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World War 1 & Nationalism
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World War 1 & Nationalism






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World War 1 & Nationalism World War 1 & Nationalism Presentation Transcript

  • The Great War
    Mr. Taylor | World History | Chapter 29
  • Patterns in Geography
    Which Allied nation could the Central Powers not invade by land?
  • Patterns in Geography
    Why might Russia have struggled to obtain resources from its allies?
  • Patterns in Geography
    Which alliance may have had the worse position geographically in the war?
  • Preview Main Ideas
    Militarism: New weapons: Machine guns, airplanes, tanks
    Converted industry (industrial revolution)
  • Rise of Nationalism
    Growing nationalism  competition
    Balkan nationalism  demand independence
  • Imperialism and Militarism
    Competition for colonies stirs mistrust
    Animosity  arms race
    Militarism =glorifying military power
  • Armenian 844
  • Bismarck Forges Early Pacts
    Believes France wants revenge
    Treaty with Russia in 1881
    Forms Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) in 1882
  • Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace
    Kaiser Wilhelm
    alliance with Russia dropped;
    Russia allies with France
    effort to strengthen German navy alarms Britain
    Britain, France, Russia form Triple Entente alliance in 1907
  • Crisis in the Balkans
    “Powder Keg of Europe”
    New nation of Serbia made up largely of Slavs
    Austria-Hungary annexes Slavic region Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908)
    Serbia outraged, sees itself as rightful ruler of Slavic lands
  • A Shot Rings Throughout Europe
    Serbian rebel kills Austro-Hungarian royal official in June 1914
    Austria declares war on Serbia; Russia comes to aid of Serbia
  • Roots of War
  • Europe Plunges into War
    Russian troops to borders with Austria/Germany
    Germany declares war on Russia, attacks France
    Great Britain declares war on Germany
  • By August 1914
  • War in the Trenches
    Trench warfare
    Battles = many deaths, small land gains
    Life in trenches is miserable, difficult, unsanitary
    New weapons only lead to more deaths
    Russia Struggles
    Russia’s war effort suffering by 1916; many casualties, few supplies
    Huge size of Russian army keeps it formidable
  • America Joins the Fight
    Germany seeks to control Atlantic to stop supplies to Britain
    Uses unrestricted submarine warfare
    Sinking of Lusitania angers U.S.
    Which side will the U.S. join?
  • America Joins the Fight
    Renewal of policy and effort to enlist Mexico anger U.S.
    U.S. declares war against Germany in April 1917
  • Practice Quiz
    What did Germany want Mexico to do?
    Begin unrestricted submarine warfare?
    Distract the United States with a border War
    Convince Japan to attack Russia
    All of the above
    Why would governments send messages in code?
    To increase close cooperation among the staff
    To prevent unauthorized people from knowing what they say
    To ensure greater attention to detail by the senior staff
    All of the above
    Why did Germany send a telegram rather than a letter or courier?
    Telegrams are faster.
    Letters can be intercepted.
    Couriers could be spies.
    All of the above.
    Why is body of the message is the only part written in code?
    Western Union needs to know the identify of the customer.
    The destination cannot be secret since the telegram company has to deliver the message.
    Only the message contains secret information.
    All of the above.
  • America Joins the Ranks
  • War Affects the Home Front
    Total war— devote all resources to war
    Governments take control of economy
    Nations turn torationing — limiting purchases of war-related goods
  • Women and the War
    At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men
    Many women also war nurses
  • The Allies Win the War
    Russia Withdraws
    Civil unrest forces czar to step down in 1917
    Communists take control of Russia’s government
    Russia signs treaty with Germany in March 1918, pulls out
    The Central Powers Collapse
    Allies win war; armistice—end of fighting—signed in November 1918
  • A Flawed Peace
    Group of leaders known as the Big Four dominate
    Wilson proposes Fourteen Points
    Free trade, end secret alliances, military buildups
    Promotes self-determinationright of people to govern own nation
    Envisions international peace-keeping
  • Treaty of Versailles
    Britain, France oppose Wilson; want to punish Germany
    Treaty of Versailles
    creates League of Nations
    blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages to nations
    League to rule German colonies
    Versailles treaty changes the look of Europe
    Austria, Bulgaria, Ottoman all lose
    New countries created in southeastern Europe; Russia gives up land
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • A Peace Built on Quicksand
    Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides
    German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war
    America never signs Treaty of Versailles
    Many oppose League of Nations
    Some former colonies express anger over not winning independence
    Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want
  • Practice Quiz
  • Revolution and Nationalism1900–1939
    Political upheavals lead to the formation of a totalitarian state in Russia, civil war in China, and limited self-rule in India.
  • Revolutions in Russia
    Autocratic Rule
    Censors written criticism; secret police
    Non-Russians treated harshly, Jews target of government-backed violence
    Industrialization  discontent conditions, wages
    Growing popularity of Marxist idea that the proletariat (workers) will rule
    Bolsheviks: Marxists for revolution (Lenin)
  • Revolutions in Russia
    The Russo-Japanese War
    Bloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905
    200,000 workers march on czar’s palace to demand reforms
    Army fires into the crowd, killing many
    Czar forced to make reforms
    The Duma, Russia’s first parliament, meets
    Czar unwilling to share power; dissolves Duma after only 10 weeks
  • Reading: Lenin
  • Revolutions in Russia
    World War I: The Final Blow
    Heavy losses reveal government’s weakness
    Strikes expand; soldiers refuse to fire
    Czar Steps Down
    Bolsheviks in Power
    Lenin gives land to peasants, puts workers in control of factories
    Bolsheviks sign treaty with Germany; Russia out of World War I
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
    Civil War Rages in Russia
    Bolsheviks’ Red Army and loosely allied White Army
    Red Army wins three-year war that leaves 14 million dead
    Comparing World Revolutions
    Russian, French Revolutions similar—both attempt to remake society
  • Lenin Restores Order
    Lenin’s economic policy and peace restore economy shattered by war, revolution
    By 1928, Russia’s farms, factories are productive again
    Lenin dies, Stalin takes over, becomes dictator
  • Rise of Communism
  • Totalitarianism
    Totalitarianism: government that dominates every aspect of life
    Police Terror: to spy on, intimidate people
    Indoctrination: slanted education
    Propaganda and Censorship
    Religious or Ethnic Persecution: religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state”
  • Imperial China Collapses
    Nationalists Overthrows Qing Dynasty
    Calls for modernization
    Backs three principles: nationalism, democracy, economic security
    World War I Spells More Problems
    China enters war against Germany hoping to gain land held by Germans
    Treaty of Versailles gives German colonies in China to Japan; People revolt v. nationalists
  • Reading: Mao Zedong
  • Communist Party in China
    Lenin Befriends China
    Peasants see no gain for them in Nationalist’s plans, back Communists, Mao Zedong
    The Long March
    Nationalist army surrounds outnumbered Communists, 6,000-mile journey to safety in north6,000/100,000 survive
    Seeing chaos in China, Japan launches all-out invasion in 1937, Nationalists and Communists join together to fight Japan
  • Indian Nationalism Grows
    World War I Increases Nationalism
    British promise steps to self-government in return for war service. After war, no changes; resentment
    Amritsar Massacre
    Mohandas K. Gandhi
    civil disobedience
  • Tactics of Nonviolence
    Strikes and Demonstrations
    Civil disobedience takes an economic toll on the British
    The Salt March
    In 1930, Gandhi protests Salt Acts
    Salt March—240-mile walk led by Gandhi to collect seawater for salt
    British police brutalize protestors; Indians gain worldwide support
  • Limited Self-Rule
    Indian Victory
    In 1935, Parliament passes the Government of India Act
    Act gives India local self-government
    Act does nothing to calm rising tension between Muslims and Hindus