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2012 Food Prices Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals.IMF and World Bank Global Monitoring Report.East Asia and Pacific
2012 Food Prices Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals.IMF and World Bank Global Monitoring Report.East Asia and Pacific
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2012 Food Prices Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals.IMF and World Bank Global Monitoring Report.East Asia and Pacific

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2012 Food Prices Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals.IMF and World Bank Global Monitoring Report.East Asia and Pacific

2012 Food Prices Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals.IMF and World Bank Global Monitoring Report.East Asia and Pacific

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  • 1. Global Monitoring Report 2012 Food prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) East Asia and Pacific April 2012 Progress toward the MDGs In East Asia and Pacific the targets on extreme poverty, gender parity and access to safe water and basic sanitation have been reached. Progress is substantial with regards to primary completion and the goal should be achieved in the years remaining to 2015. Child and maternal mortality are the targets lagging the most (figure 1). Progress toward halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is encouraging in East Asia and Pacific. More than 50% of countries for which data are available are on track or have achieved the nutrition target. Among the seven countries off track or seriously off track, three are likely to reach the 2015 goal, if increased efforts are made (figure 2). Figure 1. Global and regional performances Figure 2. Progress toward reducing undernourishment Developing countries East Asia and Pacific 100% 90% 100% 97% Seriously off track On track Achieved 87% Low and Middle  Income 80% 73% 71% 70% Progress toward  2015 Off track 100% 96% 68 24 18 17 72% 60% 56% 51% 50% 52% 40% 38% 30% East Asia and Pacific 20% 4 3 6 3 10% 0% MDG 4a.  MDG 4a.  MDG 1a. Extreme  MDG 2a. Primary  MDG 3a. Ratio  of  poverty (% of  completion rate,  girls to boys in  Mortality rate,  Mortality rate,  primary and  infant (per 1,000  under‐5 (per  population below  total (% of  live births) secondary  relevant age  $1.25 a day in  1,000) education (%) group) 2005 PPP) MDG 7c.  MDG 7c.  MDG 5a.  Improved  Improved water  Maternal  sanitation  source (% of  mortality ratio  facilities (% of  population  (modeled  population  estimate, per  without access) without access) 100,000 live  births) Note: a value of 100% means that respective MDG has been reached. Values denote present progress as illustrated by most recent available data: Extreme poverty—2010; Primary completion rate—2009; Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary—2009; Mortality rate, infant—2010; Mortality rate, under 5—2010; Maternal mortality ratio—2008; Improved water source—2010; Improved sanitation facilities—2008. Source: World Bank staff calculations based on data from the World Development Indicators database. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percent of countries Note: Chart depicts the ratio of absolute regional improvement to global improvement by MDG. Improvement is measured as the difference between latest available value (see note figure 1) and starting value circa 1990. Food price spikes and nutrition East Asia is self-sufficient in rice. Nevertheless the region presents a mix of challenges: Thailand and Vietnam provide over 50 percent of global rice exports, and thus benefit significantly from rising prices; Indonesia and the Philippines are significant rice importers; and China is largely self-sufficient in rice. East Asia needs to maintain production, while shifting to more environmentally sustainable processes in the face of increasing land and water scarcity. Research on current and potential agricultural productivity, across several regions, shows that the yield gap in maize production is lowest in East Asia. Furthermore, better use of existing crop and nutrient management practices alone could increase rice yields in East Asian countries by at least 25 percent. For example, a shift from area-based to volume-based charges for irrigation water in the Tarim Basin in China resulted in a 17 percent decrease in water use, while addressing poor land layout through adequate leveling and higher bunds to retain wet season water has been shown to increase yields in Cambodia by 27 percent. Intrahousehold reallocation and care practices may mitigate or aggravate the effects of food price increases on specific household members. Women often become “shock absorbers of household food insecurity,” as they reduce their own consumption to allow for more food for other household members. In some communities across the region, parents tend to both lower and change their dietary intake in favor of their children, although pregnant women are excluded. For instance, in Indonesia mothers buffered children’s caloric intake during the 1997–98 crisis, resulting in increased maternal wasting and anemia. The World Bank Group 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 Email: gmr@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/gmr2012
  • 2. Global Monitoring Report 2012 Food prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) East Asia and Pacific Policy responses April 2012 Figure 3. Net ODA disbursements to developing regions (US $ million, 2009 prices) The chosen policy mix at the country level depends critically on how much of a country’s food needs to be imported, how much the poor spend on food, and the socio-economic characteristics of the poor affected. The policy mix also depends on a country’s integration with regional and world markets, its level of productivity compared to what is achievable, and on its government’s capacity to target the poor and vulnerable through mitigating interventions. In addition, much is contingent on a county’s initial macroeconomic condition and thus its ability to expand public expenditure programs or to provide tax incentives without jeopardizing fiscal sustainability. In terms of policy responses, short-term measures should aim at mitigating the immediate adverse impacts on the poor and vulnerable. Long-term measures should seek to address demand and supply side imbalances at the regional and local levels. Actions undertaken in the region include: trade measures such as reductions of tariffs and customs fees on imports and export restrictions. Additional actions include domestic market measures based on the release of stocks at subsidized prices, production support for farmers and food assistance programs. Support from international development partners 250,000 1991‐2000 2001‐2010 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 East Asia &  Pacific Europe  &  Ce ntral  Asia Latin Ame rica &   Caribbe an M iddle  East &   North Africa South Asia Sub‐Saharan Africa Source: World Bank staff calculations based on data from OECD. ODA disbursements in East Asia and Pacific declined markedly in real Figure 4. Composition of committed ODA to East Asia and Pacific in year terms in the last decade, as the region made strong gains toward pov- 2010 (constant 2009 million $) erty alleviation. In particular, the aid decline reflects a fall-off in flows to the Basic nutrition 2% large regional economies of China, Indonesia, and the Philippines of more than 30 percent. These declines more than offset the 159 percent increase in flows to Vietnam, which became the top regional recipient with 22 percent of the reEmergency food aid  gion’s ODA flows in 2010 (figure 3). 29% Despite the spike in food prices, ODA commitments from all donors to agriculture, food, and nutrition decreased as a share of total ODA between 2000 (15 percent) and 2010 (14 percent). Aid commitments to East Asia and Pacific from DAC bilateral ODA and multilateral developmental assistance to agriculture, food, and nutrition increased from $1.5 billion in constant terms in 2000 to near $3 billion in 2010. Assistance for nutrition represents only 2 percent of total agriculture, food, and nutrition commitments, despite widespread evidence that improved nutrition and gains in early childhood development are key in making long-term progress in development (figure 4). Looking ahead, the region is expected to see an average annual real increase in country programmable aid (CPA) disbursements of 2.2 percent during 2011-2013. On a per capita basis, East Asia and the Pacific is expected to see more modest growth of 1 percent. Vietnam will receive the largest CPA disbursements in the region, if plans are realized. Although Indonesia and the Philippines are expected to continue to account for a large share of the CPA flows to East Asia and Pacific, the share is expected to contract compared with 2010. The World Bank Group Rural development  7% Total  commitments  (excluding food,  nutrition and  agric ulture) 19,012 Food, nut rition, a nd  agriculture 3 ,056  Food aid/Food  s ecurit y programmes  18% Agriculture and Agro‐ industries 44% Source: World Bank staff calculations based on data from OECD. 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 Email: gmr@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/gmr2012

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