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Synthetic Field TurfAre the benefits worth theenvironmental and healthrisks?   Joel Forman, MD   Associate Professor of Pe...
A special thanks to: Meghan Bullock Maida Galvez, MD, MPH Perry Sheffield, MD, MPH   For all their help with data and pict...
In The News
Growth of FieldTurf Installations    500    450    400    350    300    250                                        FieldTu...
Why the move to Synthetic Turf Initial interest by Ford Foundation in 1950s as a means to improve access to playing fields...
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults                  (*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person)                ...
AstroTurf - The Original
Modern Synthetic Turf Designhttp://www.soccerworldsystems.com/Products.asp
Infill Rubber  Rubber pellets    Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer   rubber (EPDM)    Block copolymers        Styrene and B...
Balancing Act                          Local Heat Effects   Field Use                          Toxic Exposures on Fields  ...
Potential Benefits of Synthetic Turf  Decreased maintenance requirement  All weather play           Combat Obesity  Greate...
Potential Adverse Health Effects Toxic exposures from               Excessive Heat crumb rubber pellets:                Bu...
Evidence of Toxin Release  Rutgers - 2006                 EHHI (CT - 8/07)      NYC samples                    Demonstated...
Health Concerns Exposure to Toxins         ‘Turf Burns’ and MRSA Risk   Acute: Respiratory and     CDC reported turf burns...
Injuries5-year Prospective comparison of injuries on naturalgrass and FieldTurf. (Meyers et al. 2004; 32; 1626Am. J. Sport...
On Field TemperaturesUniversity of Missouri Research - Brad Fresenburg.University of Missouri    Ambient temp - 98 degrees...
Potential Environmental Effects Contribution to ‘urban heat island’ Leaching of chemicals and metals into water runoff - s...
Cost Comparison - NYC                                                                                      Estimates      ...
Costs Not Considered Increased vacuuming or raking for heavily used fields Repairing loose seams or burns Disposal costs P...
Alternative Natural Grass Systems Natural Grass Systems have evolved Key Features:    Selecting the right grass (prevailin...
Improved Grass Varieties Dramatic rise in research on varieties for fields in the 1990s Improved Wear Tolerance   Increase...
Great Lawn Renovationwww.strathayr.com.au/html/turf/stadia.htmhttp://www.centralpark.com/pages/attractions/great_lawn.jpg
Choices and Balance Compelling need for increased sports field access (Obesity, etc.) Advantages, disadvantages, and healt...
Tips for safer use of turf fields: Do no use the turf fields on extremely hot days. Be sure to clean and monitor any “turf...
Thank You            Questions?
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Turf presentation

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We all want fields to play on with all this rain, but is the turf safe? Great

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Transcript of "Turf presentation"

  1. 1. Synthetic Field TurfAre the benefits worth theenvironmental and healthrisks? Joel Forman, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Community and Preventive Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine
  2. 2. A special thanks to: Meghan Bullock Maida Galvez, MD, MPH Perry Sheffield, MD, MPH For all their help with data and pictures
  3. 3. In The News
  4. 4. Growth of FieldTurf Installations 500 450 400 350 300 250 FieldTurf (USA only) FieldTurf (Worldwide) 200 From Company Data 150 100 50 0 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
  5. 5. Why the move to Synthetic Turf Initial interest by Ford Foundation in 1950s as a means to improve access to playing fields and thus improve fitness 1st Generation AstroTurf (carpet like) - 1960s Moses Brown - Prov, RI Houston Astrodome 2nd Generation Turf (fibers and ‘infill’ rubber) - 1990s
  6. 6. Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults (*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1990 1998 2006No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%
  7. 7. AstroTurf - The Original
  8. 8. Modern Synthetic Turf Designhttp://www.soccerworldsystems.com/Products.asp
  9. 9. Infill Rubber Rubber pellets Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer rubber (EPDM) Block copolymers Styrene and Butadiene (TPE-S) Styrene Butadiene rubber (SBR) 1mm diameter Sand mix sometimes New or from recycled tires Variable with different products
  10. 10. Balancing Act Local Heat Effects Field Use Toxic Exposures on Fields Phys. Activity Toxin Exposures disbursed Obesity from Field Water Conservation Environmental Heat effects Carbon Footprint Environmental Toxin Use for Recycled Tires Contamination Cost Savings Habitat Effects Benefits Harms
  11. 11. Potential Benefits of Synthetic Turf Decreased maintenance requirement All weather play Combat Obesity Greater availability No need for pesticides and fertilizers Resource conservation (fossil fuel and water) Lower long term costs Aesthetics Use for recycled tires
  12. 12. Potential Adverse Health Effects Toxic exposures from Excessive Heat crumb rubber pellets: Burns zinc, lead, copper, Dehydration chromium, cadmium, PAHs, phthalates, phenols Injuries Routes of exposure and Increased ‘turf concern: burns’ Volatilization - potential Infection Risk respiratory or MM irritation Contact – Dermal absorption and irritation Hand to Mouth - Ingestion
  13. 13. Evidence of Toxin Release Rutgers - 2006 EHHI (CT - 8/07) NYC samples Demonstated volitalization of PAHs leached from phenols and PAHs at 60 degres synthetic turf rubber celcius pellets at levels 3x Zinc, Selenium, Lead, what is allowed in Cadmium were found in distilled contaminated soil water leachate after 7 weeks Used solvents and Higher amounts when acidified nitric acid water usedThe lab conditions used may not accurately reflectreal world conditions
  14. 14. Health Concerns Exposure to Toxins ‘Turf Burns’ and MRSA Risk Acute: Respiratory and CDC reported turf burns as a Mucous Membrane risk factor for MRSA infection Irritation in football players (MMWR August Chronic: Cancer and 22, 2003 / 52(33);793-795) Neurotoxicity CDC reports cluster of MRSA infections in LA Rams Pro Excessive Heat football players all associated with ‘turf burns. (NEJM 2005 Dehydration Kazakova et al.) Heat Exhaustion Burns
  15. 15. Injuries5-year Prospective comparison of injuries on naturalgrass and FieldTurf. (Meyers et al. 2004; 32; 1626Am. J. Sports Med.)Injury patterns differed: Higher incidences of 0-day time loss injuries, non-contact injuries, surface/epidermal injuries, muscle-related trauma, and injuries during higher temperatures were reported on FieldTurf. Higher incidences of 1- to 2-day time loss injuries, 22+ days time loss injuries, head and neural trauma, and ligament injuries were reported on natural grass.
  16. 16. On Field TemperaturesUniversity of Missouri Research - Brad Fresenburg.University of Missouri Ambient temp - 98 degrees Synthetic Turf Surface Temperature - 173 Natural Grass Temperature - 105 Head Level Air Temperature - 138BYU Field study 2002 - Source: Williams and Pulley, BrighamYoung University One of the trainers received blisters through his training shoes Artificial Turf Avg. 117, high of 157 Natural Grass Avg. 78, high of 88.5
  17. 17. Potential Environmental Effects Contribution to ‘urban heat island’ Leaching of chemicals and metals into water runoff - storm drains vs sewers Dispersal of ‘infill’ rubber to distant sites Lost habitat for insects and birds
  18. 18. Cost Comparison - NYC Estimates vary widely by source! Difference = $14,714 per soccer field per yearDepartment of Parks & Recreation, Operations, 15 Dec. 2005. Costs were figured in2004 and vary depending on site. Reproduced from NY4Ps a New Turf War
  19. 19. Costs Not Considered Increased vacuuming or raking for heavily used fields Repairing loose seams or burns Disposal costs Potential environmental cleanup costs Cost variance by type of field (Soccer vs Baseball)
  20. 20. Alternative Natural Grass Systems Natural Grass Systems have evolved Key Features: Selecting the right grass (prevailing weather) Drainage System Perforated pipe system Pea Gravel or Sand Root Zone Mix Grass Seed or Sod Brad Fresenburg. University of Missouri
  21. 21. Improved Grass Varieties Dramatic rise in research on varieties for fields in the 1990s Improved Wear Tolerance Increased shoot density Increased strength of recovery Improved Shade and Heat Tolerance
  22. 22. Great Lawn Renovationwww.strathayr.com.au/html/turf/stadia.htmhttp://www.centralpark.com/pages/attractions/great_lawn.jpg
  23. 23. Choices and Balance Compelling need for increased sports field access (Obesity, etc.) Advantages, disadvantages, and health risks of Synthetic Turf are still being evaluated Newer Natural Turf systems may not have been adequately considered in terms of costs and benefits. Decisions should carefully consider the use of fields to be replaced
  24. 24. Tips for safer use of turf fields: Do no use the turf fields on extremely hot days. Be sure to clean and monitor any “turf burns” obtained while playing. Attempt to remove all pellets from shoes and clothes prior to leaving the fields. At home, shake out your children’s equipment and clothes in the garage or over the garbage. Have your child shower and wash thoroughly after playing on the field.
  25. 25. Thank You Questions?
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