2009 Sfpe Technical Changes To The Part 4 Fire Code


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  • Part 4 of the Ontario Fire Code (OFC) dealing with flammable and combustible (F/C) liquids became law on November 21, 1997 and effective August 21, 1998. To assist property owners in implementing these new requirements, an audit guide and a commentary has been developed by the Office of the Fire Marshal with the assistance of fire service and industry stakeholders. These documents are designed to provide an overview of the regulation governing use, handling and storage of F/C liquids. Not all of the requirements are addressed in these two documents. For accurate and complete reference, persons using these guides are reminded to refer to the actual regulation , since the audit guide and the commentary are general in nature and do not replace the specific requirements.
  • When a liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C is being processed, stored, handled or used at a temperature at or above its flash point, that is, it is heated , it must be treated as a Class I liquid. (See This is because some liquids have increased volatility when heated and will take on characteristics of a lower flash point liquid. As well, handling and use will generate flammable vapours. Used lubricating oil drained from motor vehicles are classified as a Class IIIA liquid unless Class I or II liquids are added to the used oil. This contaminated used oil must be tested in accordance with Subsection 4.1.3. to determine the flash point and classification. (See Appendix C to the commentary for Part 4 includes an extensive list of F/C liquids and their flash points, boiling points and liquid classifications.
  • This Subsection has general requirements for F/C liquids in containers up to 230 L in size and portable tanks up to 2,500 L in capacity. Storage must be located so that a means of egress or access to or from exits, elevators and principal routes are not obstructed or made impassable by radiant heat or flames if such storage were involved in a fire. The arrangement of containers must provide both physical and chemical stability under normal and fire conditions, to prevent toppling which could result in a container being damaged and leaking. Skids should be used within vertical rows of drums to provide stability. Piling of drums should only occur onto full skids of drums. Plastic drums should not be used to support other loads because the heat from a fire may quickly melt them causing piles to topple and spill. In addition, the liquids must be stored in conformance with the particular occupancy based requirements or other configurations described in the rest of Section 4.2. F/C liquids must be stored away from other dangerous goods in accordance with Section 3.2 and 3.3 of the National Fire Code 1995. When applying Table of the NFC 1995, Class IIIA combustible liquids must be treated as Class 3 dangerous goods.
  • F/C liquids in closed containers can be stored in specially constructed cabinets. Since they represent a significant fire load, you are limited to a maximum quantity that may be stored per cabinet of 500 L, and only 250 L of that may be Class I liquids. In institutional occupancies , the maximum quantity permitted in a fire compartment is 500L, of which 250L may be Class I liquids.
  • The location of vent pipe outlets from tanks is important because the vapour discharge may be in the explosive range. Should the discharge be exposed to a fire, it can act like a blow torch and therefore must be directed away from all tanks, buildings and structures. Manifolding relief venting for tanks storing flammable liquids and tanks storing combustible liquids should be avoided, unless means are provided to prevent flammable liquid vapours from entering combustible liquid tanks; otherwise the combustible liquid storage tank should be reclassified as a flammable liquid storage tank. The vent pipe size must be designed to vent the combined vapours produced in the connected tanks without exceeding allowable stresses of the tanks.
  • When underground tanks are used to store F/C liquids, the tanks are protected from fire exposure, leaks are not as likely to ignite, and there are less temperature fluctuations, thus less venting and more liquid conservation. However, tank leakage is not as easily detected, and such leaks can threaten underground water courses or public sewers and adjacent buildings. Underground tanks must not be located under building walls or foundations because the tanks can be damaged by excessive weight. Such a location makes replacement difficult. Tanks must be installed a minimum of 1m from the foundation of any structure so that settlement of the structure will not damage the tank. Several underground tanks can be buried together side-by-side, provided there is a minimum separation of 600 mm between the tanks. A minimum distance of 1.5 m between underground tanks and a property line is required to minimize the possibility of damage to the tank by construction activities on the adjacent property.
  • 2009 Sfpe Technical Changes To The Part 4 Fire Code

    1. 1. Technical Changes to Division B, Part 4 of the Ontario Fire Code For the Society of Fire Protection Engineers Southern Ontario Chapter Andrew W. Wong, MBA, CFIFireE, CFPS, CFEI Executive Officer, Vaughan Fire and Rescue Service
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Part 4 Ontario Fire Code became law November 21, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Effective November 21, 2007 it became Division B, Part 4 of the Fire Code, O.Reg. 213/07 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Technical Changes - Div. B <ul><li>Part 1 General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative Solutions do not apply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIT requirements for fire safety devices not referenced in the Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy of record acceptable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-time retention of verification or test reports of fire protection systems </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Technical Changes – Div. B <ul><li>Part 2 Fire Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire hazard of combustible waste materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage of combustibles in building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarification of fire safety plan contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual review of fire safety plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice to occupants where fire alarm system installed without monitoring service </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Part 3 Fire Safety For Industrial and Commercial Uses (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>FE requirement for industrial trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for battery charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FE requirement for outdoor tire storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for use of flammable and combustible liquids for dry cleaning </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Technical Changes – Div. B <ul><li>Part 4 Flammable and Combustible Liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spills containment requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation system requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of 4.2.7. clarified </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Part 4 Flammable and Combustible Liquids (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>Requirements for underground storage tank installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation in lieu of drawing required for piping systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FE requirements for fuel dispensing station </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Technical Changes – Div. B <ul><li>Part 5 Hazardous Materials, Processes and Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FE requirement for industrial trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for fence and gates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New requirements for safety distance from compressed gas cylinder storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for cleaning of combustible dusts </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Classification of Liquids <ul><li>Heated liquids } Class I </li></ul><ul><li>Used lubricating oil } Class IIIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class IC if Class I liquids are added </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class II if only Class II liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are added </li></ul></ul>Div. B, Div. B, .
    10. 10. Electrical Safety <ul><li>Classification of Hazardous Locations (Classified Locations) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I Zone 0 ) = Class I Division 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I Zone 1 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class I Zone 2 = Class I Division 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable Vapour Group : A, B, C, D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerators keeping Class I liquids </li></ul></ul>Div. B, s.4.1.4.
    11. 11. Spill Control Requirements <ul><li>A spill of FL/CL shall be prevented from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flowing outside of the spill area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reaching waterways, sewer systems and potable water sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary containment - noncombustible barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grading the site or sloping the floor to divert the spill to a drainage system </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    12. 12. Exception: <ul><li>Water miscible effluent from spills and fire fighting operations is permitted to be directed into a sewer system provided it does not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create a fire hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create any risk to public health or safety </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    13. 13. Spill Control Requirements <ul><li>Fire safety plan shall include measures to direct overflow of spilled liquids and fire fighting water away from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control valves for FP equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a means of egress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjoining property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fire department access routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water supply used for fire fighting </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    14. 14. Drainage System <ul><li>Direct the spill away from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjoining properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fire alarm control panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air intake or opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control valves for fire protection equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fire department connection or wall hydrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>means of egress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fire department access roadways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control valves for FL/CL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water supplies for fire fighting </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    15. 15. Spills or Leaks <ul><li>Flushed to a location where the F/L or C/L will not create a fire hazard or any risk to public health or safety. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralized or absorbed and cleaned up with the aid of product to ULC/ORD-C410A, or is compatible and non reactive with the liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposited in non-combustible receptacle with lid. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposed of in a manner that does not create a fire or explosion hazard. </li></ul>Div. B,
    16. 16. Performance requirements for mechanical ventilation system <ul><li>Automatic interlocks preventing activities generating flammable vapours when ventilation system is not in operation </li></ul><ul><li>Sound an audible alarm in an attended area upon shutdown of ventilation system </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 91 – Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids 1999 applies. </li></ul>
    17. 17. General Storage Arrangements <ul><li>Storage locations must provide unobstructed routes </li></ul>Div. B, <ul><li>Separation from other dangerous goods </li></ul><ul><li>Storage arrangements provide physical and chemical stability </li></ul>
    18. 18. Transfer of Liquids in Mercantile Occupancies <ul><li>Transfer of flammable liquids or combustible liquids from or into containers shall only be permitted in a storage room conforming to Subsection 4.2.9. </li></ul>Div. B,
    19. 19. Cabinet Storage <ul><li>Maximum quantity per cabinet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500L all Classes , 250L Class I liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum quantity per fire compartment in care or detention occupancies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500L all Classes, 250L Class I liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e. one cabinet) </li></ul></ul>Div. B,,
    20. 20. Industrial Occupancies Storage, handling and use , where storage in closed containers is the principal activity Div. B,
    21. 21. Vent Piping for AST other than at distillaries <ul><li>Vapour discharge away from tanks and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Manifolding vent pipes for different classes should be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Properly sized common vent pipes </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency vent outlets shall discharge outside buildings not less than 1.5 m from any building opening and from any combustible component of a building exterior wall. </li></ul>Div. B, 4.3.5.
    22. 22. Installation of UST <ul><li>Location restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not allowed inside buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separation by a horizontal distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 mm minimum between tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 m from building foundation or street line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5 m from other property lines </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    23. 23. UST in the process of being installed shall be inspected, and any damage to the tank shell, protection coating, fittings or anodes shall be repaired before they are lowered in to the excavation. UST …. Prevent damage to the tank shell , protective coating, fittings or anodes.
    24. 24. Corrosion Protection of Piping Systems <ul><li>All exposed or underground piping, valves, couplings, flanges and bolts that are fabricated of any ferrous substance shall be thoroughly coated with a rust-resistant compatible material. </li></ul><ul><li>Galvanic cathodic protection for underground ferrous components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN/ULC-S603.1 Galvanic corrosion protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PACE Report No. 87-1 Impressed current cathodic protection </li></ul></ul>Div. B, 4.4.3.
    25. 25. Identification of Piping <ul><li>Documentation on piping system for flammable liquids or combustible liquids, including tank and pumping arrangements, shall be made available to the fire department upon request. </li></ul><ul><li>Documentations shall be kept at 2 separate locations so that one copy remains readily available in the event the other is inaccessible due to fire. </li></ul>Div. B, & (2)
    26. 26. Mechanical Connections <ul><li>Where underground piping systems have no secondary containment, mechanical connections shall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be readily accessible for inspection and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not be in direct contact with the soil. </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    27. 27. Administrative Provisions <ul><li>The fire safety plan shall be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prepared, approved and implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kept in an approved location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reviewed as often as necessary, but at intervals not greater than 12 months, to ensure that it takes account of changes in the use and other characteristics of the building. </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    28. 28. Alternative Solutions
    29. 29. Code Compliance <ul><li>By complying with Acceptable Solutions in Division B. </li></ul><ul><li>2. By using Alternative Solutions if allowed for by Fire Code Supplement FCS-1 </li></ul>
    30. 30. Acceptable Solutions <ul><li>Existing technical requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of new or significant technical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonization with the National Fire Code. </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Renumbering. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Acceptable Deviations <ul><ul><li>Compliance equivalency is applicable only in respect of any acceptable solutions in which objectives and functional statements have been attributed in OFM Fire Code Supplement FCS-1, “Objective and Functional Statements Attributed to Acceptable Solutions”. </li></ul></ul>Div. B,
    32. 32. Alternative Solutions <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing means in existence on November 21, 1997. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New construction / installation may be made at any time under a Building Permit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allow 45 days for Chief Fire Official review </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appeal within 30 days as if it were an Inspector Order </li></ul></ul></ul>Div.C, 1.3.2.
    33. 33. Objectives and Sub-objectives <ul><li>Apply only to the extent that they relate to an alternative solution. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Safety OS </li></ul><ul><li>- Fire Safety OS1 </li></ul><ul><li> OS1.1 etc. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Objectives and Sub-objectives <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety in Use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoors conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous Substances Containment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire Protection Of Buildings or Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire protection of the building or facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of adjacent building or facilities from fire </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Functional Statement <ul><li>Apply only to the extent that they relate to an alternative solution. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F01 To minimize the risk of accidental ignition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F12 To facilitate emergency response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F34 To resist or discourage unwanted access </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Attribution To Acceptable Solution <ul><li>Objectives and functional statements are not 100% applicable to the Acceptable Solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Users of the Fire Code should verify the attribution of objectives and functional statements with Fire Code Supplement FCS-1. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Alternative Solution <ul><li>Engineered and approved solution to meet available objectives and functional statements attributed to the acceptable solution it is proposed to replace. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Proposal for Alternative Solutions <ul><li>A legal document that include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting or restricting factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building performance parameters </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Proposal for Alternative Solutions (cont’d) <ul><li>Details of the analysis must demonstrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could be reasons for refusal by the Chief Fire Official, other than administrative errors. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Supporting Justification <ul><li>Documents could include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire modelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire scenario evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate Codes and Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawings, etc </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Administrative Process <ul><li>Time line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45 days review process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written decision by Chief Fire Official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If rejection, appeal in 30 days </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Appeal Process <ul><li>Written request for review by Fire Marshal </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Marshal may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to appeal to the Fire Safety Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm, amend or rescind the Order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written appeal of Fire Marshal’s Order </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Safety Commission may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm, amend or rescind the Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear the appeal and make other Order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal to the Divisional Court </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Linking Elements For Industrial Fire Safety
    44. 44. Industrial Fire Safety By Maintenance Plans Exam. & Inspection Change of Use/Renovation Occupancy Permit Building Final Inspection Special Fire Protection Systems Hazardous Processes & Materials, Industrial Occupancies, etc. Building Plans Exam. (Interior) 2.8. Fire Safety Plan 3.2.1. Woodworking 3.3.1. Storage: Indoor Tire 3.3.2. Storage: Indoor General 6.8 Special Extinguishing Systems Part 4 Part 5 F I R E C O D E L I N K I N G E L E M E N T S Building Plans Exam (Shell) B U I L D I N G C O D E Industrial Fire Safety By Design
    45. 45. The Linking Elements <ul><li>Effective application of OBC and OFC at Building Permit review stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable training of both building and fire department staff in industrial process hazards and related fire protection approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable training of consultants and engineers in industrial fire protection issues. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Thank You Andrew W. Wong Executive Officer Vaughan Fire and Rescue Service [email_address]