Mp+ +b +chapter+5


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  • What is audience?
  • Media is all about audiences – diverse, segmentation often necessary
  • Audience – the first leg of our media selection triangle
  • Audience is generated by media by providing distribution into a coverage area and circulation to which consumers may expose themselves.
  • What is coverage? Definitions vary
  • Vehicle audience is the term used to define the audiences of media vehicles. However, the meaning of vehicle audience varies by medium
  • The truth is that we are actually interested only in advertising audience– the people in vehicle audience who are actually exposed to our ad
  • Gross impressions are an important measure of the number of people who came in contact with certain media vehicles. Based on vehicle audience, not advertising audience.
  • Every advertiser wants to know the extent to which his ad or campaign is reaching the target market. Is it reaching enough of the target? Is it reaching the target often enough to make a difference?
  • Net reach. Red circle is a target universe. A and B are media vehicles reaching a portion of the red target universe. C is the duplicated audience between A and B.
  • Example shows how reach and frequency is affected both by increase in TRPS and the daypart mix
  • AA rating based on audience during average minute or quarter hour, while TA is based on the cumulative audience for the entire program.
  • If universe is 10 homes and 4 of them are watching the Super Bowl, the rating is 40. However, ratings vary by demographics.
  • Share of audience shifts the viewing universe from all TV households to those TV households who are watching TV at a given time.
  • Example
  • HUTS equal the percentage of households with their sets on. In this case, 4 of 10 households are viewing. HUTS + 40%
  • Gross Rating Points (GRPS) = Sum of ratings
  • Target Rating Points (TRPS) based on target audience universe rather than households
  • Print audiences are an all together different concept.
  • Total print audiences (eyeballs) are generating by circulation (copies) x the number of readers per copy. (Newspapers/Magazines)
  • Even though thousands of media vehicle audiences are measured, some are not. Sometimes these media may be important. So must interplate.
  • Mp+ +b +chapter+5

    1. 1. Audience concepts CHAPTER 5 Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    3. 3. What is Audience?  Audience is the number of pairs of eyeballs or ears     that is exposed to a media vehicle: broadcast, print, or digital Audience may be exposed to vehicle for seconds, minutes, or hours Audience may be paying attention or not Audience may or may not be exposed to any advertising in the media vehicle Audience may or may not be involved with the content of the media vehicle. Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    4. 4. Audience = People Exposed to Media Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    5. 5. Audience = Key Criterion for Media Selection Media Selection Criteria Cost Audience Impact Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    6. 6. How Media Generate Audiences Coverage Circulation Vehicle Audience Advertising Audience Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    7. 7. Coverage  “Coverage” is potential audience, not actual audience  The definition of coverage varies by medium:  In broadcast media, coverage is the geographic area covered by the station’s signals or distribution; coverage has nothing to do with whether anyone is watching or listening in the coverage area  For newspapers, coverage is the number of copies distributed by the newspaper in a defined geographic, divided by the number of households in that area  For magazines, coverage is the percentage of a demographic group in the average issue audience of the magazine. Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    8. 8. Circulation Print Media  Number of copies printed/distributed by print media   Paid or free Audited or unaudited Outdoor  In outdoor, traffic passing by a location (# vehicles/foot traffic)  Circulation is necessary to generate an audience, but is not itself real audience
    9. 9. Vehicle Audience  Vehicle audience is a measure of the number of people (ideally in target group) which is exposed to a media vehicle, however briefly or intently  In television (as measured by a Nielsen meter hooked up to the TV), vehicle audience is the number of sets tuned in during the average minute  In magazines, vehicle audience is the number of people who claim to have picked up and looked into an issue of a magazine  In newspapers, the number of people who claim they read the newspaper  In outdoor, an estimate of exposure based on circulation and research projections (Eyes On) Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    10. 10. Advertising Audience  Advertising audience is the number of persons (total or by demographic group) who were in the average vehicle audience and were exposed to the ad or commercial  There are many reasons why advertising audience is always lower than vehicle audience. TV viewers may channel surf, leave the room, or look at a magazine when a commercial comes on. A magazine reader may spend only five minutes looking through a 150 page magazine Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    11. 11. Gross Impressions  Gross Impressions are the total number of potential eye ball contacts with one or more media vehicles carrying an ad(s)  Impressions are a gross measure of total exposure because they include duplicated audience  Impressions represent a count of the number of exposures or contacts with media vehicles, regardless of the number of times the individuals were exposed to the vehicles   10 individuals exposed once = 10 impressions 1 individual exposed 10 times = 10 impressions Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    12. 12. Reach & Frequency  Purpose  Media planners and clients usually want to know whether a campaign has had a good opportunity to be seen– by enough different people and often enough to have an impact  Reach  Reach is the net percentage of the target universe reached one or more times by a media schedule.  Frequency  Frequency is the average number of times those persons are “reached” by media vehicles in media schedule Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    13. 13. Net Reach Net Reach = Vehicle A + Vehicle B – Duplication (C) Media Vehicle A C = Duplicated Audience Media Vehicle B Target Universe Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    14. 14. What’s the Reach & Frequency? # Homes GRPS Universe 1000 Program A 200 20 Program B 300 30 Program C 100 10 GRPS 60 Reach Frequency 40% 1.5
    15. 15. Reach & Frequency  GRPS = Reach x Frequency  Frequency = GRPS/Reach  Reach = GRPS/Frequency Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    16. 16. Reach & Frequency Example Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    17. 17. GRPS = Reach x Frequency TRPS = Reach x Frequency Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    18. 18. Broadcast Audience Concepts  Rating - Average Rating (AA) - % of universe (HH, people) in defined area viewing/listening to TV program/station during an average time  Super Bowl: 44 average HH rating, 34.0 A25-54 rating  Radio: 1.5 A18-34 Average Quarter Hour rating - Total Audience Rating (TA) – cumulative % who watched some of the program   Super Bowl: 60+ TA rating Radio station: A18-34 cume rating during 6-10 AM drive period = 7.7
    19. 19. Broadcast Ratings  Average Audience Rating (AA)  The percentage of a universe tuned, viewing or listening to a station or program during an average time.  If 10 million of 100 million households are tuned to Media 101 on the Smart Channel, the program’s rating would be 10. 10,000,000/100,000,000 = 10 %  Total Audience Rating (TA)  The percentage of a program’s audience which is tuned for five minutes or more  This explains why the Super Bowl may have a 44 average audience rating and a 60 total audience rating Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    20. 20. Ratings HHI < $30M $30-40M Super Bowl Audience (40 rating) $41-50M Over $50M Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    21. 21. Share of Audience  Share of audience is each viewing/listening alternative’s share of the total available viewing or listening audience at a given time.  Unlike Ratings, which are based on the total viewing/listening universe, share measures how the viewing or listening pie is divided up among the various options  Network/station people have to try to figure out why their share is bad or what could be done to improve it   Run program on different day/time Run program against vulnerable competition Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    22. 22. Share of Audience Share by Program 10% 10% 30% Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century As the Universe Turns 60%
    23. 23. Share of Audience  Share   Share of available viewing/listening audience (HUTS/PUTS) tuned to a particular program at a particular time: Example: Rating Share A 5.0 28.6 B 10.0 57.1 C 2.5 14.3 17.5% 100.0% Total
    24. 24. HUTS & PUTS HHI < $30M $30-40M 9PM Saturday March Dates $41-50M Over $50M Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    25. 25. Gross Rating Points (GRPS)  Gross Rating Points (GRPS) = Sum of Ratings  The universe for GRPS is households with television sets (99%)  If you purchased 10 spots with an average household rating of 5, GRPS = 50 (10 spots x 5 rating)  Of the five media vehicles, some people may see a vehicle once, twice, three times or more.  So, like gross impressions, gross rating points include duplicated audience. Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    26. 26. Rating = HUTS/PUTS x Share  Example: HUTS at 9 PM on Friday night average 55% (of TV households)  You are trying to decide whether to buy into a new show, Student Scene, which you believe, given the weak competition, should get at least a 10% share of audience  The question is, how much commercial audience would Student Scene likely generate for the money spent?  If HUTS are 55% and the estimated share is 10%, the projected rating would be 5.5 in your geographic area.  If there are 100,000 households in your area and 5.5% watch Student Scene, it would reach, on average, 5,500 households Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    27. 27. Target Rating Points (TRPS)  TRPS = Sum of Target Audience Ratings  The population universe is based on target audience definition, e.g., Demographics: men, women, adults 18-24,  Product Users, e.g., Ford owners,  Generational: Boomers  Or other    TRPS are the preferred measure (people buy stuff, not households) Must calculate target rating for each media vehicle  The math is the same:  If you purchased 10 spots with an average target rating of 4, GRPS = 40 (10 spots x 4 rating) Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    28. 28. GRPS vs. TRPS Program A Program B Program C Total HH Rating 10.0 11.0 10.0 31.0 Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century Target Rating 7.0 6.6 12.0 25.6 Index 70 60 120 83
    29. 29. Frequency Distribution  Beware of Average Frequency  Some people are reached with more than the average frequency, while others are reached with below average frequency Reach Avg. Frequency TRPS 90% 10.0 900 10 35.0 350 20 15.0 300 30 6.0 180 20 3.0 60 10 1.0 10 Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    30. 30. Print Audiences  Average Issue Audience  Average issue audience is a measure of the number of people who are estimated to be in the audience of the average issue of a publication  Primary Audience  Purchasers of a publication and their families  Have been found to read more of the publication  Pass-Along Audience  Audience generated from exposure in public places, other people’s homes, etc.  These readers are exposed to a smaller percentage of pages, spend less time  Total Audience  The sum of primary and pass-along audience  Unfortunately, most planners use this measure to compare magazines Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    31. 31. Generating Print Audiences Publication A Circulation Readers per Copy Total Audience Publication B 1,000,000 2,500,000 15.0 4.0 15,000,000 10,000,000 If cost was not a consideration, which of these publications would provide the greatest communication value? Why? Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    32. 32. Out of Home Audiences  Historically estimated by traffic counts and surveys defining the number and demographics of passengers who pass by different outdoor locations  Had no credibility with media professionals who questioned the validity of the audience measures which justified paying very low prices  Media people have been concerned about whether the outdoor audience actually saw outdoor boards  Today, the outdoor industry has launched a new measurement methodology (Eyes On) which on the basis of perceptual research and modeling, attempts to project advertising exposure to each outdoor board Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    33. 33. Audience Measurement  Apples & Oranges Number Who Picked Up/Looked into “Average Issue” of Magazine vs. Number of TV Sets Tuned During the Average Minute
    34. 34. Audience Research Sources Media Type National Marketing & Multi Media Measures Users, Profiles Source MRI & SMRB Network & Cable Television Audience Nielsen Media Research Spot Television Audience Nielsen Media Research Network & Spot Radio Audience Arbitron Magazines Audience Mediamark (MRI) Experian-Simmons Newspapers Audience Scarborough Outdoor Circulation TAB/”Eyes On” Internet Page Exposure Nielsen, comScore, others Marketing Audience Scarborough, Media Audit Local – Multi Media
    35. 35. Nielsen People Meter for Local Markets Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century
    36. 36. How Are Audiences Measured? Television Programs HH tuned during average minute/ electronically measured, plus diaries Radio Stations/Dayparts Station/day/time listening recorded in diary Magazines Readership recall (survey) Outdoor Circulation – government traffic counts Internet Nielsen Net Ratings: combines Nielsen panel data with site metrics. Provides Audience demographics, reach & frequency, etc. available for other media
    37. 37. Unmeasured Audiences  For many media, audience measurements simply are not available. These media are too new, too small, or too specialized to fund audience measurement.  To make decisions about these media, planners and buyers must attempt to project audiences based on data that might be applicable about similar media and any information that is available about the unmeasured medium. Media Planning & Buying in the 21st Century