World Fisheries Congress 2012 Presentation

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World Fisheries Congress 2012 Presentation

  1. 1. 6th World Fisheries Congress Edinburgh, 10th May 2012 Marine renewables in the North of Scotland: using a hydrodynamic model to examine risks to migratory fish Andrew Guerin and Peter Bowyer Environmental Research Institute Centre for Energy and the Environment Thurso
  2. 2. Outline Background Modelling study Results so far Conclusions Limitations and future work
  3. 3. Background Scottish Government target: “to meet an equivalent of 100% demand for electricity from renewable energy by 2020” 2020 Routemap for Renewable Energy in Scotland http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/08/04110353/0
  4. 4. Marine Renewables Technologies: • Offshore wind • Wave power • Tidal stream power New Industry: varied approaches (especially for wave) Environmental implications are uncertain: • • • • • Impacts on seabirds Impacts on marine mammals Impacts on benthic habitats Impacts on regional biodiversity Impacts on fish, including migratory fish
  5. 5. Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar Anadromous fish • Hatch in freshwater, resident for 1-3 years • Migrate to marine feeding grounds in the North Atlantic for 1-5 years • Return to natal rivers to spawn Under threat from anthropogenic impacts • • • • Pollution of freshwater habitats Hydropower (rivers) and dams Marine fisheries Climate change
  6. 6. Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar Anadromous fish • Hatch in freshwater, resident for 1-3 years • Migrate to marine feeding grounds in the North Atlantic for 1-5 years • Return to natal rivers to spawn Under threat from anthropogenic impacts • • • • Pollution of freshwater habitats Hydropower (rivers) and dams Marine fisheries Climate change Returning fish numbers and condition are declining
  7. 7. Atlantic Salmon and Marine Renewables – a potential new threat?
  8. 8. Atlantic Salmon and Marine Renewables – a potential new threat? Noise impact (construction and operation) DRRRRRR DRRRRRR DRRRRRR
  9. 9. Atlantic Salmon and Marine Renewables – a potential new threat? Interference with navigation (electromagnetic emissions) ? ? ?
  10. 10. Atlantic Salmon and Marine Renewables – a potential new threat? Direct interactions (bladestrike and entanglement)
  11. 11. Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Source: www.thecrownestate.co.uk
  12. 12. Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Source: Malcolm, I.A., Godfrey, J. & Youngson, A.F. (2010)
  13. 13. Understanding the risks to adult S. salar passing through the Pentland Firth
  14. 14. Understanding the risks to adult S. salar passing through the Pentland Firth Continental level ?
  15. 15. Understanding the risks to adult S. salar passing through the Pentland Firth Development area level BLUE: Wave energy sites RED: tidal stream energy sites Orkney Islands Pentland Firth Mainland Scotland
  16. 16. Understanding the risks to adult S. salar passing through the Pentland Firth Device level ? ?
  17. 17. Understanding the risks to adult S. salar passing through the Pentland Firth Development area level BLUE: Wave energy sites RED: tidal stream energy sites Orkney Islands Pentland Firth Mainland Scotland
  18. 18. Hydrodynamic Model 2D formulation of Princeton Ocean Model (POM) • Variable resolution (< 200m in Pentland Firth) • Boundary conditions from calibrated shelf model Tracer particles released from 10km2 boxes at: • 58.65°N • 58.7°N • 58.75°N • 58.8°N • 58.85°N (all at 3.5°W) Five particle ‘behaviours’ • Passive • 0.1, 0.3 or 1ms-1 to the Southeast • 0.2ms-1 to the East
  19. 19. Model results ‘Fish’ deemed to have escaped Pentland Firth once they reached a pre-defined latitude (58.2°N) or longitude (2.5°W)
  20. 20. Model results
  21. 21. Example trajectories
  22. 22. Interactions with arrays Four hypothetical tidal arrays corresponding to lease locations: • • • • ARRAY 1: Inner Sound of Stroma ARRAY 2: Cantick Head ARRAY 3: Brough Ness ARRAY 4: Ness of Duncansby Simple linear fence (10 devices) Interactions between devices and individual particles recorded
  23. 23. Interactions with arrays
  24. 24. Interactions with arrays
  25. 25. Interactions with arrays
  26. 26. Interactions with arrays
  27. 27. Interactions with arrays
  28. 28. Interactions with arrays
  29. 29. Conclusions 1. Location of device arrays may influence their potential to impact migratory fish 2. Behaviour of migratory fish will also influence their risk of encountering device arrays (swimming speed, direction, and point of entry into tidal systems) 3. Demonstration of potential utility of modelling approach to assess relative impacts of future proposed arrays 4. Allied to approaches at other spatial scales, could improve understanding of overall impact of marine renewables 5. Approach not limited to returning Atlantic Salmon • Outmigrating smolts • Sea trout • Eels!
  30. 30. But…. Model limitations • • • • 2-dimensional Particular problem with coastal behaviour Fixed vector swimming – oversimplification Model doesn’t account for flow modification by arrays Need data from the real world • Model validation • Swimming behaviour of S. salar in Scottish coastal waters • • • • • Swimming speeds Swimming depths Swimming vectors Responses to encountering coastline Responses to tidal regime
  31. 31. Acknowledgements Alan Youngson All ERI research and support staff – especially Matt Easton Projects Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment (MaREE) Advancing Marine Renewable Energy research Capacity in Scotland (AMRECS) – Strategic Research Development Grant Funders Scottish Funding Council Highlands and Islands Enterprise European Regional Development Fund References Malcolm, I.A., Godfrey, J. & Youngson, A.F. (2010) Review of migratory routes and behaviour of Atlantic salmon, Sea trout and European eel in Scotland’s coastal environment: implications for the development of marine renewables. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science, Volume 1 No 14. Marine Scotland-Science

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