyone in your household do the right thingduring the violent shaking of a major earthquake, orduring a terrorist attack? Before the next disaster, Plan to Respond Afterget together with your family or housemates to a Disasterplan now what each person will do before, duringand after. h Keep shoes and a working flashlight next to each bed.Once the earthquake or disaster is over, we will h Teach everyone in your household to usehave to live with the risk of fire, the potential lackof utilities and basic services, and the certainty of emergency whistles and/or to knock 3 timesaftershocks. By planning now, you will be ready. This repeatedly if trapped. Rescuers searchingplan will also be useful for other emergencies. collapsed buildings will be listening for sounds. h Identify the needs of household membersMany government agencies, schools and businesses and neighbors with special requirements orhave plans for various types of disasters and other situations, such as use of a wheelchair, walkingemergencies. Your family should also have one. aids, special diets, or medication.The safety and well-being of your loved ones are h Take a Red Cross first aid and cardiopulmonaryimportant, so take time NOW to develop a family resuscitation (CPR) training course. Learn 1
  • 4. who in your neighborhood is trained in first aid Have occasional disaster “drills” to practice your and CPR. plan. Ask your babysitters, house sitters, neighbors,h Know the location of utility shutoffs and keep coworkers, and others about their disaster plans, needed tools nearby. Know how to turn off the and share your plan and with them. gas, water, and electricity to your home. Only turn off the gas if you smell or hear leaking Adapted from Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, published by gas. the Southern California Earthquake Center and available online at www. .h Get training from your local fire department in how to properly use a fire extinguisher.h Install smoke alarms and test them monthly. Change the battery once a year, or when the alarm emits a “chirping” sound (low-battery signal).h Check with your city or county to see if there is a Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program in your area. If not, ask if they will start one.Plan to Communicate and Recover After a Disasterh Locate a safe place outside of your home to meet your family or housemates after the disaster.h Designate an out-of-state contact person who can be called by everyone in the household to relay information.h Provide all family members with a paper list of important contact phone numbers.h Determine where you might live if your home cannot be occupied after an earthquake or other disaster (ask friends or relatives).h Know about the emergency plan developed by your children’s school or day care. Keep your children’s school emergency release card current.h Keep copies of essential documents, such as identification, insurance policies and financial records, in a secure, waterproof container, along with your disaster supplies kits. Include a household inventory (a list and photos or video of your belongings).2
  • 5. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Make Disaster Kits after the next disaster. In addition to your personal disaster supplies kits, store a household disaster supplies kit in an easily accessible location (in a large watertight container with wheels that can be easily moved), with a three-day to 10-day supply of the items listed on side two of this Focus Sheet. Personal Disaster Supplies Kits h Medications, prescriptions list, copy of medical card, doctor’s name and contact information h Medical consent forms for dependents h First aid kit and handbook h Examination gloves (non-latex) h Dust mask h Spare eyeglasses or contact lenses and cleaning solution Create Disaster Supplies Kits h Bottled waterEveryone should have personal disaster supplies h Whistle (to alert rescuers to your location)kits. Keep one kit in your home, another in your h Sturdy shoescar, and a third kit at work or school. This is so h Emergency cash (small bills and coins)they can be reached even if your building is badlydamaged. Backpacks or other small bags are best h Road mapsfor your disaster supplies kits so you can take them h List of emergency out-of-state contact phonewith you if you evacuate. The kits will be useful numbersfor many emergencies. Include at least the items h Non-perishable food and snack foods, high inlisted in the checklists on this sheet. water and calories h Manual can openerElectrical, water, transportation, communications,and other vital systems can be disrupted for h Working flashlight with extra batteries and lightseveral days after a large earthquake or other bulbs, or lightsticksdisasters. Emergency response agencies and h Personal hygiene supplieshospitals could be overwhelmed and unable to h Premoistened towelettesprovide you with immediate assistance. Knowing h Comfort items such as games, crayons, writingfirst aid and having supplies will save lives, will materials, teddy bearsmake life more comfortable, and will help you cope h Toiletries and special provisions you need for 3
  • 6. yourself and others in your family including elderly, disabled, small children, and animals.h Sealable plastic bagsh Extra clothesh Copies of personal identification (driver’s license, work identification card, etc.) Household Disaster Pet Disaster Supplies Kit Supplies Kith Flashlight with extra batteries h Medications and medical records (stored in a waterproof container)h Wrenches to turn off gas and water supplies h First aid kith Sturdy work gloves and protective goggles h Sturdy leashes, harnesses, and/or carriersh Heavy duty plastic bags for waste, and to serve to transport pets safely and ensure that your as tarps, rain ponchos, and other uses animals can’t escapeh Portable radio with extra batteries h Current photos of your pets in case they geth Additional flashlights or lightsticks losth Drinking water (minimum one gallon per person, h Food, potable water, bowls, cat litter/pan, and per day) manual can openerh Canned and packaged foods h Information on feeding schedules, medicalh Manual can opener conditions, behavior problems, and the nameh First aid kit and handbook and number of your veterinarian in case youh Charcoal or gas grill for outdoor cooking and have to foster or board your pets matches if needed h Pet beds and toys, if easily transportableh Cooking utensils Adapted from Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, published byh Pet food and pet restraints the Southern California Earthquake Center and available online at www. and from “Pets and Disasters: Get Prepared”, publishedh Comfortable, warm clothing including extra by the American Red Cross and the Humane Society of the United States. socksh Blankets or sleeping bags, and perhaps even a tenth Copies of vital documents such as insurance policiesh Fire extinguisherh Sealable plastic bagsh Essential medicationsUse and replace perishable items like water, food,medications, first aid items, and batteries on ayearly basis.4
  • 7. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Pet Preparedness for your pets in case you are sick, injured or have to evacuate during a disaster. h Keep current documentation. It is a good idea to maintain current records such as medical history and identification for every pet. During disasters this information is useful in the event your pet is missing or is taken to a shelter. Also, you should consider having a microchip implanted in your animal by your pet’s veterinarian in case you get separated. Prepare: Make a Pet Disaster Kit You should have the following items assembled and ready to take in a crisis (keep in a duffel bag or sturdy container in a spot where it’s handy to grab):When you developed your family emergency plan, h Wire cage or carrier with good air circulation, alongdid you include plans for your pets? It’s important with bedding and cover for sun, rain, ash, etc.,to include provisions for your pets because they and/or sturdy leashes and harnesses or collars,depend on you for care. Pets also can provide with a ground mounting device or carabiner forpsychological comfort after an earthquake or other tying pets up temporarily.disaster. h Food, water (for several days), bowls, cat litter/ pan, and a manual can opener. Plan: What Will You Do h Several days supply of medications (including in an Emergency? anti-stress remedies) recommended by your veterinarian. List dosing instructions in case youh Create an evacuation plan now and review are separated from your pet. with your family. Research appropriate lodging h Name, telephone number and address of your in advance. Know where you and your pet will be going after an emergency. Please note that veterinarian; information on feeding schedules, some emergency shelters will NOT accept vaccination dates, medical and behavioral animals. Research a pet friendly hotel or some problems, and any other special issues your other alternative as more than likely, you may be pet may have (attach to the cage or carrier in a directed to another location. waterproof, chew-resistant bag).h Develop alternate plans and keep them in your h Find protective booties for dogs and/or cats wallet. Have pre-planned boarding information because after a disaster broken glass and other 5
  • 8. debris can harm a pet’s paws. Booties are also large enough for soaking, and a heat source. helpful in harsh weather conditions such as snow. Bring food if they need to eat often.h Current identification tags on animal collars and/ h Small mammals and chickens should be or microchip. transported in secure carriers suitable for animalsh Animal first aid kit and supplies such as gauze to live in while they are being sheltered. Take rolls for bandaging and making muzzles, towels, bedding materials, cage liners, food bowls and and blankets. water bottles.h Current photos of you with your pet to help claim h Ask your pet’s veterinarian about possible ownership and photos of your pet alone in case identification means for your animal if a microchip you need to put up signs or posters if the pet is not an option. gets lost.h Outside contact information: Your own, plus After the Disaster someone who can take custody of your pets if you are unable to do so (attach to carrier), as After the crisis has passed, it may be some time well as an out-of-state contact. before you can return to your home, so be preparedh Pet beds and toys to reduce animal’s stress, if for a stay of several days or even a week or two. easily transportable. Keep in mind that even if your house is intact and you are allowed to return, the area may not yet beh Plastic bags and scoopers to pick up and store safe for your pets. pet waste. Risks after a fire include burned or cut paws, eating Respond: or inhaling toxic substances or residues, escaping because of downed fences or other damage, loss of What to Do if Your Pet is Lost shelter and shade, and a lack of water supply, powerh Immediately call or visit the nearest animal shelter supply, and other services. Many similar risks will be to report your pet missing. present after an earthquake or other disaster.h When it is safe, return to your neighborhood to Keep in mind that when animals return to a changed post or distribute “Lost Pet Posters”. Be sure to landscape, they may be upset, disoriented, and easily include your name, home address, and home stressed. Give them as much calm and normalcy and work phone numbers. It’s always helpful to as you can, and follow similar rituals whenever include a current photograph of your pet. possible.h When it is safe, continue to search the area for your missing pet. A frightened animal may stay hidden for days. Pet Tip Remember that pets may be confused and upset with the possible changes to their routine during and afterAnimals Other than Dogs and Cats a disaster. We suggest that pets get used to their peth Horses and livestock need their own unique carriers by letting them sleep in them (opened) from evacuation plan. Establish pre-designated plans time to time so that they can equate it to something before an emergency. pleasant. Also, if possible, teach the pet some basic obedience commands or go to obedience training soh Birds should be transported in a secure travel that they can look to you for guidance and that they cage with a blanket for cold weather or a plant can possibly control their urge to run away after a mister for hot weather. disaster. Crate training and obedience training will alsoh Snakes can be transported in a pillowcase but make it easier on the pet if they have to be in a shelter must be transferred to more secure housing when situation away from you or other family members for any you reach the evacuation site. Take a water bowl length of time.6
  • 9. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Back to School h Needs of students and staff with disabilities h Onsite shelter plans h Emergency supplies and equipment h Plans for releasing students and school personnel h Communication Parents should know the policies and procedures of their children’s school during times of disaster or crisis. Parents should also make sure the school has their updated emergency contact information. Keep your children’s school emergency release card current. While planning for a future disaster may seem overwhelming, it is not impossible, and the benefits far outweigh the time and trouble it takes to prepare a school plan. It is also important for schools to plan in advance to A Safe Place to Learn deal with the problem of psychological trauma after a disaster. Signs to look for include withdrawn and/There is a lot that can be done by school officials to or more aggressive students, those acting overlyplan for disasters, to limit the risk, to protect the safety responsible or parental, children who are edgy,of students and teachers, and to ensure that schools jumpy, quick to anger, out of control or with a non-recover quickly. However, the clock is ticking. The caring attitude. Encourage teachers to discuss thesetime to prepare is right now. and other changes in behavior with parents.Many states now require specific disaster preparedness What You Can Do Nowactivities in their school systems. In California, for example, schools are required to have a disaster Parents have an important role in assuring theplan, to hold periodic “Drop, Cover, and Hold On” safety of their children whether at school or at home.drills and to hold educational and training programs Prepare a school emergency supplies kit for each offor students and staff. Whether mandated or not, all your children. Let them help you put the kit together.schools should have an emergency response plan What they have on hand when a disaster occurs couldthat addresses the following: make a big difference in their safety and survival. A list of some of the recommended items that could beh Identification of hazards and steps to reduce included in each child’s emergency supplies kit is as the risk follows:h Evacuation plans and routes v Emergency drinking water (3-day to one-week supply) 7
  • 10. v Non-perishable food (3-day to one-week supply) A Special Note About Childrenv First aid kit and bookv Essential medications If earthquakes scare us because we feel out of control, think how much more true this must be forv Lightstick or a flashlight with extra batteries children who already must depend on adults for sov Identification card much of their lives. It is important to spend time withv Family photos children in your care before the next earthquakev Towelettes to explain why earthquakes occur. Involve them in developing your disaster plan, preparing earthquakev Blanket bags, and practicing “Drop, Cover, and Hold On.”v Medical release card Consider simulating post-earthquake conditions byv Emergency telephone numbers going without electricity or tap water for a few hours.v Change of clothingv After the earthquake, remember that children will Favorite toy be under great stress. They may be frightened, their routine will probably be disrupted, and theTeach your children what to do in an emergency and aftershocks won’t let them forget the experience.make sure they know their own names, addresses, Adults tend to leave their children in order to dealand telephone numbers as well as the full names and with the many demands of the emergency, butcontact information for parents and a second adult this can be devastating to children. Extra contactemergency contact. and support from parents in the early days will pay off later. Whenever possible, include them in the recovery process. Coloring Page Earthquakes do happen all over the World!8
  • 11. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management 7 Steps to Earthquake Safety h Take a Red Cross first aid and CPR course h Know how and when to shut off utilities h Learn how to properly use a fire extinguisher h Select a safe place outside of your home to meet your family or housemates after the earthquake h Designate an out-of-state contact person who can be called to relay information h Keep your children’s school release card current Step 3: Create disaster supplies kits Keep a personal disaster supplies kit in your home, in your car, and at work, with at least the following: h Medications and important medical information h First aid kit and handbook h Spare eyeglasses or contact lenses h Bottled water and snack foods h Whistle (to alert rescuers to your location) h Emergency cash, in small billsThe following steps are excerpted from “Putting h List of out-of-state contact phone numbersDown Roots in Earthquake Country.” The full h Working flashlight with extra batteries and bulbstext can be viewed and print copies ordered at h Personal hygiene . h Copies of personal identification h In addition to your personal disaster suppliesStep 1: Fix potential hazards in your home kits, store a household disaster supplies kith Install latches on kitchen cabinets with a three-day to one-week supply of itemsh Secure TVs, stereos, computers, etc. with Velcro needed to live without normal services (water, straps. Use putty or wax adhesive for smaller items electricity, etc.)h Hang mirrors and artwork from closed hooksh Secure top-heavy furniture and appliances to Step 4: Fix your building’s potential weaknesses walls If your building needs the following retrofitting, youh Install flexible connectors on gas appliances likely need to consult a professional:h Strap water heaters correctly to the wall h The framing of your house should be bolted ath Store flammable or hazardous materials on lower least every 6 feet to the perimeter of the concrete shelves or on the floor foundation (every 4 feet in a multistory building) h Homes with a crawl space should have plywoodStep 2: Create a disaster plan connecting the studs of the short “cripple” wallsh Practice “drop, cover, and hold on” h Larger openings in the lower floor, such as ah Keep shoes and a flashlight next to each bed garage door, should be properly reinforced 9
  • 12. h Masonry walls and chimneys should be h Stay away from chimneys or brick walls with visible reinforced cracks. Don’t use a fireplace with a damaged chimneFor those who rent: You control which apartment or h Stay away from downed power lines and objectshouse you rent. Ask the landlord these questions: in contact with themh What retrofitting has been done on this building?h Have water heaters been strapped to the wall Step 7: When safe, continue to follow your studs? disaster planh Can I secure furniture to the walls? The first days after the earthquake… Until you are sure there are no gas leaks, do not useStep 5: During earthquakes and aftershocks open flames or operate any electrical or mechanicalDrop! Cover! and Hold On! device that can create a spark. Never use the followingh During earthquakes, drop to the floor, take cover indoors: camp stoves, gas lanterns or heaters, gas under a sturdy desk or table, and hold on to it or charcoal grills, or gas generators. These can firmly release deadly carbon monoxide or be a fire hazardh If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, protecting in aftershocks. your head with a pillow h Turn on your portable or car radio for informationh The area near outer walls is very dangerous. and safety advisories Do not try to go outside during shaking h Call your out-of-state contact, tell them yourh If outside, move to a clear area if you can safely do status, then stay off the phone so; avoid power lines, trees, and other hazards h Check on the condition of your neighborsh If driving, pull over to the side of the road, stop, h If power is off, plan meals to use up refrigerated and stay in your car until shaking stops and frozen foods first h If your water is off or unsafe, you can drink fromStep 6: After the earthquake, check for injuries water heaters, melted ice cubes, or cannedand damage vegetablesCheck for injuries: h Report damage to your local building departmenth If a person is bleeding, put direct pressure on and to your local office of emergency services the wound. Use clean gauze or cloth, if availableh Administer rescue breathing if necessary If you cannot stay in your home…h Carefully check children or others needing special Because shelters will likely be overcrowded, do not assistance leave home just because utilities are out of serviceh Do not move seriously injured persons unless or your home and its contents have suffered only they are in immediate danger of further injury moderate damage. If you do evacuate, tell a neighborh Get medical help for serious injuries and your out-of-state-contact where you are going, and take your personal disaster supplies kits and otherCheck for damage: essentials.h If possible, put out small fires immediatelyh Shut off the main gas valve only if you suspect a leak. Wait for the gas company to turn it back on HEALTH TIP: Earthquakes may result in physicalh Shut off power at the main breaker switch if there is damage and injuries, but they can also bring fear, any damage to your house wiring. Unplug broken confusion and uncertainty into everyday life. It is important lights or appliances as they could start fires to understand that strong emotional reactions to suchh Hazardous materials such as bleach, chemicals, events are normal. Re-establish daily routines for work, and gasoline should be covered with dirt or school, play, meals, and rest. Work with the support cat litter networks within your community.10
  • 13. What to do When...• Drop! Cover! Hold on! Where you are when an earthquake hits should determine how you respond. Learn how to stay safe during an earthquake whether at home or on the go!• Learn when it’s best to “shelter in place” or evacuate!• Learn the simple steps to maintain your sense of control in the event of a terrorist attack.
  • 14. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Drop! Cover! Hold On! Earthquakes occur without any warning and may be so violent that you cannot run or crawl; you therefore will most likely be knocked to the ground where you happen to be. But, If possible, take cover away from exterior walls of a building which are the most dangerous places to be. Windows, facades and architectural details are often the first parts of the building to collapse. To stay away from this danger zone, stay inside if you are inside and outside if you Protect Yourself During are outside. Earthquake Shaking! Given the dynamics of earthquakes and their effects on structures, “Drop, Cover, and Hold On” is theOfficial rescue teams from the U.S. and other single most useful instruction that you can follow tocountries who have searched for trapped people protect yourself in the majority of situations. It givesin collapsed structures around the world, as well you the best overall chance of protecting yourselfas emergency managers, researchers, and school during an earthquake... even during quakes thatsafety advocates, all agree that “Drop, Cover, and cause furniture to move about rooms, and even inHold On” is the appropriate action to reduce injury buildings that might ultimately collapse.and death during earthquakes. Immediately when Earthquake DO NOT Head for the Doorway Shaking Begins: An enduring earthquake image of California is a collapsed adobe home with the door frame asDROP! down onto your knees (before the the only standing part. From this came our belief earthquakes knocks you down). This position that a doorway is the safest place to be during an makes you a smaller target but allows you to earthquake. True—if you live in an old, unreinforced still move if necessary. adobe house. In modern houses, doorways are no stronger than any other part of the house.COVER! your head and neck (or your entire body) under a strong table or desk. If there is no table You are safer taking cover under a sturdy table to get under, get down near an interior wall and or desk. cover your head and neck with your arms and hands. If you are…HOLD ON! to the furniture or to your head and neck until the shaking stops. Be prepared to move Indoors: Drop, cover, and hold on. During with your shelter if the shaking shifts it around. earthquakes, drop to the floor, take cover under 11
  • 15. a sturdy desk or table, and hold on to it firmly. Be In a stadium or theater: Stay at your seat andprepared to move with it until the shaking stops. If protect your head and neck with your arms. Don’tyou are not near a desk or table, drop to the floor try to leave until theagainst the interior wall and protect your head and shaking is over. Then walkneck with your arms. Avoid exterior walls, windows, out slowly watching forhanging objects, mirrors, tall furniture, large anything that could fall inappliances, and kitchen cabinets with heavy objects the aftershocks.or glass. Do not go outside! Near the beach: Drop, cover, and hold on until the shaking stops. Estimate how long the shaking lasts. If severe shaking lasts 20 seconds or more, immediately evacuate to high ground as a tsunami might have been generated by the earthquake. Move inland 3 kilometers (2 miles) or to land that is at least 30 meters (100 feet)In bed: If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, above sea level immediately.protecting your head with a pillow. You are less likely Don’t wait for officials to issueto be injured staying a warning. Walk quickly, ratherwhere you are. Broken than drive, to avoid traffic, debrisglass on the floor has and other hazards.caused injury to thosewho have rolled to the Below a dam: Dams can fail during a majorfloor or tried to get to earthquake. Catastrophic failure is unlikely, butdoorways. if you are downstream from a dam, you should know flood-zone information and have prepared anIn a high-rise: Drop, cover, evacuation plan.and hold on. Avoid windowsand other hazards. Do not Triangle of Life? You may have received anuse elevators. Do not be email that seems to make sense, but unfortunatelysurprised if sprinkler systems it actually has dangerous instructions andor fire alarms activate. is promoted by someone whose credibility has been broadly questioned. Learn more atOutdoors: Move to a clear if you can safely doso; avoid power lines, trees, Adapted from Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, publishedsigns, buildings, vehicles, by the Southern California Earthquake Center and available online atand other hazards. .Driving: Pull over to the side of the road, stop, andset the parking brake. Avoid overpasses, bridges,power lines, signs and other hazards. Stay insidethe vehicle until the shakingis over. If a power line fallson the car, stay inside untila trained person removes the wire.12
  • 16. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Shelter in Place? Or Evacuate? Shelter in Place or Evacuate? That is the Question!Chemical releases and accidents involving gasoline, oil, paints and other hazardous materials could cause a widerange of serious injuries and possibly death from exposure to vapors, fumes and smoke.Sometimes, local officials may ask the public to protect themselves by staying inside their homes, cars and offices. Atother times, local officials may order an evacuation, know the difference between these two protective measures.BEFORE Shelter in Place1. 2. 3.CONDUCT a hazard hunt of your home, DEVELOP a plan for your family, STORE at least a 72-hour supply of food,business, school and community. business, school and community that drinking water (one gallon per person includes places where you could reunite per day for a three-day to a three-week if you are forced to leave. supply) and other supplies.During4. 5. 6.GO indoors immediately. If indoors, STAY GO to the room with the least amount LISTEN and watch for instructions fromindoors. STAY in your car if driving. CLOSE of windows, doors and other openings. local officials. Use the phone only fordoors, windows, vents and openings. SEAL openings or cracks with duct tape, emergencies.SHUT OFF heating and air conditioning plastic sheeting or wet towels. COVERsystems, and close ventilation systems. your face and mouth with a wet cloth. After7. 8.STAY inside your vehicle until advised VENTILATE your house, apartment,that it is safe to go outside. building or vehicle. STAY outdoors during ventilation. 13
  • 17. EvacuationEvacuation orders may come with little or no warning. Even so, you can use the tips below to prepare for thepossibility of evacuating as part of your personal preparedness efforts at home and work.BEFORE1. 2. 3.IDENTIFY possible places to reunite with ASSEMBLE enough food, drinking water, IDENTIFY facilities that care for pets family members after the event as part of medicines, and other supplies to last at during disasters since pets are notyour emergency plans. least three days in an emergency kit or allowed in American Red Cross shelters. backpack that is easy to transport. (In-service animals excluded).4. 5. 6.MAKE plans for children, seniors and LISTEN to the radio or watch TV for RETRIEVE emergency supplies andothers with special needs. CHECK with information from local officials. FOLLOW evacuation kits if possible. Be sure toyour schools, work place and other sites their instructions. REMAIN calm. Use include medications.about their evacuation plans. the phone only to report life-threatening emergencies.7. 8. 9.SECURE the building if possible. TURN LEAVE a note indicating your destination REPORT to the evacuation site, usingOFF utilities only if instructed to do so by if possible. recommended routes given by locallocal officials. officials.after10.LISTEN for further instructions from localofficials.14
  • 18. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Terrorism Governmental officials are working hard to find terrorists and to limit their ability to harm Americans. At the same time, there is a lot that each of us can do to limit the terrorists’ ability to frighten us. The terrorists are not in charge. We have control over our peace of mind and can help ensure our safety by taking some of the same actions that we would take to prepare for earthquakes, floods, or fires. We can also contribute to the safety of others by becoming more aware of our surroundings and reporting suspicious activities or items to local officials. The simple steps listed on this sheet will help you maintain your sense of control, and they could make a big difference in your personal safety in any emergency. What You Can Do Now Terrorists are Not in Charge! Preparing for terrorist attacks is the same as preparingEarthquakes, floods and wildfires are frightening for earthquakes, fires, and other emergencies. It allexperiences for most of us. Fear is a natural human starts with a family emergency plan.reaction to natural disasters and other events thathit suddenly and seem to threaten our safety, our h Evacuation: Whether you are at home, at work,loved ones, and our daily lives. Terrorists use this or in a public place, think of how you couldnatural reaction to multiply the effect of their actions leave quickly and safely. Locate stairwaysin order to advance their political or social goals. and emergency exits. Pay attention to postedLike bullies in the schoolyard, terrorists want to evacuation signs in buildings, subways andintimidate and frighten others to get their own way. crowded public areas. h Out-of-state contact: Think how you will getUntil recently, many Americans believed thatterrorism only affected other countries. Now we know in contact with your family if you becomethat it can happen here, but we don’t know where separated. Choose an out-of-state contactor when. Much of the fear caused by terrorism—or that your family members or friends can call tothe threat of it—is based on this uncertainty: not check on each other.knowing whether it will hurt us or our loved ones h Meeting place: Decide where you and familydirectly, or whether it will target our own community members will meet if the emergency affectsor workplace. your home, or if officials have to evacuate 15
  • 19. your neighborhood. If you are not directly affected by the attack, tryh School plans: Learn the emergency plans at to stay calm, think before you act, encourage your children’s schools, and make sure the others, and comfort children. Turn on news radio or school has your updated emergency contact television, and listen for official instructions. Follow information. Give written permission to a trusted the directions of authorities. friend or neighbor to pick up your children from school or day care in case you cannot get there What You Can Do After an Attack on time.h Preparation for children: Teach your children Try to stay calm. Think before you act. Don’t let what to do in an emergency, and make sure terrorists get what they want most: to hurt a few they know their own names and addresses, as people in order to intimidate many. well as the full names and contact information for parents and a second adult emergency contact. h Stay informed. Listen to official reports and instructions on the radio or television.Finally, review your emergency plan and assemble h If officials order an evacuation, cooperateand maintain an emergency supply kit at home, at quickly and follow their instructions regardingwork, and in your car. evacuation routes and shelter locations. h If officials tell you to “Shelter in Place,” they mean for you to stay inside your home, vehicleWhat You Can Do During an Attack or workplace until it is safe to come out. They will provide you with detailed instructions.Terrorists are counting on surprise, fear, and h Do not leave your sheltered location or return toconfusion to add to the impact of their actions. If the evacuated area until local officials confirmyou realize an attack is underway, gather all your that it is safe to do so.strength to pause and think. Look around you to see h Implement your family emergency plan andwhat is happening, and what immediate steps you notify your out-of-state contact of your locationcan take to protect yourself and others. and status. h Be aware of the psychological impact thath If there is flying debris, drop down; take cover terrorism can inflict even when it happens to under something sturdy, and hold on to it with people you do not know personally. one hand while protecting your head and neck with the other.h If there is smoke, get near the floor, cover your mouth and nose with a cloth, and move carefully toward the nearest marked exit.h If it is necessary to evacuate, try to do so calmly. Use only marked exits and stairways. Never use elevators. Help others who are moving more slowly or who may be disoriented.16
  • 20. Natural Disasters& Extreme Weather • Earthquakes are a reality of life in Southern California. Learn the 7 Steps to Earthquake Safety. • Learn what to do before and after a flood hits and how to prepare. • Learn to reduce the risk of injury and property loss from landslides, mudslides and other types of ground failure. • Understand the real threat of a tsunami and learn smart ways to react. • Learn how to protect your home from wildfires and prepare your household for evacuation. • Prevent injuries from excessive heat exposure and learn to spot heat related conditions and symptoms. • Be prepared for fire or ice!
  • 21. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Earthquake: Fact or Fiction? The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the American Red Cross, and other official preparedness organizations reaffirm that Drop! Cover! Hold On! is the appropriate action to reduce injury and death during earthquakes. You are much more likely to be injured by falling or flying objects (TVs, lamps, bookcases, etc.) than to die in a building collapse. The Drop! Cover! Hold On! position will protect you from most of these objects. The alternative theory leaves you exposed to injury. Most injuries in U.S. earthquakes occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave. Practice Drop! Cover! Hold On! at school, in the office, and other buildings so that when the earth shakes, you’ll be ready. Should I get in a doorway during an earthquake? What Should I Do During An enduring earthquake image of California is a collapsed adobe home with the door frame as the only an Earthquake? standing part. From this came our belief that a doorway is the safest place to be during an earthquake. True—Drop! Cover! Hold On! Drop to the floor; take cover if you live in an old, unreinforced adobe house. Inunder a sturdy desk or table, and hold on to it firmly. Be modern houses, doorways are no stronger than anyprepared to move with it until the shaking stops. This other part of the house and usually have doors thatis the safest action when the earth begins to shake. will swing and can injure you. It is much safer to Drop!If you are not near a desk or table, drop to the floor Cover! Hold On!against an interior wall and protect your head and neckwith your arms. If you are in bed, hold on and staythere, protecting your head with a pillow. Can earthquakes be predicted? Scientists continue to study all aspects of earthquakes,Recently an e-mail has been circulating which including how they may be predicted. Unfortunatelydescribes actions to take during an earthquake, no method has been shown to be reliable in anyincluding an alternative to Drop! Cover! Hold On! timeframe. To be useful, predictions must be specificand advice to run outside when an earthquake begins. in time, location, and size. We know there will beThe advice in this e-mail is potentially life-threatening, hundreds of earthquakes throughout seismic regionsand the author has been broadly discredited. each year, but very few will be large enough to cause damage, and we don’t know exactly when and where 17
  • 22. the large earthquakes will occur. Until this information We have good building codes so we must havecan be known, it is important to always be ready for good buildings, right?large earthquakes that may happen anytime. The best building codes in the world do nothing for buildings built before a code was enacted. While theDo big earthquakes always happen in the codes have been updated, the older buildings areearly morning? still in place. Fixing problems in older buildings—This myth may be so common because we want it to retrofitting—is the responsibility of the building’sbe true. Several recent damaging earthquakes have owner.been in the early morning, so many people believe thatall big earthquakes happen then. In fact, earthquakes Will the earth open up and swallow me oroccur at all times of day. The 1933 Long Beach my home?earthquake was at 5:54 pm and the 1940 Imperial A popular literary device is a fault that opens during anValley event was at 8:37 pm. More recently, the 1992 earthquake to swallow up an inconvenient character.Joshua Tree earthquake was at 9:50 pm and the 2003 However, gaping faults exist only in novels andSan Simeon event was at 11:15 am. It is easy to notice movies. The ground moves across a fault during anthe earthquakes that fit the pattern and forget the ones earthquake, not away from it. If the fault could open,that don’t. there would be no friction. Without friction, there would be no earthquake!What is earthquake weather?Many people believe that earthquakes are more LEARN MOREcommon in certain kinds of weather. In fact, nocorrelation with weather has been found. Earthquakes Portions of this bulletin are from Putting Down Rootsbegin many kilometers below the region affected in Earthquake Country ( surface weather. Again, people tend to notice info) and are used with permission of the Southernearthquakes that fit the pattern and forget the ones California Earthquake Center ( Thesethat don’t! Also, every region of the world has a story websites have more information about earthquakeabout earthquake weather, but the type of weather hazards and what to do before, during and after ais whatever they had for their most memorable large earthquake. Experiencing an earthquake canearthquake. be a frightening and confusing experience. Knowing what just happened can reduce our fear and help usWill California fall into the ocean? understand what to expect next. Several websitesThe idea of California falling into the ocean has had will have information quickly after major enduring appeal to those envious of life in the To know where the earthquake was centered and itsGolden State. Of course, the ocean is not a great magnitude, visit To know howhole into which California can fall, but it is itself land strongly the ground shook throughout the region, visitat a somewhat lower elevation with water above it. shakemap. To reportThe motion of plates will not make California sink— your experience in the earthquake and see mapsCalifornia is moving horizontally along the San of what other people report, visit http://pasadena.Andreas fault and up around the Transverse Ranges. Similar websites also exist for other areas of the U.S. and can be accessed throughIs there anywhere in California I can these links.escape earthquakes?Most seismologists believe that damaging earthquakes More information about what to do during ancan occur virtually anywhere in California. Historically, earthquake is at of the Central Valley, north of Bakersfield andthe north-easternmost part of the state have had lowerlevels of seismic activity than the coastal regions, theSierra Nevada, or Southern California.18
  • 23. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Floods destructive. Flooding can also occur when a dam breaks, producing effects similar to flash floods. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water, or downstream from a dam. Even very small streams, gullies, dry streambeds, or low-lying ground that appear harmless in dry weather can flood. Be very cautious when near or crossing streams, rivers, flood control channels and flooded intersections. Every state is at risk from this hazard. Use this information and the recommendations on the reverse side of this Focus Sheet to help reduce your risk of death, injury, and property losses from flooding wherever you live, work, or play. Before the Flood Warning or Watch Don’t Get Swept Off Your Feet! Be prepared to respond to flooding by taking theFloods are one of the most common hazards in the following actions before the rains and flooding begin:United States. They can cause deaths, injuries,significant property damage, and also contaminate h Assemble emergency supply kits for your home,drinking water and disrupt electrical service. These workplace, and vehicle.effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or h Store a seven-day supply of food and water (atcommunity, or regional, affecting entire river basins least one gallon per person, per day) in closed,and multiple states. clean containers.All floods are not alike. Some floods develop h Store the following materials for protectingslowly, sometimes over a period of days. Flash your home in a location away from potentialfloods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a flooding:few minutes and without any visible signs of rain. h SandbagsFlash floods often have a dangerous wall of roaring h Plastic sheetingwater that carries rocks, mud, and other debris and h Plywoodcan sweep away most things in its path. Overland h Lumberflooding occurs outside a defined river or stream,such as when a levee is breached, but still can be h Teach children not to play in or near rivers, 19
  • 24. streams, or other areas of potential flooding. h Listen to the radio or watch television forh Maintain fuel in your cars; electrical outages information and instructions. might make gasoline pumps inoperable. h Use the phone only to report dangeroush Identify safe routes from your home or work place conditions or emergencies that are life to high, safe ground. Determine whether you threatening. Report damaged utilities to the can use these routes during flooding or storms. appropriate agencies. Be familiar with your geographic surroundings.h Check with your local public works building or After the flood h Listen to the radio or watch television for planning department to see if you live in an information and instructions from local area subject to flooding. officials.h Clear debris and overgrowth from gutters and h Call your utility companies to restore service. storm drains. h Do not use fresh or canned foods that haveh Notify your local department of public works come in contact with flood waters. about debris and overgrowth in public drainage facilities. h Follow the instructions of local officials regardingh Work with neighbors to solve potential drainage the safety of drinking water. Boil or purify water if you’re in doubt. Pump out wells and test the problems and to avoid diverting debris onto their water before drinking. properties. Consult a licensed civil engineer if you’re in doubt. h Avoid going into disaster areas.h Identify an out-of-state contact so that friends h Stay away from live electrical equipment in wet and relatives can obtain information about your areas. Check electrical equipment or appliances condition and whereabouts. that come in contact with water before using them.When there is a flood warning or watch h Maintain a safe distance from downed powerh Relocate valuables from lower to upper floors. lines and broken gas lines; immediately reporth Be prepared to move to a safe area, before flood them to the appropriate utility. waters cut off access, when local authorities h Use flashlights, rather than lanterns, candles or advise. matches, to check on the condition of buildings.h Disconnect all electrical appliances or turn Flammables may be present. off electric circuits at the fuse panel or circuit breaker panel before evacuating. Flood insurance Damage and other flooding losses are not covered by most homeowner’s insurance policies. However,During the floodh Avoid unnecessary trips. the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offers special flood insurance through itsh Do not drive or walk through moving water. You National Flood Insurance Program. Contact your can be knocked off your feet in as little as 6 insurance agent or call FEMA at (800) 638-6620 or inches of water. visit for more information.h Do not “sightsee” or enter restricted areas. Extracted and adapted from “Be Winter Wise,” published by the Californiah Stay away from streams, rivers, flood control Governor’s Office of Emergency Services, “Be Flood Aware,” published by the channels and other areas subject to sudden Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, and FEMA’s Flood website ( flooding.h Move to higher ground if you’re caught by rising waters.20
  • 25. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Landslides and Mudslides injury or death. Mudslides, however, are much more dangerous. According to the California Geological Survey, mudslides can easily exceed speeds of 10 miles per hour and often flow at rates of more than 20 mph. Because mudslides travel much faster than landslides, they can cause deaths, injuries and significant property damage. Wherever you live, work, or play, take the actions on this sheet to help reduce your risk of death, injury and property losses from landslides, mudslides and other types of ground failure. Before the Landslide/Mudslide You can reduce the potential impacts of land movement by doing the following: The Ground Can Move h Assume that burn areas and canyon, hillside, Without a Quake! mountain and other steep areas are more likely to have landslides and mudslides.When most people think about ground movement, h Limit the height of plants near buildings to they probably envision images of the ground below 18 inches.them moving from side to side, or up and down, h Use plants and bushes that are less likely toduring an earthquake. burn and keep them watered. This not only helps with landslides/ mudslides but is alsoIt is important that residents who live on steep helpful for fire safety.hillsides and in canyons be prepared for landslides. h Water landscape to promote early growth.Areas that don’t have grass, trees, shrubs andplants, such as after a fire, are more likely to have h Eliminate litter and dead and dry vegetation.landslides. This includes sliding, falling and flowing h Inspect slopes for increases in cracks, holessoil, rock, mud, brush and trees, especially during and other changes.or after heavy rains. h Build away from steep slopes. h Build away from the bottoms or mouths of steepSlow-moving landslides can cause significant ravines and drainage damage, but they usually don’t cause 21
  • 26. h Consult with a soil engineer or an engineering When It Rains geologist to minimize the potential impacts of landslides. h Monitor the amount of rain during intenseh Develop a family plan that includes: storms. More than three to four inches of rain h Out-of-state contact per day, or 1/2-inch per hour, have been known to trigger mudslides. h Place to reunite if family members are separated h Look for geological changes near your home: h Routes to evacuate h New springs h Locations of utility shut-offs h Cracked snow, ice, soil or rocksh Store the following emergency supplies: h Bulging slopes h Food h New holes or bare spots on hillsides h Water h Tilted trees h First aid kit h Muddy waters h Flashlights and batteries h Listen to the radio or watch television for h Battery-operated radios information and instructions from local officials. h Special medications/eye care products h Implement protection measures whenh Store an evacuation kit that includes: necessary: h Cash (small bills and change) h Anticipate runoff and place sandbags in areas as needed h Important documents h Board up windows and doors h Birth certificates h Prepare to evacuate if requested to do so. h Insurance policies h Marriage certificates h Respect the power of the potential mudslide. Remember, mudslides move quickly and can h Mortgage documents cause damage and kill. h Irreplaceable objects h Prioritize protection measures: h Games, toys for children h Make your health and safety and that ofh Purchase supplies to protect your home: family members the number one priority. h Hammer h Make your home the number two priority. h Nails h Plywood Key Considerations h Rain gauge h Sand h Use permanent measures, rather than sandbags, h Sandbags if possible. h Shovel h Deflect, rather than stop or dam, debris.h Contact your local public works department for h Use solutions that do not create problems for information on protection measures. your neighbors. Extracted and adapted from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works publication “Homeowners Guide for Flood, Debris and Erosion Control” and the California Department of Conservation publications “Hazards from Mudslides—Debris Avalanches and Debris Flows in Hillside and Wildfire Areas” and “Landslide Facts.”22
  • 27. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Tsunamis The first tsunami wave is seldom the highest or the last. Waves will continue to arrive for several hours, spaced minutes to hours apart. In fact, hundreds and perhaps thousands of people in the affected south Asian nations died in the catastrophic 2004 tsunami when they went to the ocean to see the impacts of the first waves and were swept to their deaths when subsequent waves struck. The time it takes for tsunami waves to reach the coast depends on where the earthquake or underwater landslide occurs. A tsunami caused by an earthquake a few miles off the coast is called a “locally generated” tsunami. It will arrive within minutes of the quake. Residents of coastal communities probably will feel such an earthquake. The earthquake may be the only warning of an approaching tsunami so it is important to respond quickly. You Can’t Surf These Waves!You may not live near the coast, but you may visit The Threat in Californiabeaches and coastal cities. Wherever you live, workor play, use the information on the reverse side of Tsunamis caused by large earthquakes centeredthis ESP information sheet to learn more about the near Alaska and other distant parts of the Pacifictsunami threat and what to do if a tsunami occurs or Ocean are called “distant source” tsunamis. Theif a tsunami watch or warning is issued. first waves from these events take several hours to reach the California coastline. The West CoastContrary to popular belief, a tsunami isn’t one and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center will issue agiant wave. It is a series of waves most commonly Tsunami Warning or Tsunami Watch if an Alaskangenerated by great earthquakes below the ocean or Pacific tsunami threatens California.floor. Underwater landslides also can causetsunamis. More than a dozen tsunamis with waves three feet high or more have struck California since 1812. SixTsunamis can travel at speeds up to 500 miles per caused damage. The tsunami generated by thehour in the open sea and reach heights of up to 100 1964 Alaska earthquake killed a dozen Crescentfeet in shallow coastal waters. Usually, however, City residents and caused more than $34 million intsunamis that reach California average 10 feet in damage. Three tsunamis flooded Santa Barbaraheight and peak in the 20-40 foot range. 23
  • 28. during the 1800’s; a tsunami resulting from a routes that are safe.Chilean earthquake damaged a pier in San Diego h Develop or update your family’s emergencyHarbor in 1960; and one-foot waves resulted plan.from the 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquake were h Assemble an emergency supply kit, if youdetected near Santa Barbara. haven’t done so. Include a portable radio. h Identify a friend or relative living in anotherHistorically, while tsunamis have caused greater state as your family point of contact.casualties and damage in northern California, and h Learn first aid.while the threat of local and distant tsunamis is h Teach family members how and when to turngreater on the north coast, southern California also off the utilities.has significant risk because of its large coastalpopulation. h Join a Community Emergency Response Team.Most common mention of tsunamis in California is During and after the tsunami or tsunami watchwhen a tsunami advisory is given. h If you feel an earthquake, Drop! Cover! Hold On! until the shaking stops. Estimate how longWhat is a tsunami advisory? the shaking lasted. If severe shaking lastedh A tsunami advisory indicates a tsunami 20 seconds or more, immediately evacuate which may produce strong currents and is to high ground as a tsunami might have been dangerous to those in or very near where the generated by the earthquake. water is expected. h Move inland two miles or to land that is ath Large inundations are not expected in least 100 feet above sea level immediately. areas under advisory status. Don’t wait for officials to issue a warning. Walk quickly, rather than drive, to avoid traffic,h Advisories will be cancelled, extended, or debris and other hazards. upgraded to a warning depending on the event severity. h Stay away from coastal or low-lying areas until an “all clear” notice has been issued by localh Advisories are issued when the expected emergency officials. Waves might continue to tsunami amplitude is in the range of 0.3 to arrive for several hours. 1 meter. h Use common sense. Do not go to the coast toBefore the next tsunami or tsunami warning see a tsunami. Tsunamis are not like regular waves. They are much faster, higher and areh Determine the elevation of your home and filled with debris. how far it is from the coast. Know whether you live in a tsunami danger zone. h Obey evacuation notices. Listen to the radio or watch television for emergency information andh If you live within a couple of miles of the instructions from local officials about re-entry. coast, identify a location to go if a tsunami strikes. The location should be at least two h Contact your local office of emergency miles inland or 100 feet above sea level. services for more information about preparing for tsunamis.h Learn the signs of an approaching tsunami. If the tide rises or recedes rapidly, move Extracted and adapted from “Tsunami! How to Survive This Hazard on California’s North Coast,” Humboldt Earthquake Education immediately inland to higher ground. Center, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA; Other sources included the FEMA publication “Are You Ready? Your guide toh Ask local emergency officials or your planning disaster preparedness,” and from information provided by the department what areas are susceptible to the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA), Earthquake and Tsunami Program and NOAA’s National Weather Service West flooding from a tsunami. Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center.h Locate refuge areas and learn evacuation24
  • 29. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Wildfires life, your family, and protect your home from a devastating wildfire. Create Defensible Space Around Your Home Defensible space is the area around your home that is free of flammable plants and objects. This space is wide enough to prevent the flames and heat from a wildfire to reach your home. There are two zones to help protect your property, as you can see in the diagram above. Zone 1 extends 30 feet out from all buildings, structures, decks, etc. To increase your protection, remove flammable vegetation within 30 feet of your home, or 50 feet if you live in areas determined to be “High Hazard.” Get Ready, Set, Go! In Zone 2, thin out or remove vegetation an additional 70 feet from your home, for a total ofOn August 26, 2009, an arsonist ignited the Station 100 feet. High Hazard Areas may require up to 100Fire in the Angeles National Forest bordering Los additional feet, for a total of 200 feet.Angeles County, and became the largest wildfirein its recorded history. It burned 160,577 acres– roughly the size of the City of Chicago – killedtwo Los Angeles County firefighters, and burneduntil mid-October. Fire is, and always has been,a natural part of Southern California’s landscape. These wildfires are often fueled by dry vegetationand driven by hot, dry “Santa Ana” winds, makingthem extremely dangerous and impossible tocontrol. Fire season is now year-round and requireseveryone to be on heightened alert, especially forthose living in wildland area communities. Following these simple steps from the Ready, Set,Go! Personal Wildfire Action Plan may save your 25
  • 30. Get READY…Get in the Zone! h Roof your home with fire-resistant material. h Block any spaces to prevent ember intrusion.You can make your home more defensible so that it h All vent openings should be covered with has the greatest chance of surviving a wildfire. For 1/8 inch metal mesh. Fiberglass will melt homes in High Fire Hazard Areas, the Los Angeles and burn.County Fire Department’s Fuel Modification h Ensure that all trees are far away from powerProgram helps protect homes and neighborhoods requiring specific vegetation planted in three h Install dual-paned windows with exteriorzones (Zones A, B, and C). tempered glass to reduce breakage in a fire. Heat from a wildfire can cause windows toTake a look at these three zones to become more break before the home ignites.familiar with what should be planted around yourhome. When added up, these zones extend over h Fire-resistant building materials, such as brick,300 feet from your home, and each is designed to cement, masonry, or stucco, provide morekeep wildfire from reaching your home. protection than wood-siding. h Keep a fire extinguisher and tools, such as a shovel, rake, bucket, and hoe, easilyLearn How to “Harden” Your Home accessible.Embers from a wildfire will find the weak link inyour home’s construction and the quality of the h Screen or enclose rain gutters to prevent“defensible space” surrounding it. You can safeguard accumulation of plant debris.your home by assessing it and taking these steps h Have multiple garden hoses long enough toto “harden” it from the threat of wildfire: reach any area of your home.26
  • 31. Get SET – Prepare your Family o Papers, phone numbers and important documents.Your Wildfire Action Plan should be prepared with o Prescriptions, vitamins, and eyeglasses.all members of your household well in advance of a o Pictures and irreplaceable memorabiliafire. Once you finish your plan, rehearse it regularly o Personal computers (information on hardwith your family and keep it in a safe, accessible drive and discs).place. Below is a partial checklist; more preparation o “Plastic” (credit cards, ATM cards) lists are available at and cash.h Create and rehearse a Family Disaster h Leave early enough to avoid being caught in Plan that includes meeting locations and fire, smoke, or road congestion. communication plans. h Don’t wait to be told by authorities to leave. Theyh Keep fire extinguishers on hand and train your may not have time to knock on every door. family on how to use them. h Have a predetermined meeting place.h Make sure your family knows where the gas, h Have several escape routes. electric and water main shut-off controls are and how to use them.h Plan several different escape routes.h Assemble an emergency supply kit and keep an extra one in your car.h Maintain emergency contact numbers.h Appoint an out-of-state friend or relative as a point of contact.h Keep a portable radio or scanner available. GO Early – Don’t Hesitate!Don’t wait until the fire comes to your neighborhood.By leaving early, you will give your family the bestchance of survival. You will also help firefightersby keeping the roads clear of congestion, whichwill help them move more freely and do their job tosave your home! To get started, make a kit of thefollowing items:h Keep a pair of old shoes and a flashlight handy for a night evacuation.h Keep the six “P’s” ready for immediate evacuation: o People and pets 27
  • 32. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Heat Waves Exposure to sunlight is a mixed blessing. Although sun is necessary for life, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is potentially dangerous and can damage the skin. Varied burns result from prolonged exposure to UV rays, but some people also may burn from very little exposure. Ultraviolet rays can significantly keep the skin from compensating for the excess heat. Overexposure to heat or excessive exercise in the heat also can cause other injuries. The severity of such injuries increases with age; heat cramps in a younger person may be heat exhaustion in a middle-aged person, but may be heatstroke in an elderly person. This occurs because the person has not adapted to the heat and is unable to adjust It Can Get Too Hot! to changes in the body.During an average summer, some 200 people Heat Conditions, Symptomsacross the country die due to heat injuries from and First Aidexposure to high summer temperatures.Clearly, heat can be a force, particularly in Southern What you might see in a heat injuryCalifornia, where temperatures exceeding 100 Sunburn is usually a first-degree burn that involvesdegrees in the suburban valleys and 110 degrees just the outer surface of the skin. Symptomsin the low desert areas are not uncommon during include redness and pain. Severe cases may causethe summer and fall. swelling, blisters, fever of 102 degrees or above and headaches.Heat-wave emergencies can strike very quickly. In1995, for example, the city of Chicago’s medical First Aid: Use ointments, as well as cool baths orexaminer received reports regarding the first heat- compresses, for less severe cases. Don’t breakrelated fatalities at 9 p.m. on a Friday night. By 8 the blisters; if blisters do break, use a dry germ-a.m. the following morning, an additional 87 people free dressing. In severe cases consult a physician.had died. These deaths were caused directly by Drink plenty of water.the heat.28
  • 33. Preventing Heat InjuriesHeat cramps often are related to dehydration.Symptoms include increased sweating with painfulmuscle spasms of the arms, legs and occasionally What You Can Do to Preventthe abdomen. Heat InjuriesFirst Aid: Remove the victim from the hot h Avoid the sun from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. environment. Apply pressure on or gently massage when the burning rays are strongest. the spastic muscles to relieve spasms. h Reduce physical activity. h Wear a wide-brimmed hat and light colored,Heat exhaustion is the inability to sweat enough to lightweight, loose-fitting clothes when you’recool yourself. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, outdoors. This type of clothing reflects heat anddizziness, nausea or vomiting as well as cold, sunlight, which helps you maintain a normalclammy, pale, red or flushed skin. A marked body body temperature.temperature rise will not occur. h Avoid sudden changes of temperatures, (i.e., air out a hot car before getting into it).First Aid: Remove the victim from the heat. Lay the h Avoid hot, heavy meals that include proteins. victim down and loosen the clothing. Apply cold They increase your metabolism and water loss, compresses and cool the body by fanning the and raise your body’s natural way of cooling. victim or placing the victim in a cool environment. Consult a physician if vomiting continues. h Set your air conditioning thermostat between 75 and 80 degrees. If you don’t have an airHeatstroke occurs when the body stops sweating but conditioner, take a cool bath or shower twicethe body temperature continues to rise. Symptoms a day and visit air-conditioned public spacesinclude visual disturbances, headache, nausea, during the hottest hours of the day.vomiting, confusion and, as the condition progresses, h Drink plenty of fluids even if you aren’tdelirium or unconsciousness. The skin will be hot, thirsty. Eight to 10 glasses of water a day aredry, red or flushed even under the armpits. This recommended. Drink even more if you arecondition is a severe medical emergency that could exercising or working in hot fatal. h Do not drink alcohol or caffeine since they are diuretics and promote water loss.First Aid: Consult a physician immediately or call h Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor 9-1-1. Remove clothing and place victim in a cool (SPF) of at least SPF 15 if you need to go out in environment, sponge the body with cool water the sun. or place the victim in a cool bath. Continue the process until temperature decreases. DO NOT Extracted and adapted from “Heat Illness Prevention,” American College of PROVIDE FLUIDS to an unconscious victim. Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. 29
  • 34. County of Los Angeles Office of Emergency Management Fire & Ice Your home h Follow building, fire and hazard abatement codes. h Install non-flammable screens with mesh 1/2 inch or less on chimneys and enclose all roof eaves with fire resistant material such as aluminum or steel and place metal mesh over all attic or roof vents. h Keep roofs and rain gutters free of needles, leaves, or other debris. h Enclose the underside of balconies and decks with fire resistant material, such as aluminum decking. h Inspect chimneys and screens twice annually. h Install a smoke alarm on each level of your home, especially in bedrooms, and test them monthly. Your yardSevere weather conditions can cause wildland h Clear the brush away from your home (afires, heat waves, and winter storms. Winter storms minimum of 100 feet).have caused many disasters, as recently as the h Trim all trees and tree branches away fromwinter of 2010. Hundreds of residents living in theburned out areas adjacent to the Station Fire of electrical lines and chimneys. (Use a professional2009 in Los Angeles County experienced severe to trim near utilities and power lines)mudslides following major rainstorm activity and h Remove weak, dead, and leaning trees andneeded to be evacuated to safety. Many of their bark beetle infested were damaged, and recovery efforts will h Stack firewood at least 30 feet away from yourtake years to complete and cost millions of dollars. home or other structures.Timely preparation and key action steps to protect h Store all combustible or flammable liquids inyour home and property will help avoid the effects of approved storage containers.severe winter weather, including the financial costs. h Locate all propane tanks at least 30 feet from any structure.Snow and ice on roadways can also create h Use fire-retardant plants and bushes to replacehazardous driving conditions, especially in highly combustible vegetation.mountainous areas where driving is impaired. Evenif you don’t live in severe or winter storm areas, youmight travel to or visit these areas. Be aware of thesewinter hazards and be prepared to handle them.30
  • 35. When wildland fires approach h Work with neighbors to assist:h Listen to the radio or watch television for h People with special needs instructions. h People who need transportation to otherh Evacuate as soon as directed by public safety sites officials or when danger is perceived. h Work with local emergency officials to identify:h Park your vehicles facing the direction of escape h Several routes out of your neighborhood with windows rolled up. h Likely evacuation sites or safe refuge areash Place your disaster supplies kit and evacuation kit along with valuables and other essentials in your vehicle. Winter storm preparedness h Be familiar with winter storm warning messages,h Secure pets and livestock and prepare them for such as a flood watch or warning. evacuation. h Make sure you have sufficient heating fuel inh Leave your electricity on and leave inside case regular fuel sources are cut off. lights on. h Have safe emergency heating equipmenth If time permits, cover up by wearing long available. pants, a long sleeved shirt, goggles, cap, and bandana. 100% cotton is preferable. h Install and check smoke alarms.h Close doors behind you when evacuating to h Have disaster supplies on hand, in case you slow down the flames, smoke, and heat. have to shelter in place or in case the powerh Help young children, seniors, and persons with goes out. disabilities to evacuate safely. h Develop an emergency communication plan. h Keep cars and other vehicles fueled and in good repair.Plan for evacuationh Develop and practice a home evacuation plan. h If you are in low-lying areas, keep sandbags, Your plan should include: plywood, and plastic sheeting on hand. h A floor plan with all escape routes h Easily accessible exits for young children, seniors and persons with disabilities. (Locate their rooms as close to exits as possible). h A list of valuables to take in an emergency. (Store them together in one location, if possible.) • Identify the most important papers to take if you have to leave, such as insurance policies, medical records, and driver’s license • Include medications and eyeglasses h A place to reunite after evacuation h The location of animal shelters or other sites that house pets h Practice drills 31
  • 36. (California Emergency Management Agency) (State of California Agriculture Department) (Community Emergency Response Team) (Drop! Cover! Hold on!) (Drop! Cover! Hold on! – Spanish) (Earthquake Country Alliance/SCEC) (Emergency Survival Program) (Federal Emergency Management Agency) (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) (Los Angeles County Fire Department) (The Fire Safe Council) (The Humane Society of the United States) (Los Angeles County Office of Education) (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (Noah’s Wish-Animal Emergency Preparedness) (California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services) (Federal Emergency Management Agency) (American Red Cross) (Southern California Earthquake Center) (Team SAFE-T)
  • 37. www.espfocus.orgMarch 2012