In-Car Speech User Interfaces and their Effects on Driver Cognitive Load

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Presentation given at FTW, June 2010.

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In-Car Speech User Interfaces and their Effects on Driver Cognitive Load

  1. 1. In-Car Speech User Interfaces and their Effects on Driver Cognitive Load <br />Andrew Kun<br />
  2. 2. Students and staff @ UNH<br />Oskar Palinko<br />Zeljko Medenica<br />Nemanja Memarovic<br />Jon Oppelaar<br />Alex Shyrokov<br />Puneet Lakhanpal<br />
  3. 3. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  4. 4. Navigation<br />
  5. 5. Music, phones<br />
  6. 6. Police cars<br />Toys vs. tools<br />Vanguard of in-car ubicomp<br />
  7. 7. Project54<br />
  8. 8. Studies<br />Goal: <br />Evaluation tool<br />Improved HCI<br />
  9. 9. Cognitive load<br />Measures:<br />Performance<br />Driving<br />Visual attention<br />Physiological<br />Pupil diameter<br />Heart rate<br />Skin conductance<br />Subjective <br />NASA TLX<br />
  10. 10. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  11. 11. DriveSafety driving simulator<br /><ul><li>tinyurl.com/p54sim</li></li></ul><li>Driving performance<br />Variance:<br />Lane position<br />Steering wheel angle<br />Velocity<br />Collisions<br />
  12. 12. Seeingmachines eye tracker<br />tinyurl.com/eyetracker<br />
  13. 13. Visual attention<br />Fixations (> 100 ms): number, timing, etc.<br />Percent dwell time: looking at road<br />
  14. 14. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  15. 15. Police radio study: SUI vs. hardware<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  19. 19. SUI characteristics study<br />Secondary task: speech control of radio<br />2 x 2 x 2 design:<br />SR accuracy: high/low<br />PTT button: yes/no – ambient recognition<br />Dialog repair strategy: mis-/non-understanding<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Rec. accuracy influences steering<br />
  22. 22. Low acc. + PTT influences lane position<br />
  23. 23. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  24. 24. Glove PTT study<br />Motivation: PTT vs. driving performance<br />Secondary task: speech control of radio<br />2 x 3 x 3 design:<br />SR accuracy: high/low<br />PTT activation: push-hold-release/push-release/no push<br />PTT button: ambient/fixed/glove<br />
  25. 25. Glove PTT study<br />
  26. 26. Fixed PTT operation<br />
  27. 27. Fixed PTT – glances!<br />
  28. 28. Glove PTT operation<br />
  29. 29. Glove PTT – few glances<br />
  30. 30. Glove PTT transcription<br />
  31. 31. Hand position on wheel [degrees]<br />
  32. 32. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  33. 33. Navigation study<br />Problems:<br />In-car devices vs.driving performance and visual attention<br />Driving performance/visual attention vs. probability of accident<br />
  34. 34. Navigation study<br />With vs. without map:<br />Time looking at the road?<br />Effect on driving performance?<br />Voice instructionfor both<br />8 male subjects <br />
  35. 35. Driving simulator<br />
  36. 36. 2<br />Driving scenario<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />3<br />1<br />
  37. 37. Visual attention<br />Fixations (> 100 ms): number, timing, etc.<br />Percent dwell time: looking at road<br />
  38. 38. Driving performance<br />Variance:<br />Lane position<br />Steering wheel angle<br />Velocity<br />Collisions<br />
  39. 39. Effect of visual attention?<br />Average variances (13 segments)<br />Cross-correlation peaks: PDT decrease -> variance increase? <br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Camera setup<br />Front camera<br />Eye tracker camera<br />Rear camera<br />
  42. 42. Standard PND<br />
  43. 43. Voice-only PND<br />
  44. 44. Questions<br />Influence on visual attention?<br />If yes, effect on driving performance?<br />
  45. 45. PDT on the outside world<br />
  46. 46. PDT at world vs. distance<br />
  47. 47. PDT at screen vs. distance<br />
  48. 48. Questions<br />Influence on visual attention?<br />If yes, effect on driving performance?<br />
  49. 49. Cross-correlation<br />
  50. 50. Cross-correlation, gazes > 200 ms<br />
  51. 51. Fixations at standard PND screen<br />
  52. 52. Navigation study conclusions<br />Display: (visual attention)↘<br />(visual attention)↘ -> (variances↗)<br />(long gazes at PND) -> (variances↗)<br />Display viewing: 60% of gazes last >200ms<br />Collision risk: need testing<br />But…<br />
  53. 53. I prefer to have a PND screen…<br />
  54. 54. Outline<br />Ubicomp and cars<br />Studies:<br />Police radio<br />SUI characteristics<br />Glove PTT<br />Navigation<br />Conclusion<br />
  55. 55. Design implications<br />SUI may improve performance.<br />SUI details matter (SR accuracy, PTT).<br />Must earn users trust.<br />Complicated displays may reduce visual attention even more.<br />Small screen? Voice-only may be just fine.<br />
  56. 56. Next?<br />“You’re on the right track.”<br />Complex environments?<br />Other possibilities e.g. augmented reality.<br />Safety?<br />
  57. 57. Acknowledgements<br />US DOJ (NIJ, COPS)<br />NSF<br />Microsoft Research<br />TellMe<br />

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