Variety and summary

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Variety and summary

  1. 1. REVISIONVARIETY
  2. 2. INFECTION CONTROL What does this symbol mean?
  3. 3. INFECTION CONTROL INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL FOR BIO HAZARD
  4. 4. Infection control Define “aerosol”
  5. 5. Infection control A fine mist of tiny air-borne particles that may contain bacteria, viruses & fungi. Dispersed by air currents, may be inhaled or contaminate work surfaces.
  6. 6. Infection control Vacuum steam steriliser 29 Minute cycle for Wrapped instruments
  7. 7. Infection control Biofilm What is it? Where would it be found in the dental surgery?
  8. 8. Infection control Biofilm is a naturally occurring slime producing bacteria and fungi which form into complex communities on wet surfaces Biofilms form in the water mains and on the walls of small bore plastic tubing in dental units
  9. 9. Infection control Define “contamination”
  10. 10. Infection control Contamination is the introduction of micro-organisms to sterile or non- sterile instruments, equipment or living things
  11. 11. infection control How would you describe the word “decontamination”
  12. 12. Infection control Decontamination is the processes required to make a re-useable dental instrument fit for use on another patient This will include cleaning, inspection for cleanliness, sterilisation or disinfection if sterilisation is not possible
  13. 13. Infection control Draw the symbol for single use items
  14. 14. Infection controlSingle use item
  15. 15. anatomy
  16. 16. The Heart The heart and the blood vessels are part of the ___________ system Blood _________ carry blood away from the heart Veins carry blood to the ______ from the rest of the body. The blood circulates, carrying oxygen and nutrients
  17. 17. anatomy The heart and the blood vessels are part of the CIRCULATORY system Blood VESSELS carry blood AWAY from the heart Veins carry blood TO the HEART from the rest of the body. The blood circulates, carrying oxygen and nutrients
  18. 18. Circulatory system
  19. 19. anatomy There are _____ separate chambers in the heart Two _____ and two ______
  20. 20. anatomy There are FOUR separate chambers in the heart Two ATRIA and two VENTRICLES
  21. 21. anatomy How is oxygen transported around the body? What percentage of oxygen is in an expired breath?
  22. 22. anatomy  Erythrocytes transport oxygen around the body  (RED BLOOD CELLS)
  23. 23. anatomy Constituents of blood are: RED BLOOD CELLS, ALSO KNOWN AS…..? THROMBOCYTES, ALSO KNOWN AS ……? LEUCOCYTES ALSO KNOWN AS ………? PLASMA …………..associated with the defence mechanism, also known as ……..?
  24. 24. anatomy Constituents of blood are: RED BLOOD CELLS, ALSO KNOWN AS erythrocytes THROMBOCYTES, ALSO KNOWN AS blood platelets LEUCOCYTES ALSO KNOWN AS white blood cells defend against infection PLASMA - associated with the defence mechanism, also known as BLOOD CLOTTING AND ANTI BODY PRODUCTION
  25. 25. anatomy Expired air contains 16% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide Inspired air contains 20% oxygen required for metabolism
  26. 26. anatomy The atria receive blood returning to the heart and the ventricles pump the blood out from the heart. Each of these chambers has a one way valve to ensure that the blood flow is always in one direction. With each beat, the right ventricle pumps de- oxygenated blood to the lungs while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. This happens approximately every 2.5 BILLION times in an average life time.
  27. 27. Oral diseases –periodontal disease This is the second most commonest disease affecting the oral cavity The first being dental caries “periodontal disease” covers a group of diseases which affect the supporting structures of the teeth THE PERIODONTUM
  28. 28. Oral diseases –periodontal disease The gingivae The periodontal ligament The alveolar bonePERIODONTITIS IS THE MAIN CAUSE OF TOOTH LOSS IN ADULTS
  29. 29. Oral diseases –periodontal disease THE SOLE CAUSE OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE IS THE PRESENCE AND ACCUMULATION OF DENTAL PLAQUE AROUND THE GINGIVAL MARGINS OF THE TEETH WHAT IS DENTAL PLAQUE?
  30. 30. Oral diseases –periodontal disease PLAQUE- is a combination of saliva and oral bacteria which form a sticky film on the surface of the tooth and allows food debris to become incorporated into its structure It tends to form initially at the gingival margin because this area is not self- cleansed by salivary flow or by the tongue and soft tissue movements
  31. 31. Oral diseases –periodontal disease
  32. 32. Oral diseases –periodontal disease
  33. 33. Oral diseases –periodontal disease
  34. 34. Oral diseases –periodontal disease Bacteria within plaque use food debris to nourish themselves and allow the bacteria to colonise and grow Bacteria produce TOXIC BY-PRODUCTS as they digest food These irritate the gingivae and cause inflammation (CHRONIC GINGIVITIS)
  35. 35. Oral diseases –periodontal disease The inflamed gingivae become red and swell to form a FALSE POCKET around the neck of the tooth False pockets allow more plaque to develop as self cleansing becomes impossible Plaque now extends below the gingival margin The continued action of saliva on plaque allows inorganic ions to be incorporated into the plaque structure CALCULUS is now formed
  36. 36. Oral diseases –periodontal disease Calculus formation above the gum margin is called SUPRA GINGIVAL CALCULUS it is yellow in colour Calculus formation below the gum margin is called SUB GINGIVAL CALCULUS it is brow/black in colour due to the blood pigments Its surface is rough allowing more plaque to form over it and irritating the gingivae further
  37. 37. Oral diseases –periodontal disease The abrasion of the calculus and the chemical action of the toxins cause PAINLESS micro-ulceration of the gingivae, leading to bleeding to touch or dental probing The visible appearance and bleeding on probing of the gingivae are the classic diagnostic signs of CHRONIC GINGIVITIS
  38. 38. Events leading to periodontitis Non-treatment of chronic gingivitis allows TOXINS to build up and eventually enter the underlying gingival tissues through the MICRO-ULCERATION areas TOXINS destroy the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT TRUE POCKETS form The attachment is lost from the neck of the tooth and down the root of the tooth Further plaque MINERALISES causing irritation and more toxin infiltration The tooth is now mobile as the alveolar bone is destroyed leading to tooth loss.
  39. 39. Periodontal abscess
  40. 40. Removable Prosthetics Why do we provide patients with removable prosthetics?
  41. 41. Removable Prosthetics Prevents masticatory forces on remaining teeth Prevent overeruption of opposing teeth Prevents tilting of adjacent teeth Prevents soft tissue trauma due to mastication Prevents digestion problems Allows adequate mastication Provides good aesthetics especially anterior teeth
  42. 42. Removable Prosthetics What are the retention factors in removable prosthetics?
  43. 43. Removable Prosthetics Saliva – a film of saliva developing between the denture and the patients soft tissues A post dam along the back border of the denture An accurate design and fit of denture to allow the film to develop adequately Use of natural undercuts such as the alveolar ridges or natural teeth Use of clasps around natural teeth to increase retention
  44. 44. Removable Prosthetics
  45. 45. Removable Prostheticsdenture construction 1st imps – taken in either edendtulous stock tray or dentate stock tray using alginate Lab – models cast in plaster, special trays made from shellac, wax occlusal rims are made 2nd appt – final imps in special trays using alginate, bite registration Lab – final models cast, articulator used to show movement then construct wax try ins shade chosen by dental team and patient
  46. 46. Removable Prostheticsdenture construction 3rd Appt – try in of accuracy of occlusion, shade and fit. Any adjustments can be made at this stage, major adjustment would require a re-try Lab – try in and models are flasked, wax removed with boiling water to leave the teeth in position, filled with acrylic, clasps added at this point if necessary, clean and polish dent for fit Fit – inserted & checked for comfort, accuracry and retention & appearance. Instructions given on their wear, final adjustments made with straight handpiece and acrylic trimming bur, articulating paper, miller forceps
  47. 47. List the information requiredfor the dental technician toconstruct a removableprosthetic at each stage
  48. 48. Chrome cobalt partial dentures Used as the base of the denture Complicated design & longer to construct More expensive Much thinner palatal coverage is possible allows more tolerance for pts with gag reflex Less likely to break Skeleton design gives minimal coverage hygienic
  49. 49. Removable Prosthetics
  50. 50. Fixed prosthetics Why would we provide a patient with a crown?
  51. 51. Fixed prosthetics Heavily restored tooth Repeated failure of restoration Root filled tooth tends to become brittle Aesthetics Shape change to make a more retentive abutment tooth for a removable prosthetic
  52. 52. Fixed prostheticsBridgework:Name the variety of bridges available for patients giving a reason for providing a patient with a specific type
  53. 53. Bridge types Maryland Cantelever Spring cantelever Fixed fixed Semi fixed
  54. 54. State the reasons for providinga temporary crown
  55. 55. State the reasons for providinga temporary crown Maintain space  Prevent over eruption Prevent sensitivity  Prevent food packing Prevent gingival overgrowth  Aesthetics  Prevent damage to prep
  56. 56. radiography Why are x-rays taken in dentistry?
  57. 57. RadiographyX-rays are taken to: Detect caries  Detect supernumary Detect bone level  Diagnose cysts, tumours, jaw Detect overhangs/perforati fractures ons  Orthodontic Determine tooth treatment planning structure prior to xtn  Aid in endodontic tx
  58. 58. Radiography – name this typeof film
  59. 59. Radiography - ceph beingtaken
  60. 60. Radiography-developingmachine
  61. 61. Intra-oral unit
  62. 62. Extra-oral unit OPG
  63. 63. Why would this type of film betaken?
  64. 64. Why would this type of film betaken?
  65. 65. Why would this type of film betaken?
  66. 66. Why would this type of film betaken?
  67. 67. Name the components of anintra-oral film packet
  68. 68. Name the components of anintra-oral film packet Front of plastic envelope Black paper X-ray film Black paper Lead foil Back of plastic envelope
  69. 69. Intra-oral film A celluloid film coated with light-sensitive bromide salts in an emulsion This is surrounded in black paper to protect it from unwanted light Enclosed in a waterproof envelope one side of the film is a lead foil which prevents the emulsion coat being exposed twice by absorbing scatter during the exposure When exposed the crystals form a hidden image The film must be processed to develop the image
  70. 70. In pairs discuss some faults whichmay occur during processing What temperature should the chemicals reach to ensure clarity of the film? For manual development of x-rays draw the tanks and label them
  71. 71. Temp = 18-22 degrees Celsius Faults: Too dark – overdeveloping  Faint image – under Fogged film – developing, temp too low or Daylight exposure time too short or dev too Blank film – placement in weak fixer before developer  Blank spot – contamination Partly blank film – not fully with splashes of fixer immersed in developer  Brown or green stains – Scratches or fingerprints – incomplete fix bad handling  Black line across film – being folded during process
  72. 72. Local anaesthetic
  73. 73. In pairs: Discuss the  Discuss the different types of different types of LA available in the syringes, needles dental surgery and injection types  Discuss the nerves Name the reasons anaesthetised to for using the carry out treatment different types througout the mouth
  74. 74. In groups Compile 15 questions and answers on specific topics we have covered previously When completed, deliver to the rest of the class to answer
  75. 75. the end

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