World War 1 & Nationalism


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  • World War 1 & Nationalism

    1. 1. The Great War<br />Mr. Taylor | World History | Chapter 29<br />
    2. 2. KEY TERMS<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4. Patterns in Geography <br />Which Allied nation could the Central Powers not invade by land?<br />
    5. 5. Patterns in Geography <br />Why might Russia have struggled to obtain resources from its allies?<br />
    6. 6. Patterns in Geography <br />Which alliance may have had the worse position geographically in the war?<br />
    7. 7. Preview Main Ideas<br />SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY<br />Militarism: New weapons: Machine guns, airplanes, tanks<br />ECONOMICS<br />Converted industry (industrial revolution)<br />POWER & AUTHORITY<br />Nationalism<br />
    8. 8. Rise of Nationalism<br />Growing nationalism  competition<br />Balkan nationalism  demand independence<br />
    9. 9. Imperialism and Militarism<br />Competition for colonies stirs mistrust<br />Animosity  arms race<br />Militarism =glorifying military power<br />
    10. 10. Armenian 844<br />
    11. 11. Bismarck Forges Early Pacts<br />Believes France wants revenge<br />Treaty with Russia in 1881<br />Forms Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) in 1882<br />
    12. 12. Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace<br />Kaiser Wilhelm<br />alliance with Russia dropped;<br />Russia allies with France<br />effort to strengthen German navy alarms Britain<br />Britain, France, Russia form Triple Entente alliance in 1907<br />
    13. 13. Crisis in the Balkans <br />“Powder Keg of Europe”<br />New nation of Serbia made up largely of Slavs<br />Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic region Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908)<br />Serbia outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of Slavic lands<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. A Shot Rings Throughout Europe<br />Serbian rebel kills Austro-Hungarian royal official in June 1914<br />Austria declares war on Serbia; Russia comes to aid of Serbia<br />
    16. 16. Roots of War<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Europe Plunges into War <br />Russian troops to borders with Austria/Germany<br />Germany declares war on Russia, attacks France<br />Great Britain declares war on Germany<br />
    19. 19. By August 1914<br />
    20. 20. War in the Trenches<br />Trench warfare<br />Battles = many deaths, small land gains<br />Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, unsanitary <br />New weapons only lead to more deaths<br />Russia Struggles<br />Russia’s war effort suffering by 1916; many casualties, few supplies<br />Huge size of Russian army keeps it formidable <br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23. America Joins the Fight<br />Germany seeks to control Atlantic to stop supplies to Britain<br />Uses unrestricted submarine warfare<br />Sinking of Lusitania angers U.S. <br />
    24. 24. TRADE<br />Which side will the U.S. join?<br />
    25. 25.
    26. 26.
    27. 27. America Joins the Fight<br />Renewal of policy and effort to enlist Mexico anger U.S.<br />U.S. declares war against Germany in April 1917<br />
    28. 28. Practice Quiz<br />What did Germany want Mexico to do?<br />Begin unrestricted submarine warfare?<br />Distract the United States with a border War<br />Convince Japan to attack Russia<br />All of the above<br />Why would governments send messages in code?<br />To increase close cooperation among the staff<br />To prevent unauthorized people from knowing what they say<br />To ensure greater attention to detail by the senior staff<br />All of the above<br />Why did Germany send a telegram rather than a letter or courier?<br />Telegrams are faster.<br />Letters can be intercepted.<br />Couriers could be spies.<br />All of the above.<br />Why is body of the message is the only part written in code?<br />Western Union needs to know the identify of the customer.<br />The destination cannot be secret since the telegram company has to deliver the message.<br />Only the message contains secret information.<br />All of the above.<br />
    29. 29. America Joins the Ranks<br />
    30. 30. War Affects the Home Front <br />Total war— devote all resources to war<br />Governments take control of economy<br />Nations turn torationing — limiting purchases of war-related goods<br />
    31. 31. Women and the War<br />At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men<br />Many women also war nurses <br />
    32. 32. The Allies Win the War <br />Russia Withdraws<br />Civil unrest forces czar to step down in 1917<br />Communists take control of Russia’s government<br />Russia signs treaty with Germany in March 1918, pulls out<br />The Central Powers Collapse<br />Allies win war; armistice—end of fighting—signed in November 1918 <br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. A Flawed Peace <br />Group of leaders known as the Big Four dominate<br />Wilson proposes Fourteen Points<br />Free trade, end secret alliances, military buildups<br />Promotes self-determinationright of people to govern own nation<br />Envisions international peace-keeping<br />
    35. 35. Treaty of Versailles<br />Britain, France oppose Wilson; want to punish Germany<br />Treaty of Versailles<br />creates League of Nations<br />blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages to nations<br />League to rule German colonies<br />Versailles treaty changes the look of Europe<br />Austria, Bulgaria, Ottoman all lose<br />New countries created in southeastern Europe; Russia gives up land<br />
    36. 36. Treaty of Versailles<br />
    37. 37.
    38. 38.
    39. 39.
    40. 40. A Peace Built on Quicksand<br />Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides<br />German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war<br />America never signs Treaty of Versailles<br />Many oppose League of Nations<br />Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence<br />Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42.
    43. 43. Practice Quiz<br />
    44. 44. KEY TERMS<br />
    45. 45. Revolution and Nationalism1900–1939 <br />Political upheavals lead to the formation of a totalitarian state in Russia, civil war in China, and limited self-rule in India. <br />
    46. 46. Revolutions in Russia <br />Autocratic Rule<br />Censors written criticism; secret police<br />Non-Russians treated harshly, Jews target of government-backed violence<br />Industrialization  discontent conditions, wages<br />Growing popularity of Marxist idea that the proletariat (workers) will rule<br />Bolsheviks: Marxists for revolution (Lenin)<br />
    47. 47. Revolutions in Russia <br />The Russo-Japanese War<br />Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905<br />200,000 workers march on czar’s palace to demand reforms<br />Army fires into the crowd, killing many<br />Czar forced to make reforms<br />The Duma, Russia’s first parliament, meets<br />Czar unwilling to share power; dissolves Duma after only 10 weeks<br />
    48. 48. Reading: Lenin<br />
    49. 49. Revolutions in Russia <br />World War I: The Final Blow<br />Heavy losses reveal government’s weakness<br />Strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire<br />Czar Steps Down<br />Bolsheviks in Power<br />Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factories<br />Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia out of World War I<br />
    50. 50. The Bolshevik Revolution<br />Civil War Rages in Russia<br />Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Army<br />Red Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead<br />Comparing World Revolutions<br />Russian, French Revolutions similar—both attempt to remake society<br />
    51. 51. Lenin Restores Order <br />Lenin’s economic policy and peace restore economy shattered by war, revolution<br />By 1928, Russia’s farms, factories are productive again<br />Lenin dies, Stalin takes over, becomes dictator<br />
    52. 52. Rise of Communism<br />
    53. 53. Totalitarianism <br />Totalitarianism: government that dominates every aspect of life<br />Police Terror: to spy on, intimidate people<br />Indoctrination: slanted education<br />Propaganda and Censorship<br />Religious or Ethnic Persecution: religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state”<br />
    54. 54.
    55. 55. Imperial China Collapses <br />Nationalists Overthrows Qing Dynasty<br />Calls for modernization<br />Backs three principles: nationalism, democracy, economic security<br />World War I Spells More Problems<br />China enters war against Germany hoping to gain land held by Germans <br />Treaty of Versailles gives German colonies in China to Japan; People revolt v. nationalists<br />
    56. 56. Reading: Mao Zedong<br />
    57. 57. Communist Party in China <br />Lenin Befriends China<br />Peasants see no gain for them in Nationalist’s plans, back Communists, Mao Zedong<br />The Long March<br />Nationalist army surrounds outnumbered Communists, 6,000-mile journey to safety in north6,000/100,000 survive<br />Seeing chaos in China, Japan launches all-out invasion in 1937, Nationalists and Communists join together to fight Japan<br />
    58. 58. Indian Nationalism Grows <br />World War I Increases Nationalism<br />British promise steps to self-government in return for war service. After war, no changes; resentment<br />Amritsar Massacre<br />Mohandas K. Gandhi<br />civil disobedience<br />
    59. 59.
    60. 60. Tactics of Nonviolence <br />Strikes and Demonstrations<br />Civil disobedience takes an economic toll on the British<br />The Salt March<br />In 1930, Gandhi protests Salt Acts<br />Salt March—240-mile walk led by Gandhi to collect seawater for salt<br />British police brutalize protestors; Indians gain worldwide support<br />
    61. 61.
    62. 62. Limited Self-Rule<br />Indian Victory<br />In 1935, Parliament passes the Government of India Act<br />Act gives India local self-government <br />Act does nothing to calm rising tension between Muslims and Hindus<br />