A cross-country flight from New York to Los Angeles on a Boeing 737 plane generates a massive 240 terabytes of data - GigaOmni Media 2
In the next few years, sensors networks will produce 10-20 times the amount of generated by social media - GigaOmni Media 3
Active Perception over Machine and Citizen Sensing Cory Henson and AmitSheth Kno.e.sis – Ohio Center of Excellence in Knowledge-enabled Computing Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA 4
To enable situation awareness on the Web, we must utilize abstractions capable of representing observations and perceptions generated by either people or machines. Web observe perceive “real-world” 5
For example, both people and machines are capable of observing qualities, such as redness. observes Observer Quality * Formally described in a sensor/observation ontology 6
Sensor and Sensor Network (SSN) Ontology http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/ssn/wiki/ 7
The ability to perceive is afforded through the use of background knowledge, relating observable qualities to entities in the world. Quality * Formally described in domain ontologies (and knowledge bases) inheres in Entity 8
minimize explanations tractable degrade gracefully Web reasoning Web Ontology Language (OWL) Parsimonious Covering Theory (PCT) 11
Conversion of PCT to OWL 2 (EL) Parsimonious Covering Theory (Abductive Logic) * OWL-DL
Cory Henson, KrishnaprasadThirunarayan, AmitSheth, Pascal Hitzler. Representation of Parsimonious Covering Theory in OWL-DL. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions (OWLED 2011), San Francisco, CA, United States, June 5-6, 2011.
The ability to perceive efficiently is afforded through the cyclical exchange of information between observers and perceivers. Observer sends observation sends focus Traditionally called the Perception Cycle (or Active Perception) Perceiver 13
1970’s - Perception is an active, cyclical process of exploration and interpretation
- Nessier’s Perception Cycle
1980’s - The perception cycle is driven by background knowledge in order to generate and test hypotheses.
- Richard Gregory (optical illusions)
1990’s - In order to effectively test hypotheses, some observations are more informative than others.
- Norwich’s Entropy Theory of Perception 15
Integrated together, we have an general model – capable of abstraction – relating observers, perceivers, and background knowledge. observes Observer Quality sends observation sends focus inheres in perceives Entity Perceiver 16