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  • 1. Guide to Commas Andrew O’Leary
  • 2. Use commas to separate independentclauses when they are joined by any of the 7 conjunctions But For Nor So Yet • Yesterday was her brothers birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
  • 3. Use commas after introductory Clauses Phrases Words that come before the main clause. • Because he kept barking insistently, we threw the ball for Smokey.
  • 4. Do not use commas to set offessential elements of the sentence The person checking tickets at the counter asked for a form of identification.
  • 5. Use commas to three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series When the snow stops falling, well shovel the driveway.
  • 6. Use commas to separate two or morecoordinate adjectives that describe the same noun. Your cousin has an easy, happy smile.
  • 7. Use commas near the end of the sentence to separate contrasted coordinate elements or to indicate a distinct pause or shift The chimpanzee seemed reflective, almost human.
  • 8. Use commas to set off phrases at the end ofa sentence that refers back to the beginning or middle of a sentence Nancy waved enthusiastically at the docking ship, laughing joyously.
  • 9. Geographic names and dates Birmingham, Alabama, gets its name from Birmingham, England. July 22, 1959, was a momentous day in his life.
  • 10. Use commas to shift between the main discourse and a quotation John said without emotion, "Ill see you tomorrow." "I was able," she answered, "to complete the assignment." In 1848, Marx wrote, "Workers of the world, unite!"
  • 11. Use commas necessary to prevent possible confusion To George, Harrison had been a sort of idol.