From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The African Diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world - predominantly to the Americas, then later to Europe,
the Middle East and other places around the globe.
The term is applied in particular to the descendents of the Black Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with
the largest population inBrazil (see Afro-Brazilian). People of Sub-Saharan descent number at least 800 million in Africa and over 140 million in the Western
Hemisphere, representing around 14% of the world's population.
2 Dispersal through slavery
3 Dispersal through migration
5 Estimated population and distribution
6 Top 15 African diaspora populations
7 North America
8 Latin America
o 9.1 United Kingdom
o 9.2 France
o 9.3 Netherlands
o 9.4 Russia
o 9.5 Turkey
10 The Americas
12 Indian and Pacific Oceans
13 See also
15 External links
Based on human genetics, it is widely believed that prehistoric Africans who left the continent within the past 100,000 years are the ancestors of all non-African
humans. But as communities began to form, especially in Egypt and the Middle East, these migrations were greatly reduced because the only land route out of the
African continent is through the Sinai Peninsula. After the rise of civilization and the development of sailing, black Africans traveled to the Middle East, Europe,
and Asia in a number of occupations. Many of these individuals settled in Europe and Asia and invariably intermarried with the local populations.[citation
Today, human genetic research suggests that mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome haplotypes in Europeans and Asians have distant African ancestry.
But these early migrations out of Africa are dwarfed by those associated with the Atlantic and Arab slave trades.
Dispersal through slavery
See also: Atlantic Slave Trade and Arab Slave Trade
Much of the African diaspora was dispersed throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Beginning in the 9th century,
African slaves were taken from the northern and eastern portions of the continent into the Middle East and Asia. Then beginning in the 15th century, Africans were
taken from much of the rest of the continent to Europe and later to the Americas. Both the Arab and Atlantic slave trades ended in the 19th century.
The dispersal through slave trading represents one of the largest migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating.
Some communities created by descendants of Black African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day, but in other cases, blacks intermarried
with non-blacks and their descendants blended into the local population. In the Americas, the confluence of multiple racial groups from around the world created a
widespread mixing bowl effect. In Central and South America most people are descended from European, American Indian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where
in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States,
racist Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws maintained a distinction between racial groups. The adoption of the one drop rule defined anyone with any discernible
African ancestry as African, even though the strictest application of that rule would categorize nearly all Americans as African.
Dispersal through migration
From the very onset of Spanish activity in the Americas, Africans were present both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary colonists. Juan Garrido was
one such blackconquistador. He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the 1510s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan.
African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora. It is estimated that the current population of recent African immigrants to the United
States alone is over 600,000.. Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S. are Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and South
Africa. Some immigrants have come fromAngola, Cape Verde, Mozambique(see Luso American), Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, and Cameroon. Immigrants typically
congregate in urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time.
There are significant populations of African immigrants in many other countries around the world, including the UK and France.
See also: Black people
The African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and
nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall
"invite and encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."
Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Black Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were
shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World. Their descendants are now found around the
globe. Due to intermarriage and genetic assimilation, just who is a descendant of the Black African diaspora is not entirely self-evident.
A few examples of populations on continents away from Africa who are seen as "Black" or who see themselves as "Black" because they descend from Black
African Americans. People in the United States who are of African descent.
Afro-Caribbeans. People in the West Indies who identify themselves as of African descent.
Afro-Latin Americans. Among these populations in South and Central America are those who identify as negros. Some identify as Afro-Latin Americans
when they have high levels of admixture of other ethnicities, as well.
Afro-Arabs. Various people of the Middle East whose ancestors were brought during the Arab slave trade period.
Siddis. Inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan and India) of Black African descent.
Estimated population and distribution
Continent or region Country population Afro-descendants Black and black-mixed population
Caribbean 39,148,115 73.2% 22,715,518
Haiti 8,924,553 95% 8,701,439
Dominican Republic  9,650,054 84% 8,106,054
Cuba 11,451,652 34.9% 3,999,626
Jamaica 2,804,332 97.4% 2,731,419
Trinidad and Tobago 1,047,366 58.00% 607,472
Puerto Rico 3,958,128 11.30% 447,268*
The Bahamas 307,451 85.00% 209,000
Barbados 281,968 90.00% 253,771
Netherlands Antilles 225,369 85.00% 191,564
Saint Lucia 172,884 82.5% 142,629
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 118,432 85.00% 100,667
Virgin Islands 108,210 79.70% 86,243
Grenada 110,000 91.00% 101,309
Antigua and Barbuda 78,000 94.90% 63,000
Bermuda 66,536 61.20% 40,720
Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,619 98.00% 38,827
Cayman Islands 47,862 60.00% 28,717
British Virgin Islands 24,004 83.00% 19,923
Turks and Caicos islands 26,000 34.00% 18,000
Europe 590,856,462.00 4.1% 9,300,999
France 62,752,136 5% (inc. French Guiana and other territories) 3,000,000
Netherlands 16,491,461 3.1% 507,000
United Kingdom 60,609,153 3.0% (inc. partial) 2,015,400
Italy 59,448,163 1.3% 755,000
Turkey 73,914,000 ?% 700,000
Spain 40,397,842 1.3% 505,400
Germany 82,000,000 0.6% 500,000
Russia 141,594,000 0.12% 400,000
Portugal 10,605,870 2.0% 201,200
Sweden 9,263,872 ?% 70,000
Belgium 10,666,866 ?% 45,000
Republic of Ireland 4,339,000 1.1% 43,000
Finland 5,340,783 ?% 20,000
Poland 38,082,000 0.002% 5,780
Hungary 10,198,325 0.003% 321
Asia 3,879,000,000 ?% ?
Israel 7,411,000 2.8% 200,000
Japan 127,756,815 ?% 10,000 -
India 1,132,446,000 .003% 40,000
Pakistan 172,900,000 ?% 10,000
China 1,321,851,888 ?% 8,000+
Singapore 4,839,400 ?% 6,900
South America/Central America 425,664,476 23.9% 101,532,873
Belize 301,270 31.00% 93,394
Guatemala 13,002,206 2.00% 260,044
El Salvador 7,066,403 < 0.01% 0*
Honduras 7,639,327 2.00% 152,787
Nicaragua 5,785,846 9.00% 520,726
Costa Rica 4,195,914 3.00% 125,877
Panama 3,292,693 14.00% 460,977
Colombia  45,013,674 26.0% 11,703,555
Venezuela 26,414,815 Between 10-26.5% 2,641,481 - 6,999,926*
Guyana 770,794 36.00% 277,486
Suriname 475,996 47.00% 223,718
French Guiana 199,509 66.00% 131,676
Brazil 191,908,598 44.70% 85,783,143
Ecuador 13,927,650 3.00% 417,830
Peru 29,180,899 3.00% 875,427
Bolivia 9,247,816 1.1% 108,000
Chile 16,454,143 < 0.1% 0*
Paraguay 6,831,306 < 0.1% 0*
Argentina 40,677,348 < 0.1% 0*
Uruguay 3,477,778 4.00% 139,111
North America 440,244,038 11.8% 39,264,514
United States 298,444,215 12.90% 38,499,304
Canada 33,098,932 2.7% 783,795
Mexico 108,700,891 <1.00% 103,000
Australia 21,000,000 0.9% (includes partial) 248,605
Sub-Saharan Africa 770,300,000 95.8%-98.4% 738,160,600-758,197,730
Kenya 39,002,772 99% 38,612,744
Madagascar 19,625,000 0-79%(latter including mixed) 0-15,503,750
Mauritius 1,227,078 27%(including mixed) 331,311
no official figures allowed;
estimates for mixed race range from 15% and 59.4%.
Réunion 827,000 347,340-491,238
Estimates for only African/Malagasy go up to 35%
INSEE estimated the mixed race population at 42% in 1974
South Africa 49,320,000 79.5%-88.4%(latter including mixed) 39,209,400-43,598,880
Tanzania 41,048,532 99% 40,638,047
Zimbabwe 11,392,629 98% 11,164,776
Outside Africa 5,821,000,000 2.9% 168,879,165
Total 6,591,000,000 13.8%-14% 907,039,760-927,076,890
(*)Note that population statistics from different sources and countries use highly divergent methods of rating the "race", ethnicity, or national or genetic origin of
individuals, from observing for color and racial characteristics, to asking the person to choose from a set of pre-defined choices, sometimes with an Other
category, and sometimes with an open-ended option, and sometimes not, which different national populations tend to choose in divergent ways. Color and visual
characteristics were considered an invalid way to determine the genetic "racial" branch in anthopology (the field of science that original conceived of "race as a
genetic branch of people who could have a relative success together compared with other branches, now considered invalid) as of 1910, thus not fully reflecting
the percentage of the population who actually are of African heritage.
Top 15 African diaspora populations
Country Population Rank
Brazil 85,783,143 1
United States 38,499,304 2
Colombia 9,452,872 3
Haiti 8,701,439 4
Dominican Republic 7,985,991 5
France 3,000,000 6
Jamaica 2,731,419 7
Venezuela 2,641,481 - 6,999,926 8
United Kingdom 2,080,000 9
Cuba 1,126,894 10
Peru 875,427 11
Turkey 800,000 12
Canada 783,795 13
Italy 750,000 14
Trinidad and Tobago 610,000 15
Nicaragua 520,726 16
Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America. According to
the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the first African populations came to North America in the 16th century via Mexico and the Caribbean to
the Spanish colonies of Florida, Texas and other parts of the South. Out of the 12 million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during
the transatlantic slave trade, 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States; another 1,840,000 arrived at
other British colonies, chiefly the West Indies. In 2000, African Americans comprised 12.1 percent of the total population in the United States, constitutin the
largest racial minority group. The African American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas.
In the construction of the African Diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in
eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and
In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek
employment as whalers inMassachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans, but
. migration non
by that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths,
shipbuilders, officers, and owners, eventually bringing their trade to California.
1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub Saharan Africa. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants
to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000. Immigrants
born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States
— 50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native native-born Americans. The largest African immigrant communities in the United
States are in New York, followed by California, Texas, and Maryland. The states with the highest percentages of Africans in their total populations are
the District of Columbia, followed by Mississippi, and Louisiana Refugees represent a minority.
U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self self-identification. The census surveys have no provision for a "multiracial" or "biracial"
self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnic that way.
Main article: Afro-Latin American
At an intermediate level, in Latin America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define
because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Argentina or Chile),
few if any are considered Black today. In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican Republic), the number is larger, but most are of
Main article: Afro-European
The Situation in Europe In Council of Europe countries, African Diasporans and their descendants are neither specifically identified nor described in national
statistics by the colour of their skin. At best, both first and subsequent generations are described in national statistics as “foreign born citizens”. Of 42 countries
surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on
citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity. The major result of this routine is that even though
people of African descent may outnumber other ethnic minorities in some European countries, there is no statistical evidence to support the notion that they may
qualify for special measures as minorities where they live. They are, in a word: invisible. (In "Basic Facts About the African Diaspora", by M. Arthur Robinson
Diakité, www.thelundian.com .
Main article: Black British
2 million (not including British Mixed) split evenly between Afro-Caribbeans and Africans.
Afro-French or French African population live in overseas territories.
Estimates of 2 to 3 million of African descent, although 1/4 of the Afro
About 500,000 of Surinamese and Dutch Antilles descent. They mainly live in the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao and Saint Martin (which is half French), but
many Afro-Dutch people also live in the Netherlands.
The first blacks in Russia were the result of slave trade by the Ottoman empire and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black Sea. Czar Peter the
Great was recommended by his friend Lefort to bring in Africans to Russia for hard labor. Alexander Pushkin was the descendant of the African princeling Abram
Petrovich Gannibal, who became Peter's protege, was educated as a military engineer in France, and eventually became general-en-chef, responsible for the
building of sea forts and canals in Russia.
During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts. As African states became independent in the 1960s,
the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.
Note that there are also non-African people within the former Soviet Union who are colloquially referred to as "the blacks" (
African (chernye). Gypsies, Georgians,
and Tatars fall into this category.
See also: Racism in modern Russia.
Main article: Afro-Turks
Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans, usually via Zanzibar and from places like Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Nigeria were brought
by Turkish slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations around Dalaman, Menderes and Gediz valleys, Manavgat, and Çukurova.
Main article: Afro Americans in the Americas
African Americans - There are an estimated 40 million people of African descent in the US. Note that this figure (here, and in the chart, above) directl
conflicts with information in this same article that says that 30% of US people have genetic content from the [post 1400] Afr
Afro-Latin American - There are an estimated 100 million people of African descent living in Latin America, making up 45 % of Brazil's population. There
are also sizeable African populations in Cuba, Haiti, Colombia, Dominican Republic and Venezuela.
The population in the Caribbean is approximately 23 million. Significant numbers of African-descended people include Haiti - 8 million, Dominican Republic -
7.9 million, and Jamaica - 2.7 million,
Main article: Black Canadians
Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States, comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists or escaped along
the Underground Railroad to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario. Slavery had begun to be outlawed in British North America as early as
1793. Later black immigration to Canada came primarily from the Caribbean, in such numbers that fully 70 per cent of all blacks now in Canada are of Caribbean
As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term "African Canadian", while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have
direct African or African American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian
Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is
considered inclusive of both the African and Caribbean black communities in Canada.
Indian and Pacific Oceans
Some Pan-Africanists also consider other Africoid peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos, such as in the case of the
peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli); New Guinea (Papuans); Andamanese; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent, notably Vedda
people and Dravidians such as Tamils; and theaboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Most of these claims are rejected by
mainstream ethnologists as pseudoscience and pseudoanthropology as part of ideologically motivated Afrocentrist irredentism, touted primarily among some
extremist elements in the United States who do not reflect on the mainstream African-American community. Mainstream anthropologists determine that
the Andamanese and others are part of a network of Proto-Australoid and Paleo Mediterranean ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic
ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian aboriginals rather than from African peoples directly (though indirectly, they did originate from
prehistoric groups out of Africa as did all human beings on this planet).
List of topics related to Black and African people Afro-Irish
Africana womanism Afro-Mexican
Afro Americans in the Americas Afro-Peruvian
African American Black British
Afro Australian Afro-Guyanese
African immigration to the United States Black Canadian
Black People Afro-French
Black Hispanic Black people in Ireland
Afro-Brazilian Beta Israel
Afro-Puerto Rican Capoid
Afro-Belizean Siddi (Black African community in South Asia)
Afro-Colombian and Raizal
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actual African diaspora, 
Africans in Diaspora community on line
Black History Information and Resources
"African Diaspora", a resource list, Columbia Universities, African Studies
"The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native's Perspective," by Horen Tudu
"Negrito and Negrillo", by M. Stewart
"Pan-Africanism in South Asia," by Horen Tudu
Report of the Meeting of Experts from Member States on the Definition of the African Diaspora, African Union, April 2005
"West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma"
"Museum of the African Diaspora," Online exhibits and other resources from the San Francisco-based museum.
"African Diasporic and Indigenous cultures of Colombia and Brasil"
African Diaspora and Study Abroad Brazil African Studies
The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC)