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  1. 1. Airport Operations Nov 2009
  2. 2. Air Traffic Control Airspace divided into F.I.R’s – Flight Information Regions – In UK there are 2 FIRs – London and Scottish Two types of airspaceControlled Uncontrolled Separated by Internally agreed standards  Fly wherever and whenever Aircraft allocated different heights and/or headings  Subject to simple set of flight rules If at same height, minimum horizontal distance must  No legal requirements to contact ATCbe adhered to (distance depends on altitude) Provided to protect commercial airlines  Pilot determines whether to fly VFR (visual flight rules) or IFR (instrument flight rules) Aircraft must be equipt to certain standards and pilotmust have necessary qualifications A clearance must be obtained by pilot prior to enter All ATC instructions must be adhered to except inemergencies
  3. 3. Upper air routes • Above airways • FL’s 250-460 • Airspace above FL245 = Air Traffic Control class B, special rules airspace • aircraft above FL245 subject to full mandatory Airways ATC service • Motorway corridors of airspaceTCA – Terminal Control • Connect TCA’s and link airwaysArea Upper Air Routes from other countries• Established at confluence • Normally 10 miles wideof airways •Separation differencesRVSM is applied TCA Above FL290 due to slower speeds in• Within vicinity of one or CTA – Control Area Reduced Vertical Separation Minimamore major aerodromes, • Controlled airspacee.g. London TCA deals withaircraft arriving and • aircraft allowed to be separated by established around an airport, from specific altitude todeparting from 1000ft specified limitLHR,LGW,STN,LTN,LCY ATZ - Aerodrome Traffic Zone • Provides protection for • aircraft must have high degree of climbing & descending aircraftCTR – Control Zone • Airspace established around an aerodrome for accuracy of aerodrome traffic, i.e. landing, take-off and in protection with altimeter and comply with • Gives protection to aircraft• Controlled airspace aroundan airport extending upwards strict criteria circuit using ILS on approach to airportfrom airport surface to specific Rules:upper limit • Provides safe airspace for • Aircraft shall not take-off/land within ATZ without ATC• It protects aircraft on take- aircraft in hold permissionoff, landing & ensures all • Pilot must maintain R/T watch whilst in ATZaircraft in vicinity of airport areprovided with a safe ATC •Pilot must report height & position on entering ATZ &service. immediately after leaving
  4. 4. Air Traffic ControlPrimary Radar Can show high terrain/weather & flocks of birds Shows aircraft within its coverage Show basic info about aircraft position from radarSecondary Radar All aircraft in controlled airspace must have a transponder Before aircraft departs it is allocated a four-digit code Before aircraft becomes airborne ground based radar interrogates transponder, code is recognised & radar displays aircraft height & call sign next to aircraft positionFlight Progress Strips Electronic or manual, display departing & arriving aircraft details such as; – Estimated departure time – Requested flight level – Call sign – Aircraft type – Requested start time – Actual departure time – Estimated speed – Routing & destination – Clearance notes
  5. 5. Air Traffic Control Navigational Aids VOR DME NDB ILSVHF Omni-directional Directional Measuring Non-directional Instrument landing Range Equipment Beacon System•Most accurate • Some VOR’s have associated • Less accurate than VOR • Ground based radio guidance DME’s which show pilot how far system•Emits radial signal which • range is about 25miles from VOR aircraft isaircraft can fly along • Transmits 2 directional radio • emits signal which pilot beams, localiser and glide path•360 radials which fly towards navigates towardsand away from • Glide path, situated at side of runway, transmits signals which•Range of 125nm define decent path, usually 3°•Each radial represents 1° from • Enables aircraft to arrive at0-360° airport threshold • Localiser is situated at each end of runway • Transmits 25miles along approach path • Defines runway centreline
  6. 6. Air Traffic Control ATC at airports Approach Controller Responsible for: • aircraft wishing to land or transit the aerodrome control zone • aircraft holding in stack • ensuring correct landing intervals between aircraft on final approach • issuing instructions to enable the aircraft to intercept the ILS When aircraft are established on final approach (6-12 miles from runway) aircraft is transferred to aerodrome controller Aerodrome Controller Ground Movement ControllerResponsible for: Responsible for:• issuing permission to land • movement of all vehicles & aircraft on airport• issuing permission to enter runway • at night or during low visibility GMC is responsible for• issuing permission to take-off controlling ground lighting panel• issuing permission to “go around” • guides aircraft to and from standOnce aircraft has landed safely and vacated
  7. 7. Air Traffic ControlRunwaysAlways laid near to prevailing wind as possible (usually between South West/West in UK)Aircraft wish to land and take-off into windbecause;6. This minimises cross-winds that the aircraft are subjected to (aircraft are designed to with stand smaller crosswinds than headwind or tailwinds)7. This allows aircraft to maintain desired airspeed of 120knots to enable it to fly, i.e. if aircraft lands or takes off into a 20knots wind its ground speed will be 100knots which for landing aircraft is better for tyres & breaking and for departing aircraft means it requires less runwayRunways are built from either concrete or layers of asphalt.Dimensions Runways vary in width and length, however a main instrument runway at an airport will be between 45-60m wide and 1800m in length. Runways wishing to allow A380 operations have to be a minimum of 60m wide, with strengthened hard shouldersEach runway is marked by two numbers indicating the magnetic heading of the runway direction taken tothe nearest 10°, e.g. magnetic heading 238° would be designated as runway heading of 24 and amagnetic heading of 058° would be designated as runway heading of 06Due to the earth’s tilt, every 10 years runways will require recalibration and designation may alter.
  8. 8. Air Traffic ControlHolds Holds or stacks are provided at busy airport to cope with congestion Aircraft are entered into a holding pattern until there is a space for them at the airport Aircraft enters spiral pattern, each level is separated by 1000ft and once the aircraft has completed a full revolution it descends to next level, until it reaches the bottom level Most stacks are located above a beacon LHR has four stacks, 2 south, 2 north. The direction from which aircraft approach airfield normally dictates which stack it enters, although a peak times aircraft can be cross-fed to other stacks. Min level of stack is usually 7000ftSIDsStandard Instrument Departure’s Design to reduce amount of R/T conversation required between ATC and aircraft in busy airspace Aircraft are told of their SID prior to departure, allocated depending on runway and destination Each route has set pattern of heights and routesSTARsStandard Arrival routes Similar to SIDs only for arriving aircraft
  9. 9. Air Traffic Control LHR
  10. 10. Air Traffic Control Runway Capacity Weather conditions Runway Configuration ATC procedures Airport Layout Factors affectingVortex wake runway capacity Traffic mix Runway occupancy Separation minima time
  11. 11. Air Traffic Control “Runways are one of the most expensive pieces of real estate in the world,aircraft delays equals extra costs in wasted fuel burn, extra maintenance and loss of utilisation of aircraft and crew”Runway Service Rate Maximum average throughput for a given set of conditions, such as weather or aircraft mix. It is average number of movements per hour which can be handled on a runway assuming that there are always aircraft waiting to use itRunway Capacity The number of aircraft movements that may be scheduled to use a runway such that their average delay during the airport’s busy period does not exceed a specific value
  12. 12. Air Traffic ControlRunway OccupancyThe time interval required for aircraft to cross threshold and clear runway. Depends on type of aircraft and location of exits.Extended runway occupancy time will reduce capacitye.g. Delays to take-off clearance of 10 secs are not uncommon, if 20 aircraft linger for 10 sec each = 200sec = 3m20sec Hourly runway rate = 60 aircraft per hour = 3m20 x 3 = 10mins lost due to lingering on runway AT LHR an aircraft lands or takes off every 90 sec = 10mins/90sec = 6.6 movements lost per hour!!!Procedures introduced to limit runway occupancy time include Pilots should ensure they are able to taxi to correct position & line-up on runway as soon as proceeding aircraft has commenced take-off roll Cockpit checks should be completed prior to line-up, runway checks should be kept to a minimum Pilots should commence take-off roll immediately once take-off clearance is issuedFor departing aircraft For arriving aircraft• Suitable number of holding areas required near • Rapid exit taxiways (RETs) are keyrunway • Location of RET should be chosen to match•Holding area’s should be big enough to allow fleet mix, heavy or light aircraft etcaircraft to overtake so optimal sequence can beachieved• Optimal departure sequence sought
  13. 13. Runway Occupancy Air Traffic Control RETs – ICAO standard design for RETs specifies 30° at 30knots. 30° – At LHR the close proximity of outer taxiways to runways doesn’t allow enough stopping distance for aircraft using RETs at 30knots & so are designed to suit airport and aircraft requirements Wake Vortex Departure sequence – successive departures are separated according to their relative speed, the point at which their departure track diverge and the subsequent angle between diverging tracks, e.g. For LHR a speed limit of 250knots applies to all aircraft below FL100. Aircraft following the same initial routes from LHR require 2min separation. However due to proximity of some departure routes separation is > 3mins – The departure controller’s objective is to reorder aircraft at holding point so as to minimise departure intervals, ideally 1 min, by choosing the best departure sequence – At LHR aircraft are also subject to “Approved Departure Times” (ADTs) & “Min Departure Intervals” (IDTs) assigned by flow management at Eurocontrol. SIDs – Standard Instrument Departure routes at some airports also known as NPRs (Noise Preferential Routes) – Find these routes at airports near densely populated areas – Aim is to minimise noise that communities are subjected to – Ideally an NPR should overfly rural areas – Many NPRs restrict aircraft to a set height, i.e. limit aircraft at lower levels.
  14. 14. Air Traffic ControlRunway Capacity Ground movement congestion – Location of terminal to runway key to determine runway capacity, e.g. Terminal 4 at LHR means aircraft landing on north runway have to taxi across central area and across the southern runway to get to T4. – Runway crossings reduce the available time for landings and take-offs – E.g. of runway crossing is Manchester airport, two staggered runways, means aircraft landing on runway furthest away must cross other runway to get to terminal – Some runways don’t have enough or any RETs, e.g. LCY and Luton, require aircraft to backtrack – significantly increases runway occupancy London Luton London City
  15. 15. Air Traffic ControlRunway Capacity Traffic Mix – Airports ideally want balance in demand for arriving and departing aircraft thru day – Reality though traffic demand peaks, i.e. Early morning large demand from Far East arrivals into UK, STN has large no. of departures between 6am-8am (90% traffic departing) – This imbalance makes it hard to maximise runway usage Runway Mode – 3 types of runway modes 1. Segregated Mode – each runway has one mode only, i.e. LHR, one runway used for landing, one for take-off 2. Mixed Mode – each runway used for both landing & take-off, e.g. Airports with one runway only, LGW, STN 3. Dependent runways – runway’s that are two closely spaced can operate different modes on each, but not at the same time, i.e. MAN Weather – Runway capacity is based on “average” weather conditions, i.e. visibility is >3km & cloud base is above 700ft – In poorer weather & longer hours of darkness average separations between aircraft are increased – Airport equipment and ground based aids also determine what category an airport is, Cat 1,2,3 and therefore dictates what low visibility operations can be carried out.
  16. 16. Air Traffic ControlLHR Mixed Mode consultationLHR – 2 runways LGW – 1 runwaysOne used for take-off Used for landing and taking offOne for landingCurrent average hourly Current average hourlymovements = 84 movements = 54In theory making LHR mix mode operations similar to LGW should give LHR doublethe hourly movements LGW achieves from one runway, shouldn’t it??i.e. 54 x 2 = 108WRONG – under mix mode plans average hourly movement at LHR will increasefrom 84 to 96 (increase of 12, but 12 short of 108 target)
  17. 17. Air Traffic ControlLHR mixed mode Where are the missing aircraft? – Due to spacing needed between aircraft for wake vortex, the traffic mix and the sequencing LHR faces daily capacity is limited – E.g. 7pm-9pm most aircraft departing LHR head towards Middle East/Asia, so request similar routes and are larger aircraft that need 2mins separations Forecasting capacity – In order to evaluate what average movements could be achieve by operating mixed mode, BAA used simulation techniques, based on current flight schedule and forecasted growth in different aircraft types, to forecast the mixed mode capacity – Due to the horizontal distance between LHR’s two parallel runways the ATC regulations restrict full mixed mode, instead requesting the aircraft are staggered
  18. 18. Air Traffic ControlLHR Mixed mode Balanced runway usage – In the consultation for mixed mode, LHR also wanted to demonstrate a balanced use of the runways, so as not to subject any one area under the flight path to the airport with constant noise – BAA supplied the forecasted % use of each departure route, this was then complied in table 1 Table 1. Average number of flights per day that use each route Total Daily Departures Total % of runway usage DVR MAY MID SAM CPT TOTAL 09R 57.9 0.3 141.3 35.5 45.9 280.9 43% DVR BPK BUZ1 BUZ2 CPT TOTAL 09L 57.9 155.1 56.9 56.9 45.9 372.7 57% TOTAL 653.6 – Imbalance seen with first forecast – 43%/57% – In order to create a more balanced usage total no. of flights on each route was kept same, but ratio on each runway was altered
  19. 19. Air Traffic Control Table 2. Average number of flights per day that use each route - balanced view Total Daily Departures DVR MAY MID SAM CPT TOTAL Total % of runway usage09R 103.9 0.3 141.3 35.5 45.9 326.9 50% DVR BPK BUZ1 BUZ2 CPT TOTAL09L 11.9 155.1 56.9 56.9 45.9 326.7 50% TOTAL 653.6– The same process was repeated for runway 27R and 27L– In order to achieve an overall balance one route (27L WOB) was deemed not required, removing the need for this route reduced the number of people that would have been affected by aircraft noise.
  20. 20. Airfield OperationsAirport Lighting Calvert System – centre line and 5 cross bars, for day and night use onSimple system with Centre ILS equipped runways.line and cross bar – used Calvert System starts 900m prior toat visual aerodrome at runway thresholdnight This system is installed at Cat II and III certified aerodromes
  21. 21. Airfield OperationsRunway aids PAPI – Precision Approach Path Indicator – Comprises of single row of 4 light units – Normally installed on left side of runway as seen from approach – STOL (Short Take Off and Landing airports) normally situate PAPI on right & set steeper than standard 3°
  22. 22. Runway Lighting Airfield Operations All runways licensed for night use have Edge, Threshold and End lighting. Centreline and Touchdown Zone lighting is provided as guidance in low visibility operationsRunway Edge Lighting – Located along edges of area declared for use as the runway – Runway edge lighting is whiteRunway Threshold and Runway End lighting – Runway Threshold lighting is green – Indicates start of available landing distance – Runway End lights are Red – They mark the extremity of the runway – Pilots should not land before the green lights or taxi after the red lightsRapid Exit Taxiway Indicator Lights (RETILs) – Provide pilot with distance to go information to the nearest rapid exit taxiway – They consist of six yellow light adjacent to runway centrelineTaxiway lighting – At aerodromes equipped for low visibility taxiways are provided with green centreline lighting – If aerodrome is not equipped for low visibility taxiway will have blue edge lights onlyRunway Guard Lights – These are pairs of alternately flashing yellow lights, either side of the taxiway to provide warning of the close proximity of runway – Often referred to as “Wig Wags”
  23. 23. Airfield Operations• Runway Strip • is the cleared, grassy area around the paved runway. It is kept free from any obstacles that might impede flight or ground roll of aircraft, although the grass is not always necessarily in good condition. The grass is often marked with white cones or gables.• Runway • is the entire paved surface, which typically features threshold markings, numbers, centerlines, and overrun areas at both ends.• Stopways • are often constructed just before the start of a runway where jet blast produced by large planes during the takeoff roll could otherwise erode the ground and eventually damage the runway.• Overrun areas • are also constructed at the end of runways as emergency space to slowly stop planes that overrun the runway on landing(RESA), or to slowly stop a plane on an aborted take-off.• Blast pads • are often not as strong as the main paved surface of the runway and are marked with yellow chevrons. Planes are not allowed to taxi, take-off or land on blast pads, except in an emergency.
  24. 24. Airfield OperationsThere are three types of runways:There are three types of runways: Visual Runways – are used at small airstrips – are usually just a strip of grass, gravel, asphalt or concrete. – Although there are usually no markings on a visual runway they may have threshold markings, designators, and centerlines. – Additionally, they do not provide an instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be able to see the runway to use it. Non-precision instrument runways – are often used at small-medium size airports. – These runways, depending on the surface, may be marked with threshold markings, designators, centerlines Precision instrument runways – which are found at medium and large size airports, – consist of a blast pad/stopway (optional, for airports handling jets), threshold, designator, centerline, aiming point and 3,000 ft (914 m) touchdown zone marks. – Precision runways provide both horizontal and vertical guidance for instrument approaches. – Precision runways have several categories, known as Cat I, II, IIIA,IIIB, IIIC Cat I An instrument runway served by instrument landing system (ILS) & visual aids, intended for use in operations with a decision height of 200ft and an RVR of 2600ft Cat II As above with decision height of 100ft and RVR of 1200ft Cat IIIA RVR of 700ft & 0 decision height (using visual aids during final phase of landing) Cat IIIB RVR of 150ft & 0 decision height (using visual aids for taxiing) Cat IIIC Ops without reliance of visual aids for landing & take-off – all instruments and guidance given to navigate
  25. 25. Airfield Operations In order to comply with regulations set for airfield lighting and marking, regular inspections of the airfield are carried out by Airfield Operations. Inspections include:Runway Inspections – Inspecting lights all working and all covers present – Inspecting for foreign object debris – if found needs reporting & identifying, so if its from aircraft, airlines can be advised – Runway Surface – break up of surface, impact strength and create FOD hazard – Determine Runway condition – Split into 3 sections, each section is assessed for condition, either dry, damp or wet. Often hear reported to ATC as “runway is dry, dry, dry”, one for each section. Grip tests are also carried out regularly, especially in winter, ice and snow Airfield inspections – Similar to runway inspections – FOD, check signage, lighting, condition of taxiway Bird Control – Disperse bird nesting or resting within airfield boundary or that pose risk to aircraft Marshalling – If stand entry guidance system isn’t available Airfield Ops marshal aircraft onto stand
  26. 26. Airfield Operations Marshalling
  27. 27. Airfield Operations Bird ControlWhat attracts bird – Food – FOD and food waste attract birds. Keeping aerodrome clean of FOD prevents engine ingestion and bird attraction. Bins should be kept well sealed, not overflowing and rubbish shouldn’t be left out in open. – Open terrain – Birds are attracted to the openness of airport as it provides them with an unobstructed view and open space, providing could vantage point to spot predators. Therefore grass must be maintain to an appropriate height, not kept too short. – Water – open standing water attracts certain species. Since most airport have balancing reservoirs on site, precautions must be taken to discourage birds from gathering. Ideally all water area should be covered with netting
  28. 28. Airfield Operations  Aerodrome SafeguardingSurrounding aerodromes any constructions requiring planning permission should be assess for following hazardsand permission granted with conditions• Bird strike Hazard – water features, landscaping, landfill and wetlands in area surrounding airportsshould be minimised to reduce attraction of birds to the area• Lighting – street lights, stadium lights etc should only be allowed if proved not to dazzle approaching pilots orATC• Cranes – within 6km of aerodrome all cranes require permission from airport operators to be allowed to beerected. The height of the crane should not exceed 10m or go above the surrounding height of trees. Cranes caneffect the radar and in certain cases may need Civil Aviation Approval to operate.• Wind Turbines – as well as providing an obvious physical obstruction they also distort radar performance• Road and Railways – could provide obstructions due to overhead lines or street lights and must getaerodrome approval first.LCY AirportLondon City Airport was designed as a Short Take-Off and Landing airport (STOLport) and is licensedaccordingly to unique criteria, including obstacle limitations e.g. Canary WharfAircraft arriving at LCY descend on a glide path of 5°, originally 7° until the runway extension.Aircraft departing LCY are limited to 3000ft until outside TCA due to flight arrival routes into LHR and due to thepositioning of Canary Wharf aircraft can only turn right from the westerly runway, limiting the airport’s capacity.Until recently the types of aircraft certified to use the airport was limited, however Embraer business Jets andnew small airbus jet have recently been certified to use the airport.
  29. 29. Airfield Operations LCY Airport
  30. 30. Airfield OperationsAircraft Stands • Stands are designed according to the forecasting number of different aircraft types, for instance airports with more long haul flights will tend to provide more stands capable of accommodating A380’s and B747’s • Some airports opt for flexibility with stand layout and chose to implement Multi-Aircraft Ramping Stands – MARS. These types of stands offer a main centreline, a right and a left centreline, often referred to as 21M, 21R, 21L. The airport can either chose to park one large aircraft on the middle centreline, or two smaller aircraft on the left and the right at the same time. • Most stands provide the pilot with a Stand Entry Guidance System (SEG) – the two main types of systems used are AGNIS (Azimuth Guidance for Nose-In Stands) and PAPA (Parallax Aircraft Parking Aid)
  31. 31. Airfield OperationsAircraft StandsPAPA – Positioned to right side of stand centreline – Consists of a blackboard marked with white vertical lines bearing aircraft type labels and small slot – Vertical florescent tube mounted behind markers, which aligns with the markers as the selected aircraft type moves into position – Indicates to pilot when the stopping point has been reached for that aircraft type AGNIS – is centreline guidance system and is used in conjunction with PAPA board. – consists of 2 closely separated vertical light bars, one red one green – red light means pilot needs to steer away from red towards green light – two green lights means correct alignment
  32. 32. Airport Operations Environmental Issues Aircraft NoiseNoise is measured in Decibels (dB). A human ear can hear sounds in the range of 0-120dB.Table 1 shows the different sound levels produced by different objects.In order to collect and measure aircraft noise, noise monitors are placed under aircraft flightpaths and record the level of noise each aircraft makes.
  33. 33. Airport Operations
  34. 34. Airport OperationsNoise Contours – Once the data on aircraft noise has been collected by the noise monitors, noise contour maps are produced. These are lines on a map defining the areas around an airport that will be subjected to specific levels of noise.
  35. 35. Airport OperationsLHR Mixed Mode consultation As part of the UK government consultation to approve LHR request for mixed mode runway operations, noise contour graphs had to be produce to determine the population that would be effected by aircraft noise from the new proposed routes. In order to calculate the total population likely to be effected by aircraft noise from these new routes, a program called ARC-VIEW was used. This creates a noise contour map showing the areas that will be affected by noise. It uses historical data collected from noise monitors to plot noise limits. The latest population census data is then added to the map, using the above program and an output file is created that details the number of people that will be effected by each noise banding, table one shows the current population affected and table two shows the new potential population likely to be affected. C o nto u r Are a (km 2 ) P o p (000s ) Hs ehlds (000 C o nto u Are a P op Hs ehlds % % ch ange s) r (km 2 ) (000s ch a in P o p > 57 1 07.6 220.6 93.3 ) (000s ) nge > 57 1 08.9 232.4 98.1 + 1 Are a in .2 + 5.3 > 60 60.4 1 02.1 41.4 > 60 62.6 1 1 3.4 46.3 + 3.6 + 1 1 .1 > 63 36.9 50.5 20.0 > 63 37.3 52.4 20.9 + 1 .1 + 3.8 > 66 21 .9 1 9.9 7.4 > 66 21 .4 1 9.4 7.2 -2.3 -2.5 > 69 1 0.9 6.1 2.2 >69 10.9 6.9 2.2 0.0 +13.1 > 72 5.6 2.1 0.7 > 72 5.7 2.1 0.7 + 1 .8 0.0 From these figures it can be seen that around 13% more people would be affected by aircraft noise at a range of 69 decibels, which is around 800more people. The above tables reflect the number of people that would be affected if LHR was to increase its total movements a year from 465,000 to 515,000. The process was also repeated for annual movements of 550,000.
  36. 36. Airport OperationsNoise control procedures adopted at airports include: Quieter Aircraft – Some airports restrict types of aircraft able to use airports or limit noisier aircraft to day time operations – This has led some airport to introduce night curfews (e.g. LHR, Zurich and Sydney) – Some airports restrict movements altogether, others allow a limited number of movements (i.e. freight carriers) but these operations must be carried out with quieter aircraft – LHR operates a quota system, each airline wishing to operate at the airport is given quota of total nightly movements each season. Louder aircraft use up more points from the quota than quieter ones and certain aircraft types can not operate at all. Noise preferential runways – E.g. Amsterdam and LAX – Use normally unfavoured cross field runways or runways over sea for heavier aircraft. – At 3pm every day LHR changes the runways used for landing and taking-off to alleviate communities under flight path of aircraft noise. Noise abatement procedures – Use of SIDs or NPR (noise preferential routes) are used by many airports to limit communities exposed to aircraft noise. – Arriving aircraft have to comply with CDA (continuous descent approach) procedures in order to reduce noise.
  37. 37. Airport OperationsCDA case study at Stansted AirportBackground During late 90’s UK government identified steps to reduce aircraft noise on arrival, this saw the introduction of CDA. Arriving aircraft at all major UK airport are expected to follow, where possible, a continuous descent from 6000ft to establish on the glide path for that airport Studies have proved that a level segment of flight at 2000ft likely to generate a noise of 8dB greater than if level segment was flown at 5000ft In addition to a noise benefit, CDA also reduces fuel burn and reduces emissions. CDA DEFINITION An arrival aircraft is classified as a CDA if it contains, at or below an altitude of 6000ft,  No level flight; or  One phase of level flight not longer than 2.5nm
  38. 38. Airport OperationsCDA case study at Stansted AirportIn order to determine CDA rate at a given airport the NTK system is used (Noise and Track keepingsystem)NTK System Every flight that departs from LHR, LGW and STN is tracked and recorded in the NTK system For aircraft arriving at Stansted the system tracks the height & position of every aircraft below 1000ft & 40nm away Flight data relating to each flight is stored in the system, this includes; – Flight No. – Call sign – Aircraft registration – Aircraft type
  39. 39. Airport OperationsCDA case study at Stansted AirportThe graph below shows the CDA rate at STNI have worked on two projects relating to the noise and track keeping systems at STN and LCY airports todetermine what factors effect an aircrafts ability to stay on track. Some things that can be a factor include: Weather  ATC traffic avoidance Aircraft Performance Aircraft speed Pilot experienceMany airport fine airline for persistent bad tracking, so long as it can be proved that the airline wasnegligent.
  40. 40. Airport Operations Aircraft arriving or departing Landside vehicles Airport Emissions – private cars etc are produced from Taxiing/idle aircraft Airside servicing vehiclesMeasures adopted at airports to improve air quality Air Quality measuring – similar to noise measuring Review of airport ops – Introduction of F.E.G.P (reduces need for APUs) – Where possible tow aircraft between gates and maintenance areas – Improve airfield design – reduce taxiing distances – Starter pads close to runway – Alternative fuelled airside vehicles – Airside vehicle pooling scheme Reducing ATC delays – increasing runway capacity reduces airport delays which reduces engine idle time Emissions based landing fees – Zurich airport imposes surcharges to encourage use of “cleaner” engines
  41. 41. Terminal Operations5 basic configurations for passenger terminals Finger piers Satellites, with or without finger piers Midfield, usually linear Linear, with only one side devoted to aircraft TransportersFinger piers – e.g. LHR, San Fran, Frankfurt MainAdvantage Provide central check-in area and retail area, likely to > revenue as all pax must walk thru it to get to gates.Disadvantage Long walking distance from check-in to gate have led to the introduction of moving walkways – costly to airportSatellites – e.g. NRT T1 & T2, Paris T1Advantage If connections from main terminal to satellites are underground, this allows aircraft free movement on airfield, saving time and money for airlinesDisadvantages Long distances from central area to satellites, means provision of people movers. Underground connections are move extensive to build and with many satellites the airport has to duplicate facilities such as retail, increasing costs of building
  42. 42. Terminal OperationsMidfield Piers – e.g. T5 LHR, London StanstedAdvantage Provides much more room for gates, some piers can have up to 50 gates on one side.Disadvantage Clear solutions to transporting passengers from main building to midfield piers need to be develop. These types of terminals don’t suit transfer passenger wellLinear – e.g. MunichAdvantage Original concept was to minimise distance from landside to airside, by limiting the width of the main building and reducing walking distances compared to the Finger pier layoutDisadvantages Design has proved inefficient, unproductive and impractical to have passengers flow directly from landside to airside without on central area for security.Transporters (or remote stands) e.g. Zurich, BerlinAdvantage Avoid long walking distance for passenger by coaching passenger to and from aircraft – some airport provide small gates areas remotelyDisadvantage Although they limit the cost of construction to the airport there are often expensive and time costly to airlines, several coaches are needed for each aircraft and often leaves passengers waiting.LGW pier 6 use to be a remote area before the airport agreed to build a better gate room area and connect it to