The Great War Mr. Taylor | World History | Chapter 29
Patterns in Geography Which Allied nation could the Central Powers not invade by land?
Patterns in Geography Why might Russia have struggled to obtain resources from its allies?
Patterns in Geography Which alliance may have had the worse position geographically in the war?
Preview Main Ideas SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Militarism: New weapons: Machine guns, airplanes, tanks ECONOMICS Converted industry (industrial revolution) POWER & AUTHORITY Nationalism
Rise of Nationalism Growing nationalism competition Balkan nationalism demand independence
Imperialism and Militarism Competition for colonies stirs mistrust Animosity arms race Militarism =glorifying military power
Bismarck Forges Early Pacts Believes France wants revenge Treaty with Russia in 1881 Forms Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) in 1882
Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace Kaiser Wilhelm alliance with Russia dropped; Russia allies with France effort to strengthen German navy alarms Britain Britain, France, Russia form Triple Entente alliance in 1907
Crisis in the Balkans “Powder Keg of Europe” New nation of Serbia made up largely of Slavs Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic region Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908) Serbia outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of Slavic lands
A Shot Rings Throughout Europe Serbian rebel kills Austro-Hungarian royal official in June 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia; Russia comes to aid of Serbia
Roots of War
Europe Plunges into War Russian troops to borders with Austria/Germany Germany declares war on Russia, attacks France Great Britain declares war on Germany
By August 1914
War in the Trenches Trench warfare Battles = many deaths, small land gains Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, unsanitary New weapons only lead to more deaths Russia Struggles Russia’s war effort suffering by 1916; many casualties, few supplies Huge size of Russian army keeps it formidable
America Joins the Fight Germany seeks to control Atlantic to stop supplies to Britain Uses unrestricted submarine warfare Sinking of Lusitania angers U.S.
TRADE Which side will the U.S. join?
America Joins the Fight Renewal of policy and effort to enlist Mexico anger U.S. U.S. declares war against Germany in April 1917
Practice Quiz What did Germany want Mexico to do? Begin unrestricted submarine warfare? Distract the United States with a border War Convince Japan to attack Russia All of the above Why would governments send messages in code? To increase close cooperation among the staff To prevent unauthorized people from knowing what they say To ensure greater attention to detail by the senior staff All of the above Why did Germany send a telegram rather than a letter or courier? Telegrams are faster. Letters can be intercepted. Couriers could be spies. All of the above. Why is body of the message is the only part written in code? Western Union needs to know the identify of the customer. The destination cannot be secret since the telegram company has to deliver the message. Only the message contains secret information. All of the above.
America Joins the Ranks
War Affects the Home Front Total war— devote all resources to war Governments take control of economy Nations turn torationing — limiting purchases of war-related goods
Women and the War At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men Many women also war nurses
The Allies Win the War Russia Withdraws Civil unrest forces czar to step down in 1917 Communists take control of Russia’s government Russia signs treaty with Germany in March 1918, pulls out The Central Powers Collapse Allies win war; armistice—end of fighting—signed in November 1918
A Flawed Peace Group of leaders known as the Big Four dominate Wilson proposes Fourteen Points Free trade, end secret alliances, military buildups Promotes self-determinationright of people to govern own nation Envisions international peace-keeping
Treaty of Versailles Britain, France oppose Wilson; want to punish Germany Treaty of Versailles creates League of Nations blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages to nations League to rule German colonies Versailles treaty changes the look of Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Ottoman all lose New countries created in southeastern Europe; Russia gives up land
Treaty of Versailles
A Peace Built on Quicksand Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war America never signs Treaty of Versailles Many oppose League of Nations Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want
Revolution and Nationalism1900–1939 Political upheavals lead to the formation of a totalitarian state in Russia, civil war in China, and limited self-rule in India.
Revolutions in Russia Autocratic Rule Censors written criticism; secret police Non-Russians treated harshly, Jews target of government-backed violence Industrialization discontent conditions, wages Growing popularity of Marxist idea that the proletariat (workers) will rule Bolsheviks: Marxists for revolution (Lenin)
Revolutions in Russia The Russo-Japanese War Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905 200,000 workers march on czar’s palace to demand reforms Army fires into the crowd, killing many Czar forced to make reforms The Duma, Russia’s first parliament, meets Czar unwilling to share power; dissolves Duma after only 10 weeks
Revolutions in Russia World War I: The Final Blow Heavy losses reveal government’s weakness Strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire Czar Steps Down Bolsheviks in Power Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factories Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia out of World War I
The Bolshevik Revolution Civil War Rages in Russia Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Army Red Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead Comparing World Revolutions Russian, French Revolutions similar—both attempt to remake society
Lenin Restores Order Lenin’s economic policy and peace restore economy shattered by war, revolution By 1928, Russia’s farms, factories are productive again Lenin dies, Stalin takes over, becomes dictator
Rise of Communism
Totalitarianism Totalitarianism: government that dominates every aspect of life Police Terror: to spy on, intimidate people Indoctrination: slanted education Propaganda and Censorship Religious or Ethnic Persecution: religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state”
Imperial China Collapses Nationalists Overthrows Qing Dynasty Calls for modernization Backs three principles: nationalism, democracy, economic security World War I Spells More Problems China enters war against Germany hoping to gain land held by Germans Treaty of Versailles gives German colonies in China to Japan; People revolt v. nationalists
Reading: Mao Zedong
Communist Party in China Lenin Befriends China Peasants see no gain for them in Nationalist’s plans, back Communists, Mao Zedong The Long March Nationalist army surrounds outnumbered Communists, 6,000-mile journey to safety in north6,000/100,000 survive Seeing chaos in China, Japan launches all-out invasion in 1937, Nationalists and Communists join together to fight Japan
Indian Nationalism Grows World War I Increases Nationalism British promise steps to self-government in return for war service. After war, no changes; resentment Amritsar Massacre Mohandas K. Gandhi civil disobedience
Tactics of Nonviolence Strikes and Demonstrations Civil disobedience takes an economic toll on the British The Salt March In 1930, Gandhi protests Salt Acts Salt March—240-mile walk led by Gandhi to collect seawater for salt British police brutalize protestors; Indians gain worldwide support
Limited Self-Rule Indian Victory In 1935, Parliament passes the Government of India Act Act gives India local self-government Act does nothing to calm rising tension between Muslims and Hindus