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African Diaspora   Wikipedia African Diaspora Wikipedia Document Transcript

  • African diaspora From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The African Diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world - predominantly to the Americas, then later to Europe, the Middle East and other places around the globe. The term is applied in particular to the descendents of the Black Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population inBrazil (see Afro-Brazilian). People of Sub-Saharan descent number at least 800 million in Africa and over 140 million in the Western Hemisphere, representing around 14% of the world's population.[1][2] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Dispersal through slavery 3 Dispersal through migration 4 Definitions 5 Estimated population and distribution 6 Top 15 African diaspora populations 7 North America 8 Latin America 9 Europe o 9.1 United Kingdom o 9.2 France o 9.3 Netherlands o 9.4 Russia o 9.5 Turkey 10 The Americas 11 Canada 12 Indian and Pacific Oceans 13 See also 14 References 15 External links [edit]History Based on human genetics, it is widely believed that prehistoric Africans who left the continent within the past 100,000 years are the ancestors of all non-African humans. But as communities began to form, especially in Egypt and the Middle East, these migrations were greatly reduced because the only land route out of the African continent is through the Sinai Peninsula. After the rise of civilization and the development of sailing, black Africans traveled to the Middle East, Europe, and Asia in a number of occupations.[citation needed] Many of these individuals settled in Europe and Asia and invariably intermarried with the local populations.[citation needed] Today, human genetic research suggests that mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome haplotypes in Europeans and Asians have distant African ancestry. But these early migrations out of Africa are dwarfed by those associated with the Atlantic and Arab slave trades.[3] [edit]Dispersal through slavery See also: Atlantic Slave Trade and Arab Slave Trade Much of the African diaspora was dispersed throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Beginning in the 9th century, African slaves were taken from the northern and eastern portions of the continent into the Middle East and Asia. Then beginning in the 15th century, Africans were taken from much of the rest of the continent to Europe and later to the Americas. Both the Arab and Atlantic slave trades ended in the 19th century.[4] The dispersal through slave trading represents one of the largest migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating. Some communities created by descendants of Black African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day, but in other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks and their descendants blended into the local population. In the Americas, the confluence of multiple racial groups from around the world created a widespread mixing bowl effect. In Central and South America most people are descended from European, American Indian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, racist Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws maintained a distinction between racial groups. The adoption of the one drop rule defined anyone with any discernible African ancestry as African, even though the strictest application of that rule would categorize nearly all Americans as African.[3] [edit]Dispersal through migration From the very onset of Spanish activity in the Americas, Africans were present both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary colonists.[5][6] Juan Garrido was one such blackconquistador. He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the 1510s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan.[7] African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora. It is estimated that the current population of recent African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.[8]. Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S. are Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and South Africa. Some immigrants have come fromAngola, Cape Verde, Mozambique(see Luso American), Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, and Cameroon. Immigrants typically congregate in urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time. There are significant populations of African immigrants in many other countries around the world, including the UK[9] and France.[10][11] [edit]Definitions See also: Black people The African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Black Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World.[12] Their descendants are now found around the globe. Due to intermarriage and genetic assimilation, just who is a descendant of the Black African diaspora is not entirely self-evident. A few examples of populations on continents away from Africa who are seen as "Black" or who see themselves as "Black" because they descend from Black Africans are: African Americans. People in the United States who are of African descent. Afro-Caribbeans. People in the West Indies who identify themselves as of African descent. Afro-Latin Americans. Among these populations in South and Central America are those who identify as negros. Some identify as Afro-Latin Americans when they have high levels of admixture of other ethnicities, as well.
  • Afro-Arabs. Various people of the Middle East whose ancestors were brought during the Arab slave trade period.[13] Siddis. Inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan and India) of Black African descent. [edit]Estimated population and distribution [14] Continent or region Country population Afro-descendants Black and black-mixed population Caribbean 39,148,115 73.2% 22,715,518 Haiti 8,924,553 95% 8,701,439 Dominican Republic [15][16] 9,650,054 84% 8,106,054 Cuba[17] 11,451,652 34.9% 3,999,626 [18] Jamaica 2,804,332 97.4% 2,731,419 Trinidad and Tobago 1,047,366 58.00% 607,472 Puerto Rico 3,958,128 11.30% 447,268* The Bahamas[19] 307,451 85.00% 209,000 Barbados 281,968 90.00% 253,771 Netherlands Antilles 225,369 85.00% 191,564 Saint Lucia 172,884 82.5% 142,629 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 118,432 85.00% 100,667 Virgin Islands 108,210 79.70% 86,243 Grenada 110,000 91.00% 101,309 Antigua and Barbuda 78,000 94.90% 63,000 Bermuda 66,536 61.20% 40,720 Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,619 98.00% 38,827 Cayman Islands 47,862 60.00% 28,717 British Virgin Islands 24,004 83.00% 19,923 [20] Turks and Caicos islands 26,000 34.00% 18,000 Europe 590,856,462.00 4.1% 9,300,999 [21][22] France 62,752,136 5% (inc. French Guiana and other territories) 3,000,000 Netherlands[23] 16,491,461 3.1% 507,000 United Kingdom 60,609,153 3.0% (inc. partial) 2,015,400 Italy[24] 59,448,163 1.3% 755,000 Turkey 73,914,000 ?% 700,000 Spain 40,397,842 1.3% 505,400 Germany 82,000,000 0.6% 500,000[6] [25] Russia 141,594,000 0.12% 400,000 Portugal 10,605,870 2.0% 201,200 Sweden 9,263,872 ?% 70,000 Belgium 10,666,866 ?% 45,000 Republic of Ireland 4,339,000 1.1% 43,000 Finland 5,340,783 ?% 20,000 Poland 38,082,000 0.002% 5,780 Hungary[26] 10,198,325 0.003% 321 Asia 3,879,000,000 ?% ? Israel[27] 7,411,000 2.8% 200,000 Japan[28] 127,756,815 ?% 10,000 - India[29] 1,132,446,000 .003% 40,000 Pakistan 172,900,000 ?% 10,000 China[30] 1,321,851,888 ?% 8,000+ Singapore 4,839,400 ?% 6,900 South America/Central America 425,664,476 23.9% 101,532,873 Belize 301,270 31.00% 93,394 Guatemala 13,002,206 2.00% 260,044 El Salvador 7,066,403 < 0.01% 0* Honduras 7,639,327 2.00% 152,787
  • Nicaragua 5,785,846 9.00% 520,726 Costa Rica 4,195,914 3.00% 125,877 Panama 3,292,693 14.00% 460,977 Colombia [31] 45,013,674 26.0% 11,703,555 [32][33] Venezuela 26,414,815 Between 10-26.5% 2,641,481 - 6,999,926* Guyana 770,794 36.00% 277,486 Suriname 475,996 47.00% 223,718 French Guiana 199,509 66.00% 131,676 Brazil 191,908,598 44.70% 85,783,143 Ecuador 13,927,650 3.00% 417,830 Peru 29,180,899 3.00% 875,427 Bolivia 9,247,816 1.1% 108,000 Chile 16,454,143 < 0.1% 0* Paraguay 6,831,306 < 0.1% 0* Argentina 40,677,348 < 0.1% 0* Uruguay 3,477,778 4.00% 139,111 North America 440,244,038 11.8% 39,264,514 [34] United States 298,444,215 12.90% 38,499,304 Canada[35] 33,098,932 2.7% 783,795 Mexico 108,700,891 <1.00% 103,000 Oceania Australia[36] 21,000,000 0.9% (includes partial) 248,605 Sub-Saharan Africa 770,300,000 95.8%-98.4% 738,160,600-758,197,730 738,160,600 [37] Kenya 39,002,772 99% 38,612,744 Madagascar 19,625,000 0-79%(latter including mixed) 0-15,503,750 15,503,750 [38] Mauritius 1,227,078 27%(including mixed) 331,311 no official figures allowed; estimates for mixed race range from 15%[39] and 59.4%[40]. Réunion 827,000 347,340-491,238 491,238 Estimates for only African/Malagasy go up to 35%[39] [41] INSEE estimated the mixed race population at 42% in 1974 South Africa 49,320,000 79.5%-88.4%(latter including mixed)[42] 39,209,400-43,598,880 43,598,880 Tanzania 41,048,532 99%[42] 40,638,047 [43] Zimbabwe 11,392,629 98% 11,164,776 Outside Africa 5,821,000,000 2.9% 168,879,165 Total 6,591,000,000 13.8%-14% 907,039,760-927,076,890 907,039,760 (*)Note that population statistics from different sources and countries use highly divergent methods of rating the "race", ethnicity, or national or genetic origin of ethnicity, individuals, from observing for color and racial characteristics, to asking the person to choose from a set of pre-defined choices, sometimes with an Other defined category, and sometimes with an open-ended option, and sometimes not, which different national populations tend to choose in divergent ways. Color and visual ended characteristics were considered an invalid way to determine the genetic "racial" branch in anthopology (the field of science that original conceived of "race as a "race", genetic branch of people who could have a relative success together compared with other branches, now considered invalid) as of 1910, thus not fully reflecting the percentage of the population who actually are of African heritage. [edit]Top 15 African diaspora populations Country Population Rank Brazil 85,783,143 1 United States 38,499,304 2 Colombia 9,452,872 3 Haiti 8,701,439 4 Dominican Republic 7,985,991 5 France 3,000,000 6 Jamaica 2,731,419 7 Venezuela 2,641,481 - 6,999,926 8 United Kingdom 2,080,000 9 View slide
  • Cuba 1,126,894 10 Peru 875,427 11 Turkey 800,000 12 Canada 783,795 13 Italy 750,000 14 Trinidad and Tobago 610,000 15 Nicaragua 520,726 16 [edit]North America Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America. According to to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the first African populations came to North America in the 16th century via Mexico and the Caribbean to , [44] the Spanish colonies of Florida, Texas and other parts of the South. Out of the 12 million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade,[45] 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States; another 1,840,000 arrived at other British colonies, chiefly the West Indies.[46] In 2000, African Americans comprised 12.1 percent of the total population in the United States, constitutin the constituting largest racial minority group. The African American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas.[47] In the construction of the African Diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in e eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and undertaken exp [44] hostile environments. In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek , , employment as whalers inMassachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans, but . migration non by that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths, ’s shipbuilders, officers, and owners, eventually bringing their trade to California.[48] 1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub Saharan Africa. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants on sub-Saharan to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000.[49] Immigrants percent born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States most — 50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native native-born Americans.[50] The largest African immigrant communities in the United igrant States are in New York, followed by California, Texas, and Maryland.[49] The states with the highest percentages of Africans in their total populations are , the District of Columbia, followed by Mississippi, and Louisiana Refugees represent a minority. Louisiana. U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self self-identification.[51] The census surveys have no provision for a "multiracial" or "biracial" self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnic that way. identity, ethnicity [edit]Latin America Main article: Afro-Latin American At an intermediate level, in Latin America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define around because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Argentina or Chile), [52] few if any are considered Black today. In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican Republic), the number is larger, but most are of ), mixed ancestry.[53] [edit]Europe Main article: Afro-European The Situation in Europe In Council of Europe countries, African Diasporans and their descendants are neither specifically identified nor described in national identified statistics by the colour of their skin. At best, both first and subsequent generations are described in national statistics as “foreign born citizens”. Of 42 countries as surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity. The major result of this routine is that even though people of African descent may outnumber other ethnic minorities in some European countries, there is no statistical evidence to support the notion that they may qualify for special measures as minorities where they live. They are, in a word: invisible. (In "Basic Facts About the African Diaspora", by M. Arthur Robinson Facts Diakité, . [edit]United Kingdom Main article: Black British 2 million (not including British Mixed) split evenly between Afro-Caribbeans and Africans. ) [edit]France Afro-French or French African population live in overseas territories[54]. Estimates of 2 to 3 million of African descent, although 1/4 of the Afro see: Afro-French [edit]Netherlands About 500,000 of Surinamese and Dutch Antilles descent. They mainly live in the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao and Saint Martin (which is half French), but many Afro-Dutch people also live in the Netherlands. [edit]Russia The first blacks in Russia were the result of slave trade by the Ottoman empire[55] and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black Sea. Czar Peter the Sea Great was recommended by his friend Lefort to bring in Africans to Russia for hard labor. Alexander Pushkin was the descendant of the African princeling Abram Petrovich Gannibal, who became Peter's protege, was educated as a military engineer in France, and eventually became general-en-chef, responsible for the , chef, building of sea forts and canals in Russia.[56][57] [58] During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts. As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.[55][59][55] Note that there are also non-African people within the former Soviet Union who are colloquially referred to as "the blacks" ( African (chernye). Gypsies, Georgians, Gypsies and Tatars fall into this category[60]. See also: Racism in modern Russia. [edit]Turkey Main article: Afro-Turks Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans, usually via Zanzibar and from places like Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Nigeria were brought Saharan by Turkish slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations around Dalaman, Menderes and Gediz valleys, Manavgat, and Çukurova. Çukurova [edit]The Americas Main article: Afro Americans in the Americas African Americans - There are an estimated 40 million people of African descent in the US. Note that this figure (here, and in the chart, above) directl re directly conflicts with information in this same article that says that 30% of US people have genetic content from the [post 1400] Afr African diaspora. View slide
  • Afro-Latin American - There are an estimated 100 million people of African descent living in Latin America, making up 45 % of Brazil's population.[61] There are also sizeable African populations in Cuba, Haiti, Colombia, Dominican Republic and Venezuela. The population in the Caribbean is approximately 23 million. Significant numbers of African-descended people include Haiti - 8 million, Dominican Republic - 7.9 million, and Jamaica - 2.7 million,[62] [edit]Canada Main article: Black Canadians Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States, comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists or escaped along the Underground Railroad to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario.[citation needed] Slavery had begun to be outlawed in British North America as early as 1793. Later black immigration to Canada came primarily from the Caribbean, in such numbers that fully 70 per cent of all blacks now in Canada are of Caribbean origin. As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term "African Canadian", while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have direct African or African American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is considered inclusive of both the African and Caribbean black communities in Canada. [edit]Indian and Pacific Oceans Some Pan-Africanists also consider other Africoid peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos, such as in the case of the peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli);[63] New Guinea (Papuans);[64] Andamanese; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent,[65][66] notably Vedda people and Dravidians such as Tamils; and theaboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia.[67][68] Most of these claims are rejected by mainstream ethnologists as pseudoscience and pseudoanthropology as part of ideologically motivated Afrocentrist irredentism, touted primarily among some extremist elements in the United States who do not reflect on the mainstream African-American community[69]. Mainstream anthropologists determine that the Andamanese and others are part of a network of Proto-Australoid and Paleo Mediterranean ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian aboriginals rather than from African peoples directly (though indirectly, they did originate from prehistoric groups out of Africa as did all human beings on this planet).[70][71][72][73] [edit]See also List of topics related to Black and African people Afro-Irish Africana womanism Afro-Mexican Afro Americans in the Americas Afro-Peruvian Africans Afro-Turks African American Black British Afro Australian Afro-Guyanese African immigration to the United States Black Canadian Afro-Latino Afro-European Black People Afro-French Black Hispanic Black people in Ireland Afro-Brazilian Beta Israel Afro-Puerto Rican Capoid Afro-Trinidadian Chagossians Afro-Jamaicans Dougla Afro-Arab Negroid Afro-Belizean Siddi (Black African community in South Asia) Garinagu Afro-Colombian and Raizal Afro-Cuban Afro-Ecuadorian Afro-German Indo-African [edit]References 1. ^ Sub-Saharan Africa, The World Bank Group. 2. ^ Report on the African Diaspora Open House, The African Diaspora Medical Project. 3. ^ a b Olson, Steve (2003). Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0618352104. 4. ^ "Historical survey > The international slave trade". Slavery. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 5. ^ Warren, J. Benedict (1985). The Conquest of Michoacán. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 080611858X. 6. ^ Krippner-Martínez, James (October 1990). "The Politics of Conquest: An Interpretation of the Relación de Michoacán". The Americas 47 (2): 177–198. doi:10.2307/1007371. 7. ^ Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. p. 327. 8. ^ "Diversity in Black and White". 9. ^ Mensah, John Freelove. Persons Granted British Citizenship United Kingdom, 2006. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 08/07, 22 May 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 10. ^ Thomas, Dominic (2006). Black France: Colonialism, Immigration, And Transnationalism. Indiana University Press, 2006, ISBN 0253348218. 11. ^ Tattersall, Nick. Africans denounce French DNA immigration bill. Reuters Africa, 5 October 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007. 12. ^ Larson, Pier M. (1999). "Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar" (PDF). William and Mary Quarterly 56 (2): 335–62.. doi:10.2307/2674122. 13. ^ A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight ( 14. ^ CIA - The World Factbook 15. ^ U.S. Library of Congress 16. ^ [ Inter-American Dialouge] 17. ^ [1] 18. ^|-People 19. ^|-People 20. ^ Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Turks and Caicos Islands 21. ^[dead link] 22. ^ World 23. ^ 24. ^ ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), stranieri 2006 Africa Occidentale, Meridionale 25. ^ Мймй Зпмдео Й Мймй Дйлупо. Фемертпелф "Юетоще Тхуулйе": Уйопруйу 26. ^ Hungarian census 2001 27. ^ [2] 28. ^ POP AFRICA(Nagoya University) from the statictics at 2005 by the Immigration Bureau of Japan 29. ^ [3]
  • 30. ^ --> 31. ^ [ Inter-American Dialogue] 32. ^ Venezuela 33. ^ Seeing Black 34. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - United States 35. ^ Visible minority population, by province and territory (2001 Census) 36. ^ 20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex - Australia (2006) 37. ^ 38. ^ 39. ^ a b "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". 40. ^ 41. ^ Clicanoo. "La Réunion Métisse". 42. ^ a b 43. ^ 44. ^ a b Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 45. ^ Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 4. ISBN 0-374-11396-3. "It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] ... It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward." 46. ^ Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1. 47. ^ United States African-American Population. CensusScope, Social Science Data Analysis Network. Retrieved 17 December 2007. 48. ^ Heros in the Ships: African Americans in the Whaling Industry. Old Dartmouth Historical Society / New Bedford Whaling Museum, 2001. 49. ^ a b Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). The Immigration Waves: The numbers. In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 50. ^ Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). The Brain Drain. In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007. 51. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. State & County QuickFacts. Retrieved 6 November 2007. 52. ^ Harry Hoetink, Caribbean Race Relations: A Study of Two Variants (Lon-don, 1971), xii. 53. ^ Clara E. Rodriguez, "Challenging Racial Hegemony: Puerto Ricans in the United States," in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick NJ, 1994), 131-45, 137. See also Frederick P. Bowser, "Colonial Spanish America," in Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, ed. David W. Cohen and Jack P. Greene (Baltimore, 1972), 19-58, 38. 54. ^ 1/4 of the French African population comes from the Caribbean islands. in French 55. ^ a b Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English 56. ^ Gnammankou, Dieudonné. Abraham Hanibal - l’aïeul noir de Pouchkine, Paris 1996.[4] 57. ^ Barnes, Hugh. Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg, London 2005 58. ^ A New York Times review of family memoir entitled Three Very Rare Generations 59. ^ MediaRights: Film: Black Russians 60. ^ The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After Socialism By Caroline Humphrey Cornell University 2002 p36-37 61. ^ cia factbook 62. ^ 63. ^ Runoko Rashidi (2000-11-04). "Black People in the Philippines". Retrieved 2007-09-29. 64. ^ "West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma". 2007-07-25. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 65. ^ Iniyan Elango (2002-08-08). "Notes from a Brother in India: History and Heritage". Retrieved 2007-09-29. 66. ^ Horen Tudu (2002-08-08). "The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native's Perspective". Retrieved 2007-09-29. 67. ^ Runoko Rashidi (1999-11-19). "Blacks in the Pacific". Retrieved 2007-09-29. 68. ^ Micronesians 69. ^ Not Out Of Africa: How "Afrocentrism" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History by Mary Lefkowitz, New Republic Press, ISBN 046509838X, ISBN 978-0465098385 70. ^ "Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences", Journal of Biosciences Springer,0250-5991,Volume 28, Number 4 / June, 2003, DOI:10.1007/BF02705125, Pages:507-522, Subject Collection:Biomedical and Life Sciences, Date:Thursday, September 20, 2007 71. ^ Multiple origins of the mtDNA 9-bp deletion in populations of South India W.S. Watkins 1 *, M. Bamshad 2, M.E. Dixon 1, B. Bhaskara Rao 3, J.M. Naidu 3, P.G. Reddy 4, B.V.R. Prasad 3, P.K. Das 5, P.C. Reddy 6, P.B. Gai 7, A. Bhanu 8, Y.S. Kusuma 3, J.K. Lum 1, P. Fischer 2, L.B. Jorde 1,American Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 109 Issue 2, Pages 147 - 158, 2 June 1999 72. ^ P . ENDICOTT, The Genetic Origins of the Andaman Islanders . The American Journal of Human Genetics , Volume 72 , Issue 1 , Pages 178 - 184 73. ^ Genetic testing has shown the Andamani to belong to the Haplogroup D (Y-DNA), which is in common with Australian Aboriginals and the Ainu people of Japan rather than the actual African diaspora, [5] [edit]External links Africans in Diaspora community on line Black History Information and Resources "African Diaspora", a resource list, Columbia Universities, African Studies "The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native's Perspective," by Horen Tudu "Negrito and Negrillo", by M. Stewart "Pan-Africanism in South Asia," by Horen Tudu Report of the Meeting of Experts from Member States on the Definition of the African Diaspora, African Union, April 2005 "West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma" "Museum of the African Diaspora," Online exhibits and other resources from the San Francisco-based museum. "African Diasporic and Indigenous cultures of Colombia and Brasil" African Diaspora and Study Abroad Brazil African Studies The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC)