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  • 1. Chapter 1 Jan. 23, 2014
  • 2. Adjusting to Modern Life  Pursuing higher education is an important tool for adjusting to modern life.  This course attempts to help you better adjust as you make efforts to adjust to our complex, modern life and, more immediately day to day academic, social and relationship challenges  Your text is a presentation of scientific research relevant to human behavior and adjustment, and thus different than self-help books and programs
  • 3. Successful and Unsuccessful Students’ Class Attendance  Successful students (C or above), in class 84%, out 16%  Unsuccessful (C- or below), in class 47%, out 53% (Lindgren, 1969) See Figure 1.13 in text book
  • 4. Getting More out of Lectures  Use active listening procedures-anticipate what’s     coming and search for deeper meaning (e.g., how relevant to me). Prepare for lectures by reading ahead (brain more relaxed and learning more pleasant if prior exposure Write down lecturers’ thoughts in own words Look for clues re: what lecturers think important Ask questions during lectures
  • 5. Academic Adjustment  IQ NOT AS IMPORTANT AS CURIOSITY ATTENTION EFFORT
  • 6. Cognitive Processing Model vMo<-----------------v---------v---------v W___>S___>A___>STM____>O___>LTM___>R v v v T v v F F W=World, S=Senses, A=Attention, Mo=Motivation, STM=Short Term Memory, O=Operations, T=Thought, LTM=Long Term Memory, R=Retrieval, F=Forgetting
  • 7. HEDONISM *The tendency to MAXIMIZE PLEASURE and MINIMIZE DISPLEASURE Adjustment efforts are driven by this principle
  • 8. YUMMY
  • 9. The Roots of Happiness: Efforts Toward An Empirical Analysis Inner Reflection Moment
  • 10. The Roots of Happiness: Efforts toward an Empirical Analysis  Empirical view of happiness (What is NOT important) 1. Money- correlation between income and happiness is very weak (.13) in U.S. (Diener & Seligman, 2004). 2. Age- accounts for less than 1% of variation (over lifespan) in reported happiness. (Lykken, 1999).
  • 11. The Roots of Happiness: Efforts Toward and Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (What is not important) cont. 3. Gender also accounts for less than 1% of the variation in people’s subjective sense of well-being (Myers, 1992; Lykken, 1999). 4. Parenthood does not make people more or less happy than non-parents. (Argyle, 2001)
  • 12. The Roots of Happiness: Efforts Toward and Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (what is not important) cont. 5. Intelligence => a coveted trait -findings do not support there being an association between IQ scores and happiness 6. Educational attainment also seems unrelated to happiness (Ross & Van Willigen, 1997)
  • 13. The Roots of Happiness: Efforts Toward an Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (what is not important), cont 7. Physical Attractiveness - though an important resource in Western society -low correlation between attractiveness and happiness (Diener, Wolsic, & Fujita, 1995).
  • 14. The Roots of Happiness: Towards An Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (what is important) 1. Health and happiness are correlated positively but only moderately so (Argyle, 1996). 2. Social networking satisfaction is an important contributor to happiness (Diener &Seligman, 2002)
  • 15. The Roots of Happiness: Towards An Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (what is important), cont. 3. Religion has a mild correlation with peoples subjective sense of happiness. 4. Love and marriage are positively correlated with a sense of happiness. Married people happier than unmarried. (Myers & Diener, 1995). This is a robust finding around the world.
  • 16. The Roots of Happiness: Toward an Empirical Analysis  Empirical View of Happiness (what is important), cont. 5. Work satisfaction is strongly associated with general happiness (Warr, 1999). 6. Genetic predisposition accounts for 50% of the variance in happiness.
  • 17. Where, What, When is Happiness?
  • 18. Authentic Happiness  Marty Seligman (2004) THE PLEASANT LIFE -Set range -High heritability, biologically given range THE GOOD LIFE -Flow -Absorption -Time loss -No thoughts or feelings in awareness THE MEANINGFUL LIFE -Using personal strengths for some higher good -Small self becomes big self; immortal
  • 19. The Paradox of Progress  In the HEDONISTIC move toward greater pleasure we create and desire: -More Goods -More Money -More Time -More Choice (Freedom) -More Popularity (Basically more PMS)
  • 20. The Paradox of Progress  “The technological advances of the past century, impressive though they may be, have not led to perceptible improvement in our collective health and happiness.”  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zASS9O4ff_M
  • 21. Paradox of Progress in Education
  • 22. The Paradox of Progress  TIME -Time saving devices=>automobiles, air travel, dishwashers, photocopy, computers, cell phones, etc., BUT NO TIME -Weil & Rosen (1997); 51% surveyed want more time than more money -Time crunch remains=>unhealthy adjustment patterns (e.g., less sleep=> less alert)
  • 23. The Paradox of Progress  CHOICE -More variety in goods, services and personal expression=>more difficulty at decision making=>less control=> more anxiety
  • 24. Paradox of Progress  CONTROL OF WORLD -Genetically engineered food, greater fishing capacity, transporting of nonindigenous foods, prevention of food spoilage, heat/air conditioning, night illumination, taste enhancement=> but more health and environmental concerns
  • 25. The Search for Direction  Progress is good but has engendered - Time crunches - Indecisiveness -Some negative environmental consequences  Loss of MEANING, DIRECTION and PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY
  • 26. Clinically Assessed Student Goals: Post Treatment *Achieving productive academic engagement  Achieving new and more mindful and productive relations with family and friends  Achieving role which is consistent with my personality in achieving life goals  Accepting body, mindful maintenance and using body effectively  Building and using Self Awareness effectively to assist in thriving and moving toward goals  Preparing for marriage and family life  Affirming values and ethical system appropriate to my life  Selecting and preparing for a career for fulfillment and material comfort
  • 27. Outline  Problems with self-help and happiness market  Scientific method
  • 28. Dr. Tal Ben-Shahar – Harvard Happiness Professor  Happier: Learn the Secrets to Daily Joy and Lasting Fulfillment, taught hugely popular courses  “There is mounting evidence in the psychological literature showing that focusing on cultivating strengths, optimism, gratitude, and a positive perspective can lead to growth during difficult times.”
  • 29. Problems with happiness and related success programs 1. unrealistically positive views of the self 2. exaggerated perceptions of personal control 3. unrealistic optimism: positive illusions … collapse when reality becomes too harsh/intrudes on the dream (C. Hedges) Hedges, Chris (2009). Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle
  • 30. Problems with happiness and success programs 4. forces the victim of failure to blame him or herself for his or her pain or suffering (C. Hedges) 5. effective in keeping people from questioning structures around them responsible for their misery or difficulty getting ahead 6. in land of happiness and success there is something wrong with us if we are not happy or successful
  • 31. Cheryl Sandberg
  • 32. Sheryl Sandberg: Lean In published March 2013 aspire to business success by learning  Sets women up to how to be more assertive and confident in the work place Problem: has zealous addiction to workoverly simplistic and optimistic about cutting back work hours and having children while achieving success Truth: both men and women who make over 100k a year work more hours and have less leisure time in order to get ahead
  • 33. Lean In by S. Sandberg  Sandberg graduated as the top student in her class in Economics from Harvard and acquired an MBA from Harvard’s business school - operates from a position of privilege that is difficult to attain even through hard work for the vast majority of women Possible Truths: -women blaming themselves if not successful at level of Sandberg –COO at Facebook -exaggerated perception of control
  • 34. Cheryl Sandberg: Lean In  women need to aspire more and work harder to achieve success in the corporate business world Problem: The problem of achieving success more complex than presented: Sandberg argues women ought to change and Lean In at their work by joining a system of male-modeled aggressiveness/following example of men - hoping for a fairer system in the future Truth: Women still earn $.77 on the dollar in the US compared to men – rather than women working harder, women ought to be objecting to and correcting global unfairness to women in business
  • 35. The Scientific Approach
  • 36. experiment = research method investigator manipulates one (independent) variable under carefully controlled conditions observes whether any changes occur in a second (dependent) variable as a result IV DV
  • 37. • dependent variable – variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulations of the independent variable – usually a measurement of observable behavior – Schachter (1959) study (Fig. 1.2 in text)
  • 38. Video: https: //www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7b pwbnged4 0-5:00 min.
  • 39. •experimental group – subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable •control group –subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
  • 40. advantage of controlled experiments: precise control allows cause and effect conclusions to be drawn
  • 41. Why can we assume cause and effect??? - If the experimental and control groups are alike in every way except for the treatment from the independent variable (ANXIETY ) AND - if a difference between the two groups is found in the dependent variable (DESIRE TO AFFILIATE) THEN - the difference must BE DUE TO the independent variable (ANXIETY) or the special treatment
  • 42. NON-EXPERIMENTAL, CORRELATIONAL METHODS – Naturalistic observation – careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects – Case studies – Surveys – structured questionnaires designed to solicit information about specific aspects of participants
  • 43. Correlation coefficient Class absence Grades Caffeine intake anxiety

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