Gender In Samoa<br />By: Angkor-LeakkhnaRos, Spencer Leippi, Kristen Hameluck,  Andrew Fitzsimmons, ChantelWeinmeister, an...
Males in Samoa<br />http://i294.photobucket.com/albums/mm112/funkeecreations/SAMOAN-TATTOO.jpg<br />http://brentstephensmi...
Timelinefor Samoan Males<br />At the age of 3-4 boys and girls start to assume different responsibilities, but boys are gi...
The Matai<br />A Matai is a titled man who is responsible for the behavior and welfare of his family.<br />Titles are give...
The Matai’s Responsibilities <br />The Matai’s responsibilities include:<br />supporting his family economically and creat...
Male Sexuality<br />Boys engage in sexual acts with each other, but this is seen as a form of playing.<br />Soon they begi...
Male Sexuality Continued<br />Older men would prefer to marry younger women in order to keep their vitality.<br />Brothers...
Women in Samoa<br />http://mp.natlib.govt.nz/image/?imageId=images-23397&profile=access<br />http://www.princesstui.ws/ima...
Traditional Roles in the Home<br />Traditionally women took a large role in completing the house work. This work was left ...
Other Tasks for Samoan Women<br />Samoan women were to remove weeds from around the home.<br />Traditionally women would g...
Traditional Female Hairstyles<br />There were 7 main hairstyles for Samoan women.<br />Longer hair was considered much mor...
Modern Samoan Women<br />Samoan women are now much more free than before.<br />Their roles in society have changed in many...
Modern Role in the Home<br />Daily food has changed in Samoa. Canned, prepackaged, and processed foods take a much larger ...
Roles Outside of the Home<br />It is common for women in Samoa to work now. <br />Many women find work in tourism, banking...
The Abuse of Samoan Women<br />There are high levels of physical and sexual abuse in Samoa.  Much of the abuse is against ...
The Fa’afafine<br />http://deep-massive.net/images/bullshit/fa'afafine.jpg<br />http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5094/552311...
Fa’afafine Overview<br />Fa’afafinemeans: in the manner of a women.<br />They are biological males who express female gend...
3 Types of Fa’afafine<br />There are currently three different views on the definition of Fa’afafine: <br />Traditional<br...
TraditionalFa’afafine<br />Families steered a male child into the role of a female, if there were too many male children i...
TraditionalFa’afafine Continued<br />They depend on family to provide for them even into old age.<br />Fa’afafinewere and ...
TraditionalFa’afafine Continued<br />There were no differences in dress between male, female, and fa’afafine. They all wor...
Adapted Fa’afafine<br />They are in transition from traditional to modern. They could be described as liminal. <br />They ...
PalagiFa’afafine(Modern) <br />When fa’afafine people move into urban centers, they escape the constant scrutiny of their ...
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Gender in samoa_powerpoint

  1. 1. Gender In Samoa<br />By: Angkor-LeakkhnaRos, Spencer Leippi, Kristen Hameluck, Andrew Fitzsimmons, ChantelWeinmeister, and Justin Nenson<br />
  2. 2. Males in Samoa<br />http://i294.photobucket.com/albums/mm112/funkeecreations/SAMOAN-TATTOO.jpg<br />http://brentstephensmith.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/samoa.jpg<br />
  3. 3. Timelinefor Samoan Males<br />At the age of 3-4 boys and girls start to assume different responsibilities, but boys are given more free time for play.<br />At 8 years boys are circumcised.<br />By 14 or 15 boys are entered into the society of untitled males (aumaga).<br />Around the age of 25 males marry.<br />http://www.brandeis.edu/investigate/gender/adoption/images/samoa3c.jpg<br />
  4. 4. The Matai<br />A Matai is a titled man who is responsible for the behavior and welfare of his family.<br />Titles are given through election by the entire extended family who are 16 years or older. <br />To be elected the male must show qualities of leadership and worthiness. It is also advantageous if the previous title holder was your father and you are the eldest son.<br />http://1samoana.com/about-samoa/files/2010/08/matai.png<br />
  5. 5. The Matai’s Responsibilities <br />The Matai’s responsibilities include:<br />supporting his family economically and creating wealth for them<br />settling disputes<br />promoting religious activity<br />supervise the family land<br />representing the family in the village council<br />http://pacificeye.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/photo-2-paramount-matai-tafua-maluelue-tafua-chairs-meeting-of-village-council-village-mayor-tiumali-amakesi-in-striped-jersey.jpg<br />
  6. 6. Male Sexuality<br />Boys engage in sexual acts with each other, but this is seen as a form of playing.<br />Soon they begin to have sex with women, and are given much more freedom than girls.<br />Boys were expected to have sex with many different women because this was a sign of their vitality and of their masculinity. If a boy did not, he would be called a fa’fafine.<br />
  7. 7. Male Sexuality Continued<br />Older men would prefer to marry younger women in order to keep their vitality.<br />Brothers were responsible for the protection of their sister’s “purity” and for her protection. His responsibilities were then passed on to his sister’s husband when she married.<br />http://i660.photobucket.com/albums/uu324/684LYFE/samoan_bride_and_groom_small.jpg<br />
  8. 8. Women in Samoa<br />http://mp.natlib.govt.nz/image/?imageId=images-23397&profile=access<br />http://www.princesstui.ws/images/samoa_village_life/motherdaughter.jpg<br />
  9. 9. Traditional Roles in the Home<br />Traditionally women took a large role in completing the house work. This work was left to women because were not as well educated as men.<br />Women were the primary caregivers.<br />Women would cook unless it involved directly cooking over a fire.<br />They would weave floor mats, finer sleeping mats, and very fine togas.<br />http://www.janeresture.com/samoa_postcards10/Pago%20Pago,Samoa%20..jpg<br />
  10. 10. Other Tasks for Samoan Women<br />Samoan women were to remove weeds from around the home.<br />Traditionally women would gather shell fish from the beach and shallow water, whilst the men fished on the reefs.<br />Some women would take part in a women’s group known as a Aualuma. These groups had little to no political power.<br />http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-wLgRhXRBpkU/TcgJlnwkaoI/AAAAAAAABbY/6SUkD_06Cx0/s800/shellfish.jpg<br />
  11. 11. Traditional Female Hairstyles<br />There were 7 main hairstyles for Samoan women.<br />Longer hair was considered much more beautiful than shorter hair, but it was often kept in a bun.<br />Hair could express a lot of information about the woman’s sexuality.<br />For example only a virgin was meant to have a hair style called a tutagita. A tutagita consisted of shaved top of head ordinated with hair reddened by bleaching it with a lime. This hair hung down over the left temple and onto the cheek.<br />
  12. 12. Modern Samoan Women<br />Samoan women are now much more free than before.<br />Their roles in society have changed in many ways, but in others stay the same. <br />In 1990 full suffrage was granted.<br />Women are now educated. Girls are generally doing better than boys in all areas and levels of academics in Samoa.The literacy rate of women is around 92%.<br />http://universityaddress.net/Australia_Oceania/Samoa/images/National_University_Samoa.jpg<br />
  13. 13. Modern Role in the Home<br />Daily food has changed in Samoa. Canned, prepackaged, and processed foods take a much larger role in everyday cooking for women.<br />Women still tend to weed gardens.<br />Weaving is now done to preserve traditional culture, rather than a necessity. <br />Mothers still care for the children but now will often take a lesser role once the oldest female child can take care of her siblings.<br />
  14. 14. Roles Outside of the Home<br />It is common for women in Samoa to work now. <br />Many women find work in tourism, banking, canneries, and education.<br />There has also been an influx of women working in government. Samoa has the highest percentage of women in government when compared to other Pacific Island nations. <br />Pictured here is Minister SafuneituugaPaagaNeri.<br />20.2% of matai are now women according to the Samoan Bureau of Statistics<br />http://www.mcit.gov.ws/Portals/162/photos/minister.jpg<br />
  15. 15. The Abuse of Samoan Women<br />There are high levels of physical and sexual abuse in Samoa. Much of the abuse is against women.<br />Here are some World Health Organization statistics on women who are abused by their significant other. <br />Organizations such as Amnesty International are looking to resolve this issue.<br />http://www.who.int/gender/violence/who_multicountry_study/fact_sheets/samoa_en.gif<br />
  16. 16. The Fa’afafine<br />http://deep-massive.net/images/bullshit/fa'afafine.jpg<br />http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5094/5523113817_04014cd4f7.jpg<br />
  17. 17. Fa’afafine Overview<br />Fa’afafinemeans: in the manner of a women.<br />They are biological males who express female gender identities.<br />They do not identify as a male or a female. Instead their societies identify them (as a whole) as notbeing:<br />Homosexual: because they identify themselves not as male or as female therefore, they cannot be homosexual. There are also no Samoan words for homosexuality or being gay.<br />Transexual:they don’t see themselves as wanting to be the other gender (except for select few who go as far as sex change operations).<br />
  18. 18. 3 Types of Fa’afafine<br />There are currently three different views on the definition of Fa’afafine: <br />Traditional<br />Adapted<br />Palagi lifestyle (modern)<br />http://www.gayexpress.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Picture3.png<br />
  19. 19. TraditionalFa’afafine<br />Families steered a male child into the role of a female, if there were too many male children in the family or no females to cook/clean. These boys are introduced to female roles such as cooking, cleaning, taking care of younger children.<br />Fa’afafine were also identified by their task preference at a young age.<br />These tasks would usually carry on as they grew older. <br />
  20. 20. TraditionalFa’afafine Continued<br />They depend on family to provide for them even into old age.<br />Fa’afafinewere and still are very accepted in Samoan culture.<br />They were not attracted to other Fa’afafine. They were attracted to masculine males.<br />Sexual relations with masculine men were seen, as a consequence of being Fa’afafine, not as a determiner.<br />Most masculine men had sexual encounters with Fa’afafinewhen there was a lack of women around.<br />
  21. 21. TraditionalFa’afafine Continued<br />There were no differences in dress between male, female, and fa’afafine. They all wore lavalava (sarong) and a shirt.<br />Names did not have gender differences until the western world was introduced.<br />Marriage to women was not possible since it forfeited the Fa’afafinestatus.<br />Masculine men tended not to uphold long relationships with Fa’afafine since they can not conceive children. <br />Fa’afafine did not present themselves as flamboyant.<br />
  22. 22. Adapted Fa’afafine<br />They are in transition from traditional to modern. They could be described as liminal. <br />They fa’afafinewith traditional views that adapt to western ideals/trends and larger urban cities.<br />They undertake a more independent status, since they are able to provide for themselves. Many have “feminine” jobs. <br />They do not present themselves as being flamboyant.<br />http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3078/3203050649_7ae33868db.jpg<br />
  23. 23. PalagiFa’afafine(Modern) <br />When fa’afafine people move into urban centers, they escape the constant scrutiny of their peers or village members. Here they are allowed to be more open with their sexuality.<br />Modern fa’afafine have noticable influence from western civilizations. <br />Some enter beauty pageants and/or drag shows.<br />They have begun to wear shorter skirts as well and tend to dress more flamboyant thanbefore.<br />http://peoplesofoceaniafinal.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/cindy_samoa_12.jpg?w=141&h=189<br />
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