Seeking quality healthcare, affordable pharmaceuticals and bridging the gap of disparties
AFRICA FIRST, LLC
              ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

       Africa First, LLC wishes to express its profound gratitude to the Government of
Ghana through Dr. ...
CONFERENCE OBJECTIVES

        The combined activities of the 7th African Traditional Medicine Day and the 3rd
Global Summ...
(c) To discuss the huge difficulties many governments, especially in Africa and the third
world countries are facing in th...
problems.

        The Chairman thanked the organizers of the Summit and said that although he
was no longer the Director ...
of protective gloves by practitioners and hoped that trend will change. She reminded
countries to develop health promotion...
SPEECH BY ASANTEHENE OSEI TUTU II

      The Asantehene was represented by Nana Agyewodin Adu Gyamfi Ampem,
Acherensuahene...
can demystify the science and application of traditional medicine in the context of con-
temporary health care.

        T...
Furthermore, the Minister revealed that the Government intends to reposition
traditional and alternative medicine to enabl...
Finished product is correctly processed and checked, according to the defined
       procedures;

       Ensures that drug...
Easy to formulate

Low cost of production

Use as intermediate for other dosage forms

Stable (if properly stored)

Easy t...
Is active component (extract) stable in an acid medium (gastric medium)

On dose and dosage regimen, he suggested the foll...
Active component are not known and even if known, appropriate solvent to use to ex-
tract active component may not be know...
PRESENTATION BY DR. LAUD OKINE, DIRECTOR, CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
INTO PLANT MEDICINE

       Dr. Laud Okine, spoke...
QUESTIONS/ANSWERS PERIOD

Question: I harvest my raw materials from different areas. Will that affect the stan-
dard of my...
The capacity to supply huge quantities on demand

       (a) Standardization methods

       (b) Deforestation of our fore...
SEPTEMBER 1, 2009 – 2ND PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION

The burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, s...
traditional medicine and the need to highlight the fact that traditional healers are held
in high esteem in our society.

...
PRESENTATION BY TOGBEGA DABRA VI, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, PROMETRA GHANA

        Togbega Dabra VI spoke on the topic: “The effec...
Answer: No. The result of the Morehouse research is not to be discussed now. There is
a need to establish the result furth...
Dr. Fleischer said the challenges of the Faculty are finance, low patronage by
top class students and the absence of absor...
PRESENTATION BY DR. THEOPHILUS B. KWOFIE, SENIOR LECTURER, DEPARTMENT
OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND ...
PRESENTATION BY MR. RICHARD ABBEY OF CHAMPION DIVINE CLINIC

        Mr. Richard Abbey spoke about “Institutionalisation o...
Presently, Balm of Gilead has come to Tanzania to help in the fight against HIV.
Dr. Mpendu said that since 2002, Balm of ...
SEPTEMBER 2, 2009 – 3RD PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION

The huge difficulties many governments, especially those...
Apart from Kings/Chiefs, why do not ordinary people wear footwear when
they are being prepared for burial?

       In an a...
Question: You said that before you exorcise spirits from the possessed, you pacify the spirits
with gifts. How do you disp...
• Herbalists cannot popularize their products if they continue to use the unscientific
method. Therefore they cure the sym...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Comment: It is a common sight that during a road construction, water sources are of-
ten blocked. T...
Answer: One week.

Question: If patients undergo treatment, do they go to hospitals to check whether they
have been healed...
PRESENTATION BY DR. SAMUEL SASU, HEALTHWORKS, ACCRA

        Dr. Samuel Sasu of Healthworks, presented on the topic: “Ayur...
Question: When do we visit?

Answer: When we are both well and unwell. It is good health practice to check one’s
health st...
SEPTEMBER 3, 2009 - FOURTH PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION

Searching for efficacious, safe and affordable tradit...
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question: What makes you certain that you can achieve your aim of making the drug
accessible to pat...
Answer: No. We refrain from that because one still needs a human being to authenticate the
efficacy of a drug.

Question: ...
Question: I know how to prepare the drug. First, one puts the shell in fire.
Then later grinds it and adds pawpaw leaves. ...
Answer: No.

Question: How may one contact you?

Answer: Please telephone me on my cellular number 0249921723.

Question: ...
PRESENTATION BY MR. DANIEL BOAMAH

        Mr. Boamah spoke in Twi on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of natural
plants...
go to the hospitals instead of the herbal clinic because they will need surgery.

       Dr. Bonsu said that he has medici...
(2) To identify mechanisms for the enhancement and protection of traditional medical
knowledge.

The conference had the fo...
tions of the world, not having had the opportunity to education, traditional medicine
practitioners are unable to communic...
sickle cells, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, buruli ulcers, breast cancers, fistula, eyes
disease, infertility, prostrate...
Dr. Saidi Mpendu, The Balm of Gilead, Tanzania

Kofi Attu

Opanin Kwaku Afriyie

Osei Kwabena

Tobega Dabra VI, PROMETRA G...
Those recommendations are hereby quoted as follows:

      “Based upon the principal objectives of this conference and the...
his answer to one of the questions posed to him during the interactive session of Tues-
day, March 11, 2008 agreed that it...
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First
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2009.Report Of 3rd Global Summit On HIV- AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, Africa First

  1. 1. Seeking quality healthcare, affordable pharmaceuticals and bridging the gap of disparties AFRICA FIRST, LLC LC Creatmg global awaremess, generating opportunities for research and sharing knowledge ABRIDGED COPY OF REPORT 517 Asbury Street # 11, St. Paul, Minnesota 55104 USA – Tel: (651) 646 4721 – Fax: (651) 644 3235 Email: info@africa-first.com. Website: http://www.africa-first.com
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Africa First, LLC wishes to express its profound gratitude to the Government of Ghana through Dr. George Adja Sipa Yankey, the Minister of Health, for granting per- mission to launch this conference in Ghana for the fifth time and this time, in conjunc- tion with the 7th African Traditional Medicine Day celebration. We thank the World Health Organization for its continued collaboration and technical support. We take this liberty to congratulate Dr. Luis Sambo, for his reap- pointment as the Africa Regional Director of the World Health Organization for a sec- ond term. We also thank the United Nations Joint Programmes on HIV/AIDS, the Ghana AIDS Commission, Professors Alex Matter and Thomas Klimkait of the Esperanza Medi- cines Foundations and Dr. Delfin Beltran of Global Ark Forum for their generous finan- cial and technical contributions, without which this conference could not have taken place. We also acknowledge the encouragement, advice, endorsements, opinions, col- laboration and support from His Excellency, Otumfuo Osei Tutu II, the Asantehene, Pro- fessor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, Immediate Past Director General of the Ghana AIDS Com- mission (the Chairman of this conference), Professor KK Adarkwa, the Vice Chancellor, Professor MLK Mensah, Dr. T.C. Fleischer and Dr. Theophilus B. Kwofie, all of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Dr. Amin Bonsu of Amen Sci- entific Herbal Hospital, Professor Kofi Kondwani, Assistant Professor of Morehouse School of Medicine, Dr. Erick Gbodossou, President of the Association for the Promotion of Traditional Medicines (PROMETRA), Dr. Ossy MJ Kasilo, Regional Advisor on Tradi- tional Medicine, World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Dr. Leopold Zekeng, UNAIDS Ghana Coordinator, Dr. Kofi Busia of the West African Health Organi- sation, Mr. Lakassa Essossinam of L’Association des Thérapeutes Traditionnels du Togo, Dr Djierro Kadidja, Director, Department of Traditional Medicine, Ministry of Health, Burkina Faso, Dr. Fodé Bangaly Magassouba, University of Conakry, Guinea and the Centre de Recherche et de Valorisation des Plantes Médicinales de Dubréka, Republic of Guinea, representatives of the Ministry of Health in the persons of Chief Director Sali- mata Salaam, Director Peter Arhin and George Agyemfrah, Francis Akakpo, Registrar of Traditional Medicine Council, Messrs. Agya Appiah, Kojo Eduful, Kenneth Danso, Nana Kwadwo Obiri and Godfred Y. Boateng of the Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association, Mr. Kofi Attu, Mr. Kuku Welsing-Jones, Rappateur, the sup- port staff of UNAIDS in Accra and Geneva, all the media networks and resource persons who made scientific, technical and diverse contributions to this conference. We also thank the management and staff of Miklin Hotel for hosting the event. 2
  3. 3. CONFERENCE OBJECTIVES The combined activities of the 7th African Traditional Medicine Day and the 3rd Global Summit on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, chaired by Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, Immediate Past Director General of the Ghana AIDS Com- mission, and Professor Thomas Klimkait, Chief Executive of Esperanza Medicines Foun- dation, commenced from Monday, August 31, 2009 and ended Thursday, September 3, 2009. GHAFTRAM awardees for contributing to development of Traditional Medicine The objectives of the combined programme were: (1) To promote the best practices of traditional medicines in the prevention and man- agement of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders; and (2) To identify mechanisms for the enhancement and protection of traditional medical knowledge. The conference had the following specific objectives: (a) To serve as a forum for the identification of traditional medicines and practices of established value used in the prevention and management of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuber- culosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders, for further evaluation of safety, efficacy and quality standards. (b) To identify mechanisms for fostering sustainable partnerships between traditional health practitioners and conventional health practitioners for accelerating the preven- tion and management of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders; and 3
  4. 4. (c) To discuss the huge difficulties many governments, especially in Africa and the third world countries are facing in the provision of sanitation and safe drinking water, which in turn is hampering the delivery of effective healthcare services to their populations, and to recommend ways and means to overcome the situation. (d) To promote the review and development of jurisdictions and patent laws that ade- quately capture intellectual property rights emanating from Traditional Medicine, inter- national, regional, state, local laws and legislations, taking into account, relevant intel- lectual property rights regimes to ensure adequate protection of traditional medical knowledge and allowing its sustainable development. CHANGES TO ORIGINAL AGENDA Several changes were made to the original Agenda of the conference because confirmed speakers could not attend due to various technical difficulties, one of which was getting their per diem and air-tickets to them on time. Filling in the slots for those speakers, however, was not difficult because the conference was endowed with the par- ticipation of many persons who had knowledge and information relevant to the themes and objectives of the conference, and willing to share and learn from others. PUBLICATION OF CONFERENCE SUBMISSIONS For the purposes of publishing all the papers submitted during this conference, the full texts of the submissions appear as appendices to an extended copy of this Report. 31st AUGUST, 2009 – TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND PATIENT’S SAFETY OPENING CEREMONIES - Events marking the 7th African Traditional Medicine and the 3rd Global Summit on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Medicine, Indigenous Knowledge. The 7th African Traditional Medicine Day and the 3rd Global Summit on HIV/ AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge opened with the introduction of dignitaries: Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, former Director General of the Ghana AIDS Commission as Chairman; Nana Agyewodin Adu-Gyamfi Apem, Acherensuahene, rep- resentative of His Excellency, Osei Tutu II, the Asantehene, Professor Ivan Addae- Mensah, former Vice Chancellor, University of Ghana, Dr. George Adja Sipa Yankey, the Minister of Health, Professor A.G. Kessie, Professor Laud Okine, Director, Centre for Sci- entific Research Into Plant Medicine, Honourable Kofi Manu Opoku, Ashanti Regional Minister. After a brief introduction of dignitaries, the Ashanti Regional Minister welcomed all visitors and participants to Kumasi. He said that traditional medicine has been part of mankind for a long time and the World Health Organization has confirmed that about 60% of the world uses herbal medicine for treatment of their sicknesses. However, our colonialists denigrated African herbal medicine although the Holy Bible in Ezekiel Chapter 17 reminded us of the efficacy of herbs. He added that the summit was being organized to celebrate the importance of herbal medicine in Ghana to create a medium for collaboration between orthodox and traditional systems of managing our health 4
  5. 5. problems. The Chairman thanked the organizers of the Summit and said that although he was no longer the Director General of the Ghana AIDS Commission, he still believes that traditional medicine and indigenous knowledge have a major role to play in the fight against HIV/AIDS. He said he has no doubt that some herbal preparations have the potential of curing or treating a number of diseases. What we need to do is to learn more about these herbal plants and preparations in order to derive positive outcome from them. He concluded that the presentations that will be presented at the Summit will open up more opportunities for all participants to see the extent to which our herbal preparations will be supported by the Government of Ghana for them to assume their proper role in the health system of the world. Mr. J.William Danquah, the President and Chief Executive Officer of Africa First, LLC, Facilitator of the Summit, extolled the virtues of herbal medicine and said he has been able to invite to Ghana Professor Thomas Klimkait, Chief Executive of Esperanza Medicines Foundation, who is also very excited about African Traditional Medicine and is providing financial assistance for the development of African herbal medicines. According to Mr. Danquah, it is very important to elevate the status of African herbal medicines through such summits and queried stakeholders for failing to imple- ment the recommendations accepted at the last Conference. He said that there is no institution that will succeed without defined goals and encouraged the Ghana Federa- tion of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association to acquire an office, establish a secretariat with requisite personnel to manage the affairs of the association. Also, he advised the association to fix dues to be paid by members so that they can acquire land for cultivation of cash crops to supplement their financial position and medicinal plants that will be readily available for a future high demand of their products. Finally, he encouraged traditional healers to register with the Traditional Medicine Practice Council in order to get a strong mouthpiece that can help them ac- cess credit facilities from the banks. FRATERNAL MESSAGES. There were fraternal messages from some few institutions. According to Dr. Alhaji Mohammed Bin Ibraham, Ashanti Regional Director of the Ghana Health Ser- vices, the integration of traditional herbal medicine in Ghana is very important and hoped that the relationship between medical doctors and traditional medical practitio- ners will improve. Ms. Sophia Twum Barimah, Health Promotion Officer of the World Health Or- ganization Office in Ghana, delivering the Regional Director’s message, acknowledged the important role of traditional medicine in Ghana. However, she called for safety measures and accurate diagnosis so that the patient will not suffer. She said that her office is very concerned about the use of unsterilized devices and the absence of 5
  6. 6. of protective gloves by practitioners and hoped that trend will change. She reminded countries to develop health promotion devises to help tackle the debilitating effects of some diseases. PRESENTATION OF AWARDS For their distinguished works in various capacities in the promotion and develop- ment of traditional medicine in Ghana, the following personalities were given awards by the Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Associations: 1. Dr. T.C. Fleischer, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology 2. Professor Merlin K. Mensah, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology 3. Professor David Ofori-Agyei, former Director, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research 4. Professor Ewurama Addy, University of Ghana 5. Professor Alex Nyarko, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research 6. Mr. TC Corquaye, former Chief Executive, Food and Drugs Board 7. Nana Akuako Sarpong 8. Professor Oteng Yeboah, Biodiversity/Consultant 9. Madam Salimata Abudul-Salam, Chief Director, Ministry of Health Mr. George Agyemfra, Traditional Medicine Directorate, Ministry of Health PRESENTATIONS Mr. Agya Kwaku Appiah, President of the Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Associations, spoke on the topic: “With the promulgation of the Traditional Medicine Practice Act 575 since 2000, why is the practice of traditional medicine in Ghana still a challenge?” He spoke in Twi and said that there are words in Twi which do not have their equivalents in English and so he will like to speak in Twi. Mr. Appiah said that all leaders of businesses and especially the political leaders know of the state of affairs of traditional medicine but make no efforts to develop it. He wondered why the Govern- ment established the School of Nurses, the Ghana Medical School, School of Pharmacy, with national resources but have not considered building an institution or school for herbal medicine. He reminded the Minister of Health that certain diseases can only be cured by the use of traditional herbal medicine and asked the Minister why the herbal medicine practitioners have been ignored. He said that his company used to import almost GHC30,000 worth of bottles from India but he consulted a Chinese company which has installed the same machine in Ghana and so he has employed more Ghana- ians in his company. He said “Home is “Home”, and invited the Government, through the Ministry of Health, to participate in the development of herbal medicine just as pertains in India. Mr. Appiah was given a standing ovation. 6
  7. 7. SPEECH BY ASANTEHENE OSEI TUTU II The Asantehene was represented by Nana Agyewodin Adu Gyamfi Ampem, Acherensuahene. He spoke in Twi. He apologized to participants for the inability of the Otumfuo to attend the Summit. According to Nana Ampem, every King or Chief respects traditional herbal medicine. Because of that, since time immemorial, Kings or Chiefs had “Nsumankwaahene”, who was in charge of the health needs of the royal household. He said that modern medicine has added more insights into the practice of disease manage- ment; but urged the orthodox practitioners to integrate traditional herbal medicine in healthcare. Nana Ampem appealed to the Government to promulgate a law to protect certain herbs just as certain species of timber are protected. He said that the Kings own the land and so they may be invited to provide land for the commercial production of herbs for the industry. He said chiefs must not be left out of the efforts to develop herbal medicine since it is their wish that the citizens become healthy to contribute to nation building. He said chiefs dislike practitioners who misuse their expertise. For instance, those of them who claim to have medicines that can cure all diseases and protect people against gun shots. He advised traditional healers to report such people to their Association. Further, Nana Apem advised the practitioners to eliminate quacks who are giving the practice a bad name and urged them to cultivate, develop their medicines for export to earn Ghana some foreign exchange. Finally, Nana Ampeh welcomed all participants to Kumasi, hoped the next con- ference will be bigger than the Kumasi event and invited participants to take some time to visit some interesting places, including the Asantehene’s palace at Manhyia. SPEECH BY THE MINISTER OF HEALTH, DR. GEORGE ADJA SIPA YANKEY Speaking on the topic: “Making Patient’s Safety a Reality in the Practice of Tradi- tional Medicine in Ghana”, Dr. George Adja-Sipa Yankey, the Minister of Health, said he was pleased to be in Kumasi to participate in the commemoration of the 7th African Tra- ditional Medicine Day and the 3rd Global Summit on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge. He said that the theme for the conference has always been relevant in the gov- ernment’s effort to integrate traditional medicine in Ghana and was happy that “patient’s safety” is also a key principle in the World Health Organization’s strategy for the development of complementary and traditional medicine. According to the Minister, this is because 25% of the population of Ghana relies on natural and herbal medicines to manage their illnesses and it will be prudent to en- courage practitioners to update their knowledge and procedures in the management of different forms of sicknesses. The key challenge is the process by which practitioners 7
  8. 8. can demystify the science and application of traditional medicine in the context of con- temporary health care. The Minister acknowledged the presence of a number of resource persons and experts who have served as sources of information in every aspect of herbal medicine practice and research and is very privileged to have presented them with token awards for their invaluable contributions to the development of herbal medicine in Ghana. The Minister stressed the need for effective standards and specifications. He said the Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia is a very significant step to ensure the safety of pa- tients. He said rigid and effective standards with simple methods of verification and as- sessment are important and hoped that the Universities and the Centre for Research Into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) will be engaged to play their roles. The Minister added that he may not be able to put a cost to it now, “but if we are able to substitute just 10% of our medicines needs from local herbal and traditional sources, we are likely to free up significant resources and we will build a thriving indus- try in Ghana.” He invited practitioners to think of improving the quality and packaging of their products for foreign markets. Dr. Yankey reminded participants that his Ministry embarked on a registration exercise that was aimed at supporting traditional medicine practitioners. When com- pleted, the exercise will show the number and backgrounds of practitioners and the type of training they will require to improve upon their performance. As part of this initia- tive, the Ministry is going to establish the position of Medical Herbal Officers in the Health Service. According to the Minister, the 2009 Budget Statement made provisions for 16 Medical Herbalists to be employed to work in accredited institutions and hoped that by their placement there will be some improvement in the monitoring of the use of herbal medicine. Honourable Health Minister Dr. George Sipa Yankey inspecting an exhibition stand 8
  9. 9. Furthermore, the Minister revealed that the Government intends to reposition traditional and alternative medicine to enable it deliver alongside orthodox medicine. As a result of that philosophy, the Ministry is working with the Government of China which has vast experience in that field of medical care. The Minister launched four new documents that may be used as additional reference materials in herbal medicines in Ghana. These are: 1. The Handbook of Scientific Monographs, 2009 Edition 2. The Recommended List of Herbal Medicines Essential For Primary Healthcare Ser- vices 3. The Tools for Accreditation of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Practices and Clinics; and 4. The Guidelines on Intellectual Property Protection for Medicinal Plant Resources and Indigenous Knowledge in Health. The Minister thanked the participants and assured them that the Government will do everything possible to support and promote herbal medicine and “I will be in the driv- ing seat” he concluded. PRESENTATION BY DR JOSEPH YAW-BERNIE BENNIE, ZONAL OFFICER, FOOD AND DRUGS BOARD, ASHANTI REGION Dr. Joseph Yaw-Bernie Bennie addressed the conference on the topic “Ensuring Food and Drug Safety for the public: The challenges and successes in a third world setting”. He stated that quality assurance covers all matters that individually or collectively influ- ence the quality of a product. He said that quality control is that part of good manufac- turing practice that is concerned with sampling, specifications, testing, documentation and release procedures. And that good manufacturing practice is that part of quality as- surance which ensures that products are consistently produced and controlled to the quality standards appropriate to their intended use and as required by the marketing authorization. He said that drugs are designed and developed in a way that takes account of the re- quirements of good manufacturing practice, which include the following parameters: Managerial responsibilities are clearly specified; Production and control operations are clearly specified in a written form and good manufacturing practice requirements are adopted; All necessary controls on active drug materials, intermediate products, and bulk products and other in-process controls, calibrations, and validations are carried out; 9
  10. 10. Finished product is correctly processed and checked, according to the defined procedures; Ensures that drugs are stored, distributed, and handled in such a way that quality is maintained throughout their shelf-life; Self-inspection and/or quality audit that regularly appraises the effectiveness of the quality assurance system for continuous improvement; There is a system for approving changes that may have an impact on product quality. (e.g. change from liquid to solid dosage form). Talking about drug dosage forms, he said that most drug active substances cannot be taken/apply directly and must be processed into suitable dosage forms. He went to state that: Quantities required for therapeutic action may be very small and dosing can be difficult or impossible (e.g. toxic seeds, roots or leaves with health benefits are most often diluted with diluents) Some drug active materials are affected by exposure to environmental factors (e.g. light and moisture can affect the quality of herbal material, encapsulation may minimize the effect). Unpleasant organoleptic qualities of Active Herbal Material (e.g., taste, smell) and most herbal materials are bitter and encapsulating makes administration convenient. Ease and route of administration (herbal materials may be bulky; stem barks, roots and leaves). He gave the following examples of drug dosage forms: Solids (powders, tablets, capsules), semi-solids (ointments & creams), liquids (syrups, decoctions, elixirs) Solid dosage forms Unshaped (powders for external/internal use) Shaped (tablets, capsules, pills, etc) Powdered dosage form 10
  11. 11. Easy to formulate Low cost of production Use as intermediate for other dosage forms Stable (if properly stored) Easy to administer Capsules and tablets Convenient to administer. Easy to carry and transport. Can be manufactured in large-scale Readily identified (some manufacturers emboss name of drug or company name) More stable Formulation and selecting capsule size Use herbal extracts as active herbal material as Standardization of preparation becomes easier Active components are mostly extracted and chemical assay becomes meaningful Dosage regimen and use is reduced with capsules (compliance) Curative effectiveness is increased Excipients may be added (lactose) Establish dose and choose appropriate capsule size: 000, 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 sizes in order of decreasing volume Manufacture of Herbal Capsule/ Tablet Dosage Form Before formulating into tablets or capsule (oral dosage from) establish Bioavailability 11
  12. 12. Is active component (extract) stable in an acid medium (gastric medium) On dose and dosage regimen, he suggested the following: Choose suitable excipients if necessary to mix with extract Blending must be done to ensure a uniform mixture Based on the dose and dosage regimen, appropriate capsule size is chosen 000,00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in order of decreasing size On quality assessment, he suggested that general descriptive tests apply to both Active Herbal Material and finished product. He said general identity tests include the following: Purity tests Foreign organic matter Microbial types and limits Moisture content Heavy metals (e.g. lead, mercury, arsenic) Chemical assays (Identify chemical markers) He said the following factors are applicable to finished herbal product: Disintegration Dissolution* Weight variation Content uniformity Assay (if chemical marker has been established) He cited the following as the challenges in maintaining a good manufacturing practice in the production of drugs in Ghana: Production of capsule dosage forms is increasing Milled stem barks, roots or leaves are encapsulated regardless of whether is stable in gastric medium 12
  13. 13. Active component are not known and even if known, appropriate solvent to use to ex- tract active component may not be known (environmental and safety impact) Dosage is arbitrary, cannot be justified All kinds of hard gelatin shells are used regardless of size and source (embossed capsules with drug or drug manufacturer names). To overcome these challenges, he suggested the following: Manufacture of capsule/tablet dosage forms require some technical and scientific skills Let us focus on powdered solid dosage forms and apply quality assurance systems to im- prove the quality of the products Manufacturers must upgrade their knowledge in quality assurance systems and other related fields to be able to continue to stay in business Let us start to document our processes. Testimonies are not scientific facts or evidence for acceptance in evaluating safety, quality and efficacy of medicines Dr. Laud Okine of CSRPM, Peter Arhin of TAMD and Dr. Kofi Busi of WAHO at Summit Advertisements are good, but must be done within the context of the law, it must be truthful and devoid of exaggerations. Avoid mixing your herbal preparations with orthodox medicines like lasix, iron tablets, multivitamins, sulphur, etc. Endeavour to train your staff. Ensure effective collaboration with the Regulatory Authorities and Scientific Institutions to move the practice and industry forward. 13
  14. 14. PRESENTATION BY DR. LAUD OKINE, DIRECTOR, CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INTO PLANT MEDICINE Dr. Laud Okine, spoke on the topic: “Should Quality Assurance and Clinical Testing of Natural Therapies be Mandatory as a Way of Securing Patient’s Safety?” He answered in the affirmative. He said that clinical testing involves the use of hu- man beings to test the safety of products. He said quality assurance involves the authenti- cation of raw materials, standardization of procedures, bottling and establishing the shelf- life of products. According to Dr. Okine, the rate of metabolism is faster in animals than humans and called for care in using animals for testing as a basis that success automati- cally means that the effect on humans will be the same. He added that just like orthodox medicine, not all herbal medicines are safe and so there is always a need for testing. Dr. Okine said drugs react with herbal medicines and so practitioners should note it when giving health care to patients. Also, alcohol and sleeping tablets do not go together so practitioners must be very careful in the dispensing of drugs to patients. Finally, he ad- vised practitioners of herbal medicine to seek requisite advice from the Centre for Scien- tific Research Into Plant Medicine and the Food and Drugs Board. PRESENTATION BY FRANCIS AKAKPO, REGISTRAR, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE PRACTICE COUNCIL Mr. Francis Akakpo spoke about “Practitioner’s Ethics, Patient’s Rights and the Princi- ple of Do-No-Harm in the Practice of Traditional Medicine.” He said every profession has a code of ethics. The Association has a code but it is difficult for some members to obey it. Therefore the code must be enforced. He said the key areas are: ⇒ Skills and competence ⇒ Professional conduct/morality ⇒ Quality of products – the issue of fake labeling. These are drugs that have not been approved by the FDB ⇒ Non-registration of products ⇒ Confidentiality of patient’s information Titles – assuming names like ”Doctor” or “Professor” when not a qualified medical doctor. Mr. Akakpo implored practitioners to obey the code so that the public will develop a deep trust in their profession. 14
  15. 15. QUESTIONS/ANSWERS PERIOD Question: I harvest my raw materials from different areas. Will that affect the stan- dard of my products? Answer: Yes, different types of soil give different nutrients. Therefore one has to ana- lyze the components of these raw materials to determine whether or not the constitu- ents vary. Question: Standardization is good for the profession but it is very expensive. How can we maintain standards? Answer: In spite of that you must make the effort to standardize in order to enhance the public’s confidence in your products. Question: Can Food and Drugs Board help us to standardize? Answer: Yes. Make approaches so that they can know your challenges. Question: My product has been submitted to the Food and Drugs Board but they have not given us any reply. How long does it take to finish analyzing a product? Answer: You must be patient. It takes some time to analyze products. There is no spe- cific time to finish an analysis. It depends on the product. However, it is in your in- terests to inquire intermittently. PRESENTATION OF DR. KOFI BUSIA, WEST AFRICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WAHO) Dr. Kofi Busia spoke on the topic: “The Practice of Traditional Medicine: Poten- tials and Challenges in the Modern Day”. He stated that African Traditional Medicine is one of the oldest in the world. However, its practice was not documented. He said that approximately half of the 125,000 of the world’s flowers and plants are in Africa. This offers the continent a huge potential in the production of drugs. He said that although orthodox medicine is able to diagnose every sickness and prescribe drugs, traditional medicine can complement that effort effectively if time is taken to try to document their preparation. He added that in the Cape Verde, the lon- gevity of the people is very high – an average of 72 years and the reason is the appli- cation of herbs as a form of treatment for sicknesses. Dr. Busia enumerated some challenges as: 15
  16. 16. The capacity to supply huge quantities on demand (a) Standardization methods (b) Deforestation of our forest – Africa has one of the highest in the world. Presently, some plants have become extinct (c) The failure of traditional medicine practitioners to refer certain cases to ex- perts at the specialized hospitals (d) The increase in the number of pseudo doctors (quacks) (d) Claims for the cure of certain diseases He posed the question as to whether or not hypertension is a curable disease A cross-section of delegates at the conference Dr. Busia concluded by explaining that India exploits more plant products than finished ones and urged practitioners to be inventive by preserving plants so that that heritage will flourish. J.William Danquah, CEO of Africa First, LLC addressing the conference 16
  17. 17. SEPTEMBER 1, 2009 – 2ND PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION The burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, diabetes, heart dis- ease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders on the political, economic and social development of the marginalized and discriminated populations of the world. The second day began with a presentation by Dr. Richard Amenyah, Director of Technical Services of the Ghana AIDS Commission. Speaking on the topic: “HIV/AIDS disease in Ghana – The Realities and chal- lenges faced by the Ghana AIDS Commission in its work of prevention and eradica- tion”, Dr. Amenyah said that the HIV/AIDS pandemic is now stabilizing in Ghana with the Eastern Region still having the highest infection rate. He said the peak ages for the infected people are 35-39 years. The HIV/AIDS population is now 240,000 of which 58% are females. Of this figure, 21,000 are children. According to Dr. Amenyah, the drivers of HIV in Ghana are men who have sex with men (homosexuals) who in 2006 were 25% of the infected population. Female sex workers accounted for 38% in 2006. There were a few roamers, young but not organized. He said that since its establishment in 2002, the Ghana AIDS Commission has been in the forefront in the education of the public. Dr. Amenyah said one of the greatest challenges to the Commission is funding. He said between 2005 and 2007, funding has dwindled from 39.3% to 12.1%. Unfor- tunately, the funds came from foreign development partners. Also the percentage of funds go into treatment instead of prevention. He admitted that the Commission does not know the population of the most at risk which is estimated to be 35,000. However, the use of condom has increased be- tween 2003 and 2008. Dr. Amenyah concluded that in spite of these challenges, the Commission will continue to play its mandatory role in the control of HIV/AIDS pan- demic in the country. PRESENTATION BY MR. JACOB LARBI, ADVISER, SOCIAL MOBILIZATION, UNAIDS GHANA OFFICE Presenting on the topic: “The case of orthodox and traditional medicine at cross-roads: UNAIDS working in partnership to provide access to prevention, care and support to people living with HIV and AIDS”, Mr. Jacob Larbi said that traditional medicine is available in Ghana in both urban and rural areas. To the latter, it is the only source of healthcare. Moreover, the traditional healer is respected in society so such people may be needed in the campaign to revolutionize traditional herbal medi- cine. Mr. Larbi said that traditional herbal practices can complement the efforts of orthodox medicine in the treatment of HIV/AIDS as is being experimented in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Mr. Larbi added that UNAIDS is looking into ways by which or- ganizations can work together to reduce the upsurge of the pandemic. He said pre- vention is better than cure and so efforts should be made to sensitize the citizens about the mode of transmission. To do so, he called for collaboration between orthodox and 17
  18. 18. traditional medicine and the need to highlight the fact that traditional healers are held in high esteem in our society. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: Has the Ghana AIDS Commission distinguished between sex workers and man to man sex? Answer: Not yet, but we are considering it now because homosexualism is increasing in Ghana. Question: How can we get a cure if we do not continue with investigations? Answer: Lack of research funding is hampering our efforts. Question: Ghana is rich in plants/herbs. How can we get funds to support research? Answer: We still have to continue persuading external donors to help us continue with research. Research is very expensive. Question: Some drugs destroy the bone-marrow cells. Is Food and Drugs Board aware of it? Answer: Yes. We are investigating these allegations. Question: Is there any indication that circumcision minimizes HIV infection? Answer: There has been no study on Ghana. However, it is known that circumcision rate is 95% and it keeps the men less susceptible than the uncircumcised to venereal diseases. PRESENTATION BY MR. LAKASSA ESSOSSIMINAM, L’ASSOCIATION DES THERAPEU- TES TRADITIONANNELS DU TOGO Speaking on the topic “HIV/AIDS and Traditional Medicine”, Mr. Essossimi- nam said that traditional medicine is very common in Togo. He said that a few months ago, a Commission was set up in Togo to research into HIV/AIDS. Many heal- ers were encouraged to give information to researchers. However, no agreement was signed and so the researchers failed to give any feedback to the traditional healers. Mr. Essossiminam said he is aware that these researchers published papers, be- came famous and gained financially; yet nothing has been given to the traditional healers. He further stated that it has become the habit of orthodox researchers to de- monize traditional herbal medicine and this attitude has to be stopped. That will be the only way to fostering mutual respect and partnership. He thanked Dr. Kofi Busia for helping healers in Togo gain recognition and training. He said that he was ready to collaborate with researchers but insisted that a few things be laid on the table – transparency and mutual respect. 18
  19. 19. PRESENTATION BY TOGBEGA DABRA VI, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, PROMETRA GHANA Togbega Dabra VI spoke on the topic: “The effectiveness of Metrafaids for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and the challenges in making its available to the populations of the third world”. He said that the HIV/AIDS virus affects most people in the third world. Unfor- tunately, 80% funding for research come from the West. He said that PROMETRA is researching into five African herbs that have the capacity to fight HIV/AIDS. He said 62 patients were treated with the drug between 2000 and 2005. 92% of them in- creased in weight when the drug was administered on them. According to him, in order to test the credibility of the drug, it was sent to Morehouse School of Medicine at Atlanta, Georgia, USA, for validation. The validation was under Dr. Mike Powell. He said that the School validated the drug as very potent and concluded that all of the five constituents were soluble in water and halted the degeneration of cells. Also no toxicity was recorded. In conclusion, Togbega Dabra VI said that the product will be undergoing further tests. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: What accounts for the fact that there is no relapse in patients? Answer: It is the potency of the drug. However, we are still researching into the drug. Question: Why is there no toxicity? Answer: It is one of the mysteries that further research will establish. Question: Is it easy to provide the drug? Answer: Yes Question: Do we know the areas from which we get the herbs? Answer: Yes Question: Is it time to say that there are traditional sicknesses and traditional medi- cines? Answer: Yes. Question: When plants are sprayed with pesticides, it increases its toxicity, does it not? Answer: Yes. But we are yet to do a study on that. Question: Should we discuss the result? 19
  20. 20. Answer: No. The result of the Morehouse research is not to be discussed now. There is a need to establish the result further. Question: How does the drug work? Answer: It destroys the virus within 48 hours. Question: What are the chemical structures of the ingredients? Answer: I cannot discuss the details here. PRESENTATION BY DR. T.C. FLEISCHER, DEPARTMENT OF HERBAL MEDICINE, KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Dr. T.C. Fleischer spoke on “Advances and challenges in training and develop- ment of human resources in the field of traditional medicine practice in Ghana.” According to Dr. Fleischer, there are two main forms of healthcare in develop- ing countries, namely, traditional and orthodox. He said about 80% of the population depends on herbs because it is not expensive. Thus, the World Health Organization has encouraged members to develop policies to ensure that traditional medicine is sus- tained. Also, with the migration of many medical doctors, there is an urgent need for traditional medicine practitioners. He said that in 1964, the Danfa Health Centre was established to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Later, the Centre for Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine was established and headed by a British-trained medical doctor, Dr. Oku Ampofo. In 1992, the Food and Drugs Board was established under PNDCL 305B to regulate the production and use of herbal medicine. Dr. Fleischer said a survey in 2000 showed that traditional medicine practitio- ners were aged and illiterate. Also they were unable to diagnose sicknesses efficiently. Therefore, KNUST started a programme in 2001 to train students in herbal medicine to supplement the efforts of the traditional healers. He explained that the 4-year course is multi-disciplinary and the first in the whole of Africa. However it is in exis- tence in the USA and UK. He said the objectives of the programme are to enhance communication and research into plant medicine. As part of their curriculum, students are attached to traditional healers to gain an insight into their procedures of diagnosing and adminis- tering drugs. So far, 70 graduates have been trained in 5 batches since the inception of the programme. He added that some of the graduates have been employed by the tradi- tional healers in order to improve their health delivery. Because of the infusion of these university-trained herbalists into their practice, that activity is gaining respect from the public. In recognition of that pioneering role, the World Health Organiza- tion has cited them for special recognition. Dr. Fleischer urged the public to patronize some of these certified products in- stead of Indian and Chinese products. 20
  21. 21. Dr. Fleischer said the challenges of the Faculty are finance, low patronage by top class students and the absence of absorption by the Ministry of Health. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: What designation do you give to those students from KNUST? Answer: Medical Herbalists Question: What plans do you have for the training of over 40,000 traditional healers? Answer: There is not sufficient funding. Secondly, there is no Practice Hospital, yet there is a post-graduate programme. Question: How far has traditional medicine gone in the treatment of HIV/AIDS? I mean any result? Answer: We are yet to investigate some of the claims of the traditional healers. Question: Where do you employ those students? Answer: Kindly consult Mr. Francis Akakpo, Registrar of the Traditional Medicine Practice Council, who monitors those graduates. Question: Is there a cure for AIDS? Answer: The word “cure” is a word that brings a lot of ambiguity. Sometimes we treat patients by managing the opportunistic infections. Simply, there is no cure for AIDS. Question: Is there enough money for research? Answer: No Question: There are companies which profit from the condom business. How do they relate to researchers? Answer: There are no overt moves by those businesses to thwart the efforts for getting a cure. That may be expected but research will get us a breakthrough in the future. Question: Can we compare the results of traditional medicine and orthodox drugs on HIV/AIDS patients? Answer: Yes. But we are yet to do that experimentally. Question: What is the name of HIV/AIDS in Ghanaian languages? Answer: There is no name yet. In our local languages, the name is descriptive of the condition. 21
  22. 22. PRESENTATION BY DR. THEOPHILUS B. KWOFIE, SENIOR LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Presenting on the topic: “Evaluation of Traditional Herbal Medicine as HIV/ AIDS Therapeutic”, Dr. Theophilus B. Kwofie said that in a research programme, they selected six herbalists. Each of them was to secure a HIV/AIDS patient. Only three of the herbalists got patients. These were renamed centres COO1, COO2 and COO3. Their representatives were M& J, Obeng Memorial Herbal Clinic and Ananse Boafo. Centre COO1 administered its own drug MJ Goldoni. Centre COO2 adminis- tered Misparon OA, Unity Mixtures. Centre COO3 administered its drug - (name of drug not given). At the end of the evaluation period of six months, four patients – three males and one female were found healthy. There was an increase in CD4 and T-Cell count. Those who died did not die of drug-related cases. They had severe emotional prob- lems which contributed to their negative response. Some were suicidal and failed to take the drugs. With respect to Centre COO1, some of the patients are living five years after the trials. Dr. Kwofie recommended that MJ Goldoni be further researched into to estab- lish its efficacy beyond doubt. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: Who financed the research? Answer: Ghana AIDS Commission. Question: Can Ghana AIDS Commission help other countries? Answer: Not yet. West African Health Organization (WAHO) has a programme to help research. What it involves is writing a proposal and showing the cost. WAHO will support it. Esperanza is ready to help if the programme is sustainable. Question: The Centre for Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine in Mampong was set up to analyze products by playing a neutral role. Why is it now both a player and a referee? Answer: I am aware of this state of affairs and WAHO has raised the issue. There is no response from them. Question: What are the mechanisms – criteria for the studies? Answer: Consent, patient not to be on other drugs, patient left to KNUST to assess. 22
  23. 23. PRESENTATION BY MR. RICHARD ABBEY OF CHAMPION DIVINE CLINIC Mr. Richard Abbey spoke about “Institutionalisation of traditional medicine in Ghana and penetration into the global market: Role of Government, media and herbal practitioners.” He said that after a conference in Beijing in 2008, it called for the protection of traditional medicine and also advocated that its role be respected. According to Mr. Abbey, the traditional medicine healer can use the title “Dr.”. Furthermore, he sug- gested the introduction of embargo on the importation of certain drugs. Also there is a need to regulate the condom trade. Finally, the speaker invited the media to support the efforts of traditional medicine practitioners in the country. QUESTION AND ANSWERS Question: Did you seek the consent of the patient before showing the video in your education drive? Answer: Yes. Comment: Dr. Kofi Busia advised the speaker not to be confrontational in the future. The speaker’s attention was drawn to instances where Champion Divine Clinic has advertised his products but condemns advertisement by practitioners. Mr. Abbey was told that the title “Dr.” must be earned and so people should not use a title that they had not earned. Question: Do you use made-in-Ghana drugs? Answer: Yes Question: Why did you establish your factory in Pakistan to produce some of your drugs? Answer: The reason is that we get some of the raw materials there and secondly, we are able to produce them as quickly as possible. PRESENTATION BY DR. SAIDI MPENDU, THE BALM OF GILEAD, TANZANIA Speaking on the topic: “The Mission of the Balm of Gilead (a faith-based or- ganization) to help African communities building capacities in fighting HIV/AIDS – The Tanzanian Experience”, Dr. Saidi Mpendu revealed that Balm in Gilead is based in Virginia USA. He added that Tanzania has a population of 36 million, 40% of whom are Christians, 40% Muslims and 20% traditional religions. According to him, the first three cases of HIV were reported in 1983 in Kagera Region of Tanzania. Tanzania has HIV prevalence of 5.7% among adults between ages 15 and 49. Presently as a result of HIV/AIDS, there are about 2 million orphans in Tanzania. 23
  24. 24. Presently, Balm of Gilead has come to Tanzania to help in the fight against HIV. Dr. Mpendu said that since 2002, Balm of Gilead has developed about 80 faith-based organizations (FBOs) working and servicing people at local community level. This has translated into an increase in HIV counseling and testing through mass community outreach and mobile testing facilities. Dr. Mpendu stated that the gravest challenge is finance. Balm of Gilead, he said, is an agent for behavioral change and they effectively encourage people to go for testing to know their status. He said that since FBOs have access to foreign funds they are able to implement some of these health-boosting ini- tiatives. Finally, Dr. Mpendu recommended more education about HIV/AIDS, stressing on preventive measures. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: What is the percentage of Tanzanians that have been circumcised? Answer: I do not have figures, but with the exception of certain tribes, a large percent- age of Tanzanians have been circumcised. Question: How do you relate to the Tanga AIDS Project? Answer: We relate to them well. The project is owned by the Anglican Church. Question: Do traditional medical practitioners in Tanzania claim to have cure for HIV/AIDS? Answer: No. Question: Is there any strategy by any research organization or a University to ap- proach traditional healers? Answer: As compared with Ghana, Tanzania is behind in efforts to contain the HIV/ AIDS pandemic. In Ghana you have associations, etc. We do not have them in Tanza- nia. FBOs are leading the way. 24
  25. 25. SEPTEMBER 2, 2009 – 3RD PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION The huge difficulties many governments, especially those in Africa and the third world countries are facing in the provision of sanitation and safe drinking water, which situation in turn is hampering the delivery of effective healthcare services to their populations. Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, Chairman of the conference on account of other engagements, was replaced by Professor Thomas Klimkait at the start of this session. Professor Klimkait read out the paper of Dr. Delfin Beltran, President of Global Ark Forum of Minnesota entitled “Unveiling, recording and disseminating centuries of indigenous medical knowledge to counter problems unsolved by modern medical sci- ence”. He referred all questions relating to this submission to Mr. William Danquah. Dr. Beltran in his paper stated during the past century, humanities ills have been dissected and defined. Investigative methods have revealed the functions of man that become deranged when illness presents. Technologic inventiveness provides tools to alter the course of illness over time and intensity. In spite of this progress in medi- cal definition and therapy, billions are not privileged to enjoy its benefits. Ancient in- terventions using natural materials with undocumented methods continue to be the only available help. Awareness of the potential value to be derived from these inter- ventions has been brought to the attention of the world. Within the past year serious funding programs have been established to expand existing medical knowledge into these concerns because of the failure of advanced medical interventions to alleviate the suffering of infectious and metabolic ills that remain unsolved. He stated that within the past year serious funding programs have been estab- lished to expand existing medical knowledge into these concerns because of the failure of advanced medical interventions to alleviate the suffering of infectious and meta- bolic ills that remain unsolved. His paper concluded that the most important factor in knowledge development is for the recording of knowledge related to the question. Global Ark Forum recog- nizes the need for a worldwide information data base for the exposure of pathways to human need. It is our intent to create a network of concerned knowledge and investi- gation into the undocumented world of indigenous medical therapy. As interest in the system grows and utilization of its values is extended into the daily lives of the under- served, teaching, research, and commercial knowledge centers will be incorporated into the system to facilitate the solutions to mankind’s unsolved ills. DISCUSSION AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF PLANT MEDICINES USED FOR THE TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF EPILEPSY AND MENTAL DISEASES BY MR. ODURO KISSI OF WOFA KISSI HERBAL CLINIC The speaker spoke in Twi. According to Mr. Oduro Kissi, when we say some- body is sick, it involves physical and spiritual aspects. He said God is a spirit so is man who was made in his own image. Mr. Kissi explained that because of this duality, 25
  26. 26. Apart from Kings/Chiefs, why do not ordinary people wear footwear when they are being prepared for burial? In an answer to that, he said that as royals the Kings wll use it as a sign that they were kings on earth. Why did God create a salty sea? In answer to that, he said that God in his own wisdom wishes to preserve the land with salt. According to Mr. Kissi, three issues militate against progress in African societies. These are: • Wizardry/witchcraft • Idolatory • Royalty All these activities involve the casting of spells on people who are not agreeable to the contesting parties’ views. He added that although these forces do not create, they destroy. In order to combat these things, nature has provided the antidote. Trees, plants and seeds were created before human beings and they are the “spare parts” that human beings need. Mr. Kissi said that there are some leaves which invoke spirits, when they are put into the ears. He said he has HIV/AIDS patients who are still alive because of his interventions. He quoted Matthew Chapter 23:23. He said that people can be infected with the HIV/AIDS virus spiritually. The me- dium of the transfer is food. He claimed to have cure for epilepsy, dementia, bed- wetting etc. He said that if these diseases have a cure, then there is a cure for HIV/ AIDS. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Comment: Togbega Dabra VI commented, “I believe that there are spiritual sicknesses. PROMETRA takes care of both the physical and the spiritual. Question: How was the virus transferred to the victim? Answer: In the spiritual world there is no gender. The virus was transferred spiritu- ally to the victim. Question: I want to know the source of these spirits? Answer: I wish to state that we cannot conclude this topic about spirituality. It is an ongoing controversy. Mr. Kenneth Danso commented: I support Mr. Kissi’s views. I dreamt that my grand- mother has infected me with “ntwifae” (eczema). I woke up and that part of my foot had those signs. 26
  27. 27. Question: You said that before you exorcise spirits from the possessed, you pacify the spirits with gifts. How do you dispose those tokens? Answer: At the beach, I throw the items into the sea. Sometimes we give them as gifts to other people. On one occasion, we pacified a spirit with a crate of Guinness. We threw it into the sea. Two bottles returned to the beach, open and empty of its contents. Question: Why is it that apart from chiefs, ordinary people are not buried whilst wearing foot- wear? Answer: They are subordinates in the physical world and will be so in the spiritual world after death. PRESENTATION BY NANA KWADWO OBIRI, MEMBER OF THE GHANA FEDERATION OF TRA- DITIONAL MEDICINE PRACTITIONERS ASSOCIATIONS Presenting on the topic: “Demonstration of the therapeutic properties of plant medi- cines in the treatment and management of malaria”, Nana Kwadwo Obiri said that he does not believe that a plant has specific components. According to him, the egg plant is the most poi- sonous “herb” in the world. Yet we patronize it. He said that “koko” in the Ghanaian lan- guage means a growth but it has been given the English equivalent of haemorrhoids or piles. Nana Obiri invited scientists to assign specific English words to their local equivalent. Nana Obiri said malaria is prevalent in Ghana and most people know of cryptoliptis, the 7th on the list of drugs against malaria. Yet, it is not known whether it is an ingredient. He said the leaf of Paulina Pinata cannot without another additive, cure malaria. He instructed that the bark of Paulina Pinata must be boiled three times before one can extract the therapeu- tic component. He said that when the bark is boiled and allowed to cool, the water is changed with fresh one. This happens on the two occasions before the final concoction can be used to treat malaria. Alternatively, a herb called “gyi wuba di wokyi” in Twi language is used differently. Its root is boiled but not for a long time. Thereafter, the therapeutic part is extracted with al- cohol. Nana Obiri added that moringa is a cure for typhoid. If one adds the root to the mor- inga one can treat typhoid. However, if the leaves alone are used, the drug helps to cure fever. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: If a drug can cure more than one disease, what happens if the patient is not suffering from one of the diseases? Answer: A mixture of herbs do different things in the body. For example, paracetamol which is used as a pain killer but does other things. Comments: • I suggest that you do more analysis and procedure steps. Instead of teaching us how you prepare something you are teaching us how to prepare it. • If you grind herbs it is easier to extract their active ingredients. • Disclose the identity of plants you use so that if there is any literature on it, some- body must complement your efforts. 27
  28. 28. • Herbalists cannot popularize their products if they continue to use the unscientific method. Therefore they cure the symptoms instead of the disease. They must consult scientists – Ghanaian scientists to enable them neutralize the western influence. • When scientists get results from research into herbal medicines, they must share the knowledge with traditional medicine practitioners. • I suggest that traditional medicine practitioners should embrace standardization in order to popularize traditional medicine. • It is possible for one product to treat many diseases. An example is Aspirin which is isolated from a plant. Initially, it was used for pain. Now it is used for hyperten- sion. • Your presentation will be more effective if you use photographs or video. It is necessary to marry western and traditional forms of treatment to ensure accessi- bility to a majority of citizens. We must overcome fear and mistrust. Question: You promised to give some of us your drugs to test their efficacy. How do you get result if you cannot determine whether we are sick or not? Answer: It is optional. PRESENTATION BY NANA AGYEPONG DEBRAH, GENERAL SECRETARY, FRIENDS OF RIVERS AND WATER BODIES, GHANA Nana Agyepong Debrah spoke on the topic: “The alarming rate at which rivers and water bodies around the globe are disappearing and the direct dangers to the sur- vival of the nations”. Nana Debrah said that they were a voluntary organization whose focus is on land, water and the environment. He added that water is undoubtedly the most im- portant of all natural resources. According to him, water is finite, sensitive and irre- placeable. Morever, only 3% of water available is fresh water. The population of Africans without improved drinking water sources increased by 17.9% from 280 million in 1990 to 341 million in 2006 (UNICEF). He added that Lake Chad is shrinking at an alarming rate. In addition, it is estimated that Africans and Asians walk about 3.75 miles to carry about 20 kilos of water home for use. Nana Debrah concluded that the only way forward is for government to take interest in water related issues and by providing the funds and expertise for water manage- ment. He said that unlike other countries, Ghana does not have a Minister of Water. He said their NGO is still advocating that a Minister be made solely responsible for water. 28
  29. 29. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Comment: It is a common sight that during a road construction, water sources are of- ten blocked. This is not good for the nation and I suggest that government be per- suaded to develop a policy that will protect water sources during construction. Question: What is your NGO’s strategy to bring government to help change the atti- tudes of citizens who destroy water sources? Answer: Our organization is an NGO without a mandate to stop people directly. We will alert the appropriate Ministry. Question: Almost everywhere in Ghana, growers of vegetables use water from gutters to water their gardens. This water is contaminated. What are you doing about this trend? Answer: We sometimes hold seminars in schools to educate the young students about the effects of some of these unhygienic activities. Question: Do you have a list of all water sources in the country? Answer: No. However, we are beginning to compile water bodies in the Ashanti Re- gion. PRESENTATION BY NANA AMPONSAH BAAKU, QUEEN MOTHER OF BRONG MANSO Nana Amponsah Baaku spoke on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of plant medicines in the treatment and management of breast cancer”. She presented in Twi. She said that she is an indigene of Brong Manso in the Brong Ahafo Region. She said she got the skills for healing breast cancer in a dream when an old woman thanked her for accepting to occupy the traditional “stool”. In the dream she was advised to take an aluminum pan and proceed toward a tree in the forest. She was instructed that the bark of the tree contained therapeutic properties which may be extracted when boiled. She followed the instructions and named the tree “Senya”, which in the local corrupted pronunciation of silver “sliver” means aluminum pan. She has healed a lot of people with her drugs. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Comment: I believe in everything this woman has said. However, I suggest that she gets closer to the scientists in order to help analyze the product scientifically in order to learn more about the drug. Question: How long does it take for breast cancer patients to become well after treat- ment? 29
  30. 30. Answer: One week. Question: If patients undergo treatment, do they go to hospitals to check whether they have been healed? Answer: Yes, they go to hospitals for checks. Their diagnoses help to authenticate the effectiveness of the drug. Question: Where and how can we locate you? Answer: I am often at Brong Manso. Question: Have you trained somebody to take over from you when you retire? Answer: Initially, I did not plan to train somebody. However, after taking part in this Summit, I have changed my mind. I will train somebody. PRESENTATION BY MADAM ADJOA MAABEA FROM NSUATRE, BRONG AHAFO RE- GION Madam Adjoa Maabea presented on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of plant medicines in the treatment and management of ulcers, herpes, anal diseases and bar- renness.” Madam Maabea said she grew up in the Northern region of Ghana. Her grand father showed her how to protect the body with herbs. She said she cured hay fever, anal diseases, piles, barrenness and herpes. She continued that she once cured a man who had herpes. Thereafter, the patient’s uncle who had predicted the death of his nephew, asked Madam Maabea for a gift of a sheep and later showed her a herb that cured diseases. Since 1976, she has been curing women of barenness and ulcers. She brought some of her patients she had treated or healed of ulcers to the conference. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: Apart from ulcers, does your drug cure any other diseases? Answer: Yes, it cures piles, hypertension and stroke. Question: Have you taught somebody to take over from you when you retire? Answer: Yes. I have a nephew who is a graduate of KNUST. He is helping me to docu- ment these herbs, their preparation and application. 30
  31. 31. PRESENTATION BY DR. SAMUEL SASU, HEALTHWORKS, ACCRA Dr. Samuel Sasu of Healthworks, presented on the topic: “Ayurveda treatment and management of stress”. He said that recent research has shown that 5% of diseases that are reported to hospitals are stress-related. Stress, he said, is an internal/external energy that creates imbalance in our body-mind. He said that emotions, food and noise are energies. Also negative thoughts weaken the nervous system. According to Dr. Sasu, when one repeats an activity for 21 days, that becomes a habit and it is very difficult to stop it. Ayurveda is simply the science of life. And life comes from what we eat. Each person has the foods that his/her body tolerates. Some people become uncomfortable when they take beans because of the gas that it produces. This means that that person must consult a specialist to determine the types of food that are good for him/her. According to Dr. Sasu, this science of food is what is lacking in traditional medicine. He adds that Ayurveda is an ancient Indian art and is presently being prac- ticed in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. He advised traditional heal- ers not to refuse to reveal some of their secrets because though one can patent the findings of a research into a herb/plant, one cannot patent the bush or forest from which these herbs are obtained. He said one of the hottest parts of the body is the liver and so it is beneficial to always cool it. He said malaria loves heat and filantus cools the liver. Dr. Sasu said that presently he is the only specialist in Ayurveda in Ghana but loves competition so that a lot of people will be aware of Ayurveda treatment. He said that he uses mostly herbal medicines for the treatment of patients who visit his clinic. He revealed that he uses appropriate music as an essential component of the treatment of some diseases. Ayurveda, Dr. Sasu concluded that Ayurveda teaches people about how to live healthily. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: Are homeopathy and Ayurveda similar? At your clinic do you investigate all aspects of eating? Answer: Yes, they are similar. Yes, at my clinic we give special diet to help re-set pa- tient’s health button. Question: Do you propose to use blood group and the list of food to eat? Answer: Yes. In Ayurveda, one’s pulse tells so much about one’s state of health. Question: May I know the span of time for treatment? Answer: 7 days. 31
  32. 32. Question: When do we visit? Answer: When we are both well and unwell. It is good health practice to check one’s health status. Question: How do you cure your patients? Answer: We do not give palliative care; i.e. reduce pain. We use herbs to treat people to be well. Question: How cheap is your diagnosis? Answer: Consultation is only GHC20.00. Question: How can we locate you? Answer: I do not advertise. People who have gained from our treatment tell others. Question: Where is the source of your medication? Answer: Mostly from India. Question: Do you have a training programme? Answer: Yes. I am in touch with the Ministry of Health to introduce this form of heal- ing in our hospitals. 32
  33. 33. SEPTEMBER 3, 2009 - FOURTH PLENARY SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SESSION Searching for efficacious, safe and affordable traditional/alternative medicines and healing practices for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders. As the final day of the Summit. Mr. J.William Danquah, the Convener, intro- duced Professor Thomas Klimkait, who with the departure on Wednesday, September 2, 2009 of Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, Chairman of the conference, had served in that capacity. Professor Thomas Klimkait presented on the topic: “Natural Products for treat- ing HIV/AIDS”. He said there are three ways of treating HIV. These are: Treat the virus Treat the patient Treat the AIDS Statistically, Professor Klimkait said there are 33 million people living with HIV. Because of this, humanity cannot ignore HIV/AIDS. He said prevention is cheaper than cure but only 1/3 of those in need of ther- apy can get it. The HIV virus changes constantly and so it is necessary to merge Euro- pean and African therapies to fight the pandemic. Professor Klimkait said that the forest is very rich in plants that are therapeutic and he wishes to make use of that knowledge to make safer drugs. He calmed nerves by saying that Africa has enormous knowledge about herbs and it will be useful to tap that knowledge in the fight against HIV/AIDS. He emphasized the fact that he is not in Africa to steal the knowledge of Africans but to form a partnership to research and collect data for planning. At Esperanza, he stated, research is ongoing to get a cure for HIV. Africa has some knowledge but it is not known world wide in order to get the necessary support. He said that Esperanza is a foundation and so does not envisage profit. Therefore, there is the need for cooperation and mutual trust. According to Professor Klimkait, it is difficult to cure HIV because the virus gets into the nucleus of the cells. Therefore, the time has come for complementary roles between the west and Africa to develop a drug that will destroy the virus but not the cells of the carrier. Moreover, there are different types of HIV which makes it very dif- ficult to get a single cure because the virus changes its nature very quickly. According to Professor Klimkait, Esperanza has drawn a business plan to estab- lish a factory in South Africa to produce some anti-HIV drugs in the future. He said it was envisaged that after 8 to 9 years, the factory will make some profits. 33
  34. 34. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: What makes you certain that you can achieve your aim of making the drug accessible to patients? Answer: The demand for the therapy will be cheap. Also I think that traditional medi- cine can complement our efforts. Question: How many HIV types do we have? Answer: HIV I and HIV 2 Question: If one has HIV and takes a medicine that can boost the immune system, what will happen? Answer: HIV does not kill. It destroys the immune system. Therefore any immune booster can help the patient withstand the onslaught of the virus. Question: What is the best way that the Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association can meet Esperanza Medicines Foundation? Answer: Our address is available. Question: How do you protect intellectual property rights? Answer: People can patent their research and get official protection. Question: How does Esperanza test the compounds of a drug? Answer: I need only 100mg for analysis Question: How do we get that? Answer: Consult Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology to help extract the compound and make it stable. Question: In Togo, there is no University to help the traditional medicine practitioners. What do I do? Answer: You have to get other universities to help you with that aspect of the research work. Question: How do we get money to travel and persuade healers to form associations? Will Esperanza finance us? Answer: No. First, try and get the fund and get the compounds. If the result is positive, we can establish a business relationship. Question: Do you experiment with animals at Esperanza? 34
  35. 35. Answer: No. We refrain from that because one still needs a human being to authenticate the efficacy of a drug. Question: Can we clear the HIV in the body? Answer: The HIV penetrates the nucleus of the cells and so it is very difficult to eliminate them. However, we may come by a drug that will do specifically that. Question: There are two types of HIV. How are you using experiments to cure each? Answer: The therapy we are developing in the West is for the American type. We are now broadening our research for the African variety. PRESENTATION BY PETER AVINU OF PETER’S HERBAL CENTRE, NSAWAM Mr. Peter Avinu presented on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of raw natural plants for the treatment and management of fistula diseases”. Fistula diseases affect both men and women. It starts like a boil, it bursts; the pus oozes out. Then it closes again. The boil recurs at another point. According to Mr. Avinu, fis- tula appears at the anus, clitoris, testicles, behind the ears and other places. He said that fis- tula renders a lot of people hopeless and sitting becomes painful. Fistula does not spread but is very painful. Because it can appear at the anus, many people having fistula at the anal open- ing wear pad (pampers). According to Mr. Avinu, the causes of fistula have to be established by laboratory re- search. However, from experience, victims have worms and flagellates in their body. Mr. Avinu said that the leaves of pawpaw can be used to treat fistula. Also the flowers of male pawpaw are an important component of any drug for treatment of the disease. He added that about 10% of victims of fistula have protozoans in their bodies. This is confirmed by laboratory results. Mr. Avinu invited the Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practi- tioners Association to arrange for a laboratory to test these herbal medicines so that they can be standardized and dispensed at the traditional herbal clinics. Moreover, he claimed that there are a lot of antibiotics in the bush; some de-toxify. He said fresh herbs are poisonous. Thus, it is better to dry them in the sun to neutralize the toxicity. This knowledge is common to traditional healers who hardly use drugs in treatment. Mr. Avinu said the mahogany tree is a very useful tree with many therapeutic proper- ties. Therefore the government should be persuaded to ban its export. For instance, its bark is an antibiotic, used in the treatment of boil. To prepare a cure, one has to take the bark of a mahogany and add lemon and apply on the boil. After a few hours, it will open. He concluded by calling on Africa First, LLC to help popularize traditional herbal medicine so that the practice will be sustained. He concluded by saying that “We know the trees. The trees know us.” QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Question: How have you been treating fistula in your clinic? Answer: I use shell and pawpaw leaves to treat it. 35
  36. 36. Question: I know how to prepare the drug. First, one puts the shell in fire. Then later grinds it and adds pawpaw leaves. This is my style. What is your style? Answer: I follow the same style. Question: I know fistula to be a birth-related ailment. Is yours different? Answer: No. However, there are other ways of getting fistula. Fistula can lead to can- cer. Question: Is fistula male or female related disease? Answer: Both men and women can get fistula. Question: Your presentation is very educative. However, a video will enhance under- standing and credibility. PRESENTATION BY OPANIN KWAKU AFRIYIE, BROSANKRO, AHAFO ANO, ASHANTI REGION Opanin Kwaku Afriyie presented on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of natu- ral plants in the treatment of failing eyes, impotency and haemorroage.” He spoke in Twi. As a practitioner, “koko” which is a growth of tissue, can affect one’s eye or feet. Its manifestation is swollen feet. According to Opanin Afriyie, he can cure failing eyes, impotency and haemor- rage. Some of the raw materials are: samanobi, kakapenpen, ginger, lime juice and other herbs. He said that he makes a concoction that may be taken two times daily. QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS Question: You said that some of your drugs may be taken when added to alcohol. How do we take it? Answer: Take two tots in the morning and another two tots in the evening. Question: Do you produce your drug and expect somebody to buy it? Answer: No. I produce on demand. Question: How available are the plants throughout the year? Answer: I do not cultivate the plant. However, it is common and available. Question: How are you sure about the dosage? Answer: I recommend users to take a tot at least. This is because it is sleep-inducing. Question: Can I boil the herbs? 36
  37. 37. Answer: No. Question: How may one contact you? Answer: Please telephone me on my cellular number 0249921723. Question: What happens when you boil it? Answer: I have not applied that method. Please do not boil the herbs. Question: Do you treat any diseases besides “koko” Answer: No please. PRESENTATION BY GIDEON ADDOTEY, CG BIOSTADT, ALOHA MEDICINAL, ACCRA Mr. Gideon Addotey presented on the topic: “Immune Modulation Therapy: A cutting-edge treatment modality rapidly integrated into traditional medicine and sur- gery.” He said their company has been in existence for more than 20 years and that their product, ImmuneAssist 24 is good for the immune system. The drug has no arti- ficial addictive. It is organic. He added that most chronic diseases are the result of lack of immune-triggered molecules. Thus, if one increased one’s immunity, therapy worked faster than without it. He said that when they introduced their drug, he contacted the Holy Trinity Medical Centre to dispense it. They refused. However, a patient tried it and reported positive results. Thereafter, he gave testimony and it is interesting to say that the drug is in high demand. Finally, he said that the drug can even enhance fertility. QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS Question: How long must a patient take the drug? Answer: The drug is a daily supplement. Question: Is your drug time-related? Answer: No. It is a daily supplement and so one has to continue taking it daily. Comment: I come from Togo. I am not advertising for that company. I can say that the drug is in high demand in Togo. 37
  38. 38. PRESENTATION BY MR. DANIEL BOAMAH Mr. Boamah spoke in Twi on the topic: “Therapeutic properties of natural plants in the treatment of infertility.” He said that his mother was a traditional birth attendant (TBA). He learned from her. She encouraged him to believe that God made everyone reproductive. He continued that in the Bible, when Jacob married Leah, he did not love her. He obeyed tradition by marrying the elder who was fertile. However, God closed the womb of Rachel. Later, God opened her womb and she gave birth. Be- cause of this story, he believes that with prayers and treatment, infertility can be cured. He said that he had practiced successfully for 30 years and had made many people happy parents. Mr. Boamah confessed that he is unwilling to reveal all the names of the ingredients of the drug he produces. However, he said Mango enhances eye sight. Also the bark of the mango tree is good as a cure of infertility. QUESTIONS/COMMENTS Question: Have you sent your drug to the Food and Drugs Board for testing? Answer: No. I have not been able to get the money to pay for the research. PRESENTATION BY DR. AMIN BONSU OF AMEN SCIENTIFIC HERBAL CLINIC Dr. Amin Bonsu presented on the topic: “The treatment and management of diabetes, urinary tract infections, prostrate problems, strokes and hypertensive dis- eases with natural therapies.” Dr. Bonsu said herbs are the back bone of many therapies. He said although his drugs have been analyzed to determine their chemical composition, some people have expressed doubts about its efficacy. He added that there are herbs that contain proper- ties that can control the diseases he mentioned in his topic. He said that with stroke, it can be managed by therapeutic and non- therapeutic approaches. Dr. Bonsu said that the challenges he faced are (1) the failure of patients to comply with his directives; (2) patients report to his clinic when their conditions are very life-threatening; (3) patients take other drugs when they are under his care. According to Dr. Bonsu, he has discovered that herbal medicines have prop- erties that cure the diseases he has mentioned. Dr. Bonsu advised medical doctors to do proper diagnosis of herbal medicines before they denigrade them. He said he is aware that there are herbs that have toxic components. He said that the time has come to stop the blame game and for traditional healers and orthodox doctors to collaborate to get proper medication for the ever- increasing population of patients. He said he has cured a woman who had renal failure, treated over 150 people of prostrate cancer. Dr. Bonsu presented two people who gave testimonies of how he cured them of their diseases. Finally, Dr. Bonsu advised women with ectopic cases to 38
  39. 39. go to the hospitals instead of the herbal clinic because they will need surgery. Dr. Bonsu said that he has medicinal plantations to support his clinic with plant medicines. QUESTIONS/COMMENTS Comment: I have enjoyed your submission doctor. You are the last speaker for the summit. This is not the time to blame anybody. It is time to collaborate with other stakeholders in the health business. Question: May I know if you have subjected your drugs to analysis and certification by the Food and Drugs Board? Answer: Yes; some of them. DECLARATION After Dr. Bonsu’s presentation, the Chairman, Professor Thomas Klimkait intro- duced to the conference participants a copy of a draft Declaration prepared by Mr. J.William Danquah, the Convener of the Conference, for debate and ratification. The Declaration touches on all the various presentations and discussions covering the 4- day conference. After a few changes in the text, especially, the word “unwilling” found in paragraph 4 of the original draft which was deleted, the document was unanimously adopted by the participants. For the benefit of participants, national governments, health policy makers, stakeholders, practitioners, teachers, students, and the citizens of the world concerned and interested in the development of traditional medicine to its full capacity, the full text of the Declaration are as follows: “DECLARATION The combined activities of the 7th African Traditional Medicine Day and the 3rd Global Summit on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Medicine & Indigenous Knowledge, chaired by Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, Immediate Past Director General of the Ghana AIDS Commission, and Professor Thomas Klimkait, Chief Executive of Esperanza Medicines Foundation, commenced from Monday, August 31, 2009 and ends today, Thursday, September 3, 2009. The objectives of the combined programme were: (1) To promote the best practices of traditional medicines in the prevention and man- agement of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders; and 39
  40. 40. (2) To identify mechanisms for the enhancement and protection of traditional medical knowledge. The conference had the following specific objectives: (a) To serve as a forum for the identification of traditional medicines and practices of established value used in the prevention and management of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tu- berculosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders, for further evaluation of safety, efficacy and quality standards. (b) To identify mechanisms for fostering sustainable partnerships between traditional health practitioners and conventional health practitioners for accelerating the preven- tion and management of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, sickle cell, anaemia, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and mental disorders; and (c) To discuss the huge difficulties many governments, especially in Africa and the third world countries are facing in the provision of sanitation and safe drinking wa- ter, which in turn is hampering the delivery of effective healthcare services to their populations, and to recommend ways and means to overcome the situation. (d) To promote the review and development of jurisdictions and patent laws that ade- quately capture intellectual property rights emanating from Traditional Medicine, in- ternational, regional, state, local laws and legislations, taking into account, relevant intellectual property rights regimes to ensure adequate protection of traditional medi- cal knowledge and allowing its sustainable development. That after several submissions and discussions, the Conference makes the following findings: 1. That despite the intense commitments of national government and the World Health Organization to develop traditional medicine, (as reinforced by Honourable Dr. George Sipa Yankey, the Minister of Health, and Miss Sophia Twumbarima, Health Promotion Officer of the World Health Organization Ghana Office), at the opening of the conference, financial support for education and research has been extremely low or not avail able at all. The government and the World Health Organization should allocate more funding. 2. That the reports from the 2nd Global Summit and the one before that event have not yet been implemented by the Government of Ghana since their submission in May 2008. That extra effort will be made by Africa First, LLC to get the Government of Ghana through the Ministry of Health to give consideration to the implementation of recommendations contained in these reports. 3. That education remains one of the critical setbacks to the development of traditional medicine practice in Ghana and elsewhere in the world. This is because even though ancient interventions using natural materials with undocumented methods continue to be the only available means of providing healthcare to the majority of the popula- 40
  41. 41. tions of the world, not having had the opportunity to education, traditional medicine practitioners are unable to communicate effectively to the scientific system about the method they used before arriving at their medical formulas; and as a result, traditional medicine continues to suffer. (See Dr. Delfin Beltran’s paper). 4. That traditional medicine remains shrouded in mystery but practitioners are willing to reveal to the scientific community the constituents of their medicines and how they prepared them. They expect however that the threat of issues of piracy and intellectual property rights should be addressed. Additionally, practitioners do not have the means to get their formulas investigated and validated in keeping with regulations in order to meet universal standards. 5. The World Health Organization has stated in its report that over 60% of people in Africa and other parts of the world use herbal medicine. That traditional medicine re- mains a potential source of remedies for the prevention, care and support to every one and especially people living with HIV and AIDS. It is therefore the position of the World Health Organization and the Joint Programmes of the United Nations on HIV/ AIDS that traditional healers should be partners in the expanded response to HIV/ AIDS, and to maximize the potential contribution that can be made towards meeting the magnitude of needs for care, support and prevention. (See the presentation of UN- AIDS’ Mobilization Officer.) 6. That despite the passage of the Traditional Medicine Practice Act (Act 575), the Tra- ditional Medicine Practice Council is yet to be constituted to give direction to the de- velopment and practice of traditional medicine in Ghana and to enforce regulations and ethical standards as provided under that Act. The Government’s action in this matter should be sought urgently. 7. That enormous educational, scientific, medical and economic benefits are derived from the continuation of dialogue and discussions between the scientific and the in- digenous medical communities on issues relating to research and development of tra- ditional medicines, but there are no funding allocated for such projects. Funding should be sought to support these dialogues. 8. That spirituality being part of African Traditional Medicine should be considered where applicable, in all research and development projects of traditional medicines. 9. That Ghana Federation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners Associations should consider acquiring a land to engage in farming cash crops and medicinal plants as way of generating income to support the Association and its members. They should also consider setting up credit union facilities with local banks as a financial tool to assist with the growth of their individual businesses and for the welfare of their fami- lies. Monies generated from these operations would go a long way to support educa- tional and training expenses for its members. 10. That the conference identified certain traditional medicines with therapeutic po- tentials for the treatment of diseases, in particular, addressing HIV/AIDS, malaria, 41
  42. 42. sickle cells, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, buruli ulcers, breast cancers, fistula, eyes disease, infertility, prostrate cancer, urinary tract disorders, hemorrhage which need further research support from government and research institutions. 11. That water being an essential element for the survival of the nations, the pollution and disappearance of water bodies should be the concern and responsibility of not only governments but every person living in any part on this earth, to protect and honour our water resources. Declared in the City of Kumasi, today, 3rd September, 2009. Kojo Eduful, 1st Vice President, GHAFTRAM Kenneth Danso, 2nd Vice President, GHAFTRAM Nana Kwadwo Obiri, National Organizer, GHAFTRAM Godfred Y. Boateng, Secretary General, GHAFTRAM Professor Thomas Klimkait, Chief Executive Officer, Esperanza Medicines Foundation, Switzerland Dr. Amin Bonsu, Amen Scientific Herbal Clinic Peter Avinu, Peter’s Herbal Clinic J.William Danquah, Africa First, LLC Rita Naim Akill Attieh Aloys Yamoah Nana Amponsah Baaku Elizabeth Asare K.A. Boakye Lakassa Essissominam, L’Association des Thérapeutes Traditionnels du Togo Adjoa Mabia Dr. TC Fleischer, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology Professor MLK Mensah, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology Dr. T.B. Kwofie, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology 42
  43. 43. Dr. Saidi Mpendu, The Balm of Gilead, Tanzania Kofi Attu Opanin Kwaku Afriyie Osei Kwabena Tobega Dabra VI, PROMETRA Ghana Nana Agyepong Debrah, Friends of Rivers and Water Bodies, Ghana Akansansagi A. Tanko Prince Prempeh Issac W. Bonsu Yaw Opoku Alfred Sangmor Oduro Kissi, Wofa Kissi Herbal Nana Adjoa Agyemang Falayi Emmanuel, Nigeria E. Ajibade, Nigeria” Afterwards, Mr. William Danquah on behalf of the organizers of the confer- ence thanked everybody and promised to send a copy of the Report and Declaration to the Minister of Health. The conference ended at 7 p.m. on 3rd September, 2009. RECOMMENDATIONS CONTAINED IN THE REPORT OF THE 2ND GLOBALL SUMMIT ON HIV/AIDS, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE & INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE HELD IN MARCH 2008 In his speech to the conference on August 31, 2009, Mr. J.William Danquah, President of Africa First, LLC stated that even though the Report of the 2nd Global Sum- mit on HIV/AIDS, Traditional Medicine of March 2008 was delivered to Honourable Courage Quarshigah, the then Minister of Health, on May 9, 2008, the recommenda- tions contained in that report have not received any consideration from the Govern- ment of Ghana. 43
  44. 44. Those recommendations are hereby quoted as follows: “Based upon the principal objectives of this conference and the proceedings emanating from it, the conference submits the following: (a) The conference recommends that the Government of Ghana through the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Ghana, the World Health Organization and the world scientific community should give a critical consideration to working on a prior- ity basis with the following orthodox and traditional medicine practitioners on further research and development of their natural medicines and bio-medical techniques into safe, affordable and effective therapies in keeping with acceptable standards: Professor Charles Wambebe, International Biomedical Research in Africa, Abuja, Nige- ria (See page 37-39) Traditional Doctor Jaiyeola Akintoye, Akure, Nigeria (See pages 46-47) Professor Masao Hattori, Institute of Natural Medicine of Toyoma University of Japan (See pages 46-52) Dr. Amin Bosu of Amen Scientific Hospital of Accra, Ghana (See pages 52-56) Mr. Gideon Adotey of Aloha Medicinals Ghana Limited (See pages 58-59) Dr. Ba Lagi Lugu Zuri, Natural Healing Centre, Accra, Ghana (See pages 59-61) Madam Victoria Owuo of Accra, Ghana (See pages 64-65) Mr. Godfried Kpodo of GHAFTRAM, Ghana (See pages 82-83) (b) The issue of nutrition featured prominently in the deliberations of the con- ference. From the presentations made by Professor Sakyi Awuku Amoa, the Director General of the Ghana AIDS Commission (See pages 23-25) and Dr. Leopold Zekeng, the Country Coordinator of the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS in Ghana (see pages 28-30) acknowledged the indispensability of nutrition in the man- agement of HIV/AIDS and Honourable Rodney Ere, Secretary General of Bayelsa State Action Committee on AIDS, Nigeria, (see pages 25-28) stated that the first achieve- ments of his committee in its programmes to reduce the incidence of HIV in Bayelsa was to get the State Government to enact a policy on free antiretroviral drug and dis- bursement of N10,000 (equivalent of $100.00 monthly per person to assist the nutri- tional needs of the people living with HIV/AIDS. From these submissions, we came to fully appreciate that nutrition is a key component in the treatment process of HIV pa- tients who are taking antiretroviral drugs. In fact, Professor Amoa disclosed that the Ghana AIDS Commission has contracted the services of the Noguchi Memorial Insti- tute of Medical Research to carry out a research into the effects of Alfalfa Leaf Nutrient cake supplementation on the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patients. Dr. Zekeng in 44
  45. 45. his answer to one of the questions posed to him during the interactive session of Tues- day, March 11, 2008 agreed that it is counterproductive for HIV positives to take anti- retroviral drugs on empty stomach and that nutrition must go side by side with the drug intake. He said he hoped that moneys that various governments are receiving from Global Funds, PEPFAR, Clinton Foundation and Bill Gate Foundation will be util- ized to provide nutritional support for HIV infected persons who are receiving antiret- roviral drugs at no user’s fee. (See page 42) Professor Amoa in answer to similar ques- tion posed to him during that session said that his Commission gives a lot of support to associations of people living with AIDS for nutritional purposes (see page 44). Speaking on the topic “Moringa – its nutritional, health, social and economic benefits to the nations” (see page 34) Mr. George Zokli pointed out several benefits which can be derived from the use of moringa leaves which include, but not limited to the following: • The juice from the leaves is used to stabilize blood pressure • Flowers of moringa tree are used to cure inflammation • Pods of the tree are used to treat joint pain • Roots are used to treat rheumatism • The bark of the tree can be chewed to induce digestion • Moringa leaves are full of essential disease-preventing nutrients such as vitamin A, which acts as a shield against eye disease, skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhea, and many other diseases. • Vitamin C, fight a host of illnesses including colds and flu. • Calcium, which builds strong bones and teeth, and helps prevent osteoporosis. • Potassium, essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves. • Proteins, the basic building blocks of all our body cells. The seeds of Moringa Oleifera are used to purify water. He said that the young leaves are commonly cooked – soups, stews and salads and are exceptionally good source of: Vitamins Minerals Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Iron Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Potassium Manganese Zinc Copper 45

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