World at War
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World at War






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  • The Russo-Japanese WarBloody Sunday: Revolution of 1905200,000 workers march on czar’s palace to demand reformsArmy fires into the crowd, killing manyCzar forced to make reformsThe Duma, Russia’s first parliament, meetsCzar unwilling to share power; dissolves Duma after only 10 weeks
  • Nationalists Overthrows Qing DynastyCalls for modernizationBacks three principles: nationalism, democracy, economic securityWorld War I Spells More ProblemsChina enters war against Germany hoping to gain land held by Germans Treaty of Versailles gives German colonies in China to Japan; People revolt v. nationalists
  • Strikes and DemonstrationsCivil disobedience takes an economic toll on the BritishThe Salt MarchIn 1930, Gandhi protests Salt ActsSalt March—240-mile walk led by Gandhi to collect seawater for saltBritish police brutalize protestors; Indians gain worldwide support
  • 9 min
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World at War Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mr. Taylor | @teamHISTORY
  • 2. Which Allied nation could the Central Powers not invade by land?
  • 3. Why might Russia have struggled to obtain resources from its allies?
  • 4. Which alliance may have had the worse position geographically in the war?
  • 5. nationalism imperialism militarism alliance system
  • 6. 1914: Shot Rings Throughout Europe
  • 7.  Russian troops to borders with Austria/Germany  Germany declares war on Russia, attacks France  Great Britain declares war on Germany
  • 8. Central Powers: Germany & Austria-Hungary Allied Powers: Britain, France & Russia
  • 9. Russia’s war effort suffering by 1916 many casualties, few supplies Huge size of Russian army keeps it formidable
  • 10.  Germany seeks to control Atlantic to stop supplies to Britain  unrestricted submarine warfare  Sinking of Lusitania angers United States
  • 11. 1. What did Germany want Mexico to do? a) Begin unrestricted submarine warfare? b) Distract the United States with a border War c) Convince Japan to attack Russia d) All of the above 2. Why would governments send messages in code? a) To increase close cooperation among the staff b) To prevent unauthorized people from knowing what they say c) To ensure greater attention to detail by the senior staff d) All of the above 3. Why did Germany send a telegram rather than a letter or courier? a) Telegrams are faster. b) Letters can be intercepted. c) Couriers could be spies. d) All of the above. 4. Why is body of the message is the only part written in code? a) Western Union needs to know the identify of the customer. b) The destination cannot be secret since the telegram company has to deliver the message. c) Only the message contains secret information. d) All of the above.
  • 12.  U.S. declares war against Germany in April 1917
  • 13.  Total war — devote all resources to war  Governments take control of economy  Nations turn to rationing — limiting purchases of war-related goods
  • 14.  At home, thousands of women fill jobs previously held by men  Many women also war nurses
  • 15. Russia Withdraws  Civil unrest forces czar to step down in 1917  Communists take control  Russia  treaty with Germany, March 1918 Central Powers Collapse  Allies win war; armistice in November 1918
  • 16. Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sides German people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for war America never signs Treaty of Versailles Some colonies express anger over not winning independence Japan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want
  • 17. militarism (a) the battlefields of northern France in World War I Western Front (b) system in which a government limits the amount of items people can buy Eastern Front (c) Wilson’s plan for achieving a just and lasting peace after World War I trench warfare (d) type of warfare in which opposing armies fight from parallel trenches propaganda (e) a stretch of battlefield among the German and Russian border in WWI total war (f) war in which countries devote all their resources to the war effort rationing (g) policy of glorifying war and keeping an army prepared for war Fourteen Points (h) One-sided information designed to persuade
  • 18. Lenin WWI shows Russia’s weakness, Czar steps down Bolsheviks in power, sign treaty with Germany; Russia out of World War I
  • 19. Lenin: land to peasants, workers control 3-year civil war leaves 14 million dead Russian, Fren ch Revolutions both attempt to remake society Lenin’s economic, peace policies restore order
  • 20. Police Terror Indoctrination Propaganda and Censorship Religious or Ethnic Persecution
  • 21. Nationalists: nationalism, democracy, economic security
  • 22. Emperor Nationalists Communists Peasants not impressed
  • 23. Reading: Mao Zedong
  • 24.  British promise steps to self-government in return for WWI service. After war, no changes; resentment
  • 25.  1935: England gives India self-rule  Does nothing to calm rising tension between Muslims and Hindus
  • 26. Mr. Taylor World History Between Wars
  • 27. Russia • Stalin • Purge • Five-year plans Germany • War debts (reparation) UnitedStates • Isolationism
  • 28. Secret Agreement Non- aggression pact: Germans, Soviets agree not to fight each other, to split Poland Blitzkrieg
  • 29. Communism – sort of  Five year plan  The Great Purge: under Joseph Stalin, tens of millions of ordinary individuals were executed or imprisoned in labor camps that were little more than death camps.
  • 30. German forces trap British, French on coast at Dunkirk Winston Churchill: Becomes British prime minister, vows no surrender Battle of Britain: British use air force, radar, code -breaking to resist Germany
  • 31. Hitler Invades Soviet Union After taking Yugoslavia, Greece , Hitler betrays Stalin Germany invades an unprepared Soviet Union Soviet troops burn land as they retreat Germans almost capture Moscow
  • 32.  Roosevelt fears that if allies fall, U.S. would have to fight  Lend-Lease Act — U.S. loans weapons to countries fighting Germany
  • 33. Infamy Japan attacks Pearl Harbor , U.S. naval base in Hawaii, on Dec. 7, 1941
  • 34.  In 1941 Roosevelt cuts off oil shipments to Japan  Japan captures American Philippines, British holdings, including Hong Kong, Singapore, Dutch East Indies, Burma, threatens India, Britain’s main possession in Asia  Japanese forces treat conquered peoples, prisoners of war brutally
  • 35.  New kind of naval warfare — ships launch planes to fight each other  Douglas MacArthur — American army commander in Pacific  Plans to “island-hop” past strongholds, attack weaker Japanese bases
  • 36. Axis • Italy • Japan • Germany Allies • Britain • Soviet Union • United States
  • 37. Nazis kill 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Arayans”
  • 38.  “Our strength consists in our speed and in our brutality. Genghis Khan led millions of women and children to slaughter - with premeditation and a happy heart. History sees in him solely the founder of a state. It’s a matter of indifference to me what a weak western European civilization will say about me.
  • 39. I have issued the command - and I’ll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad - that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly I have placed my death-head formations in readiness - for the present only in the East - with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space (Lebensraum) which we need.
  • 40. Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?” Adolf Hitler August 22, 1939 Quoted from a speech delivered by Hitler to the Supreme Commanders and Commanding Generals, as the Nazis marched into Poland in 1939.
  • 41.  Hitler and Nazis say Aryans — Germanic peoples — are “master race”  Kristallnacht— “night of broken glass,” Nov. 9, 1938  Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues attacked; 100 Jews killed
  • 42.  Fearing violence, many German Jews flee, but other countries limit Jewish refugees Isolation  Hitler has all Jews moved to designated cities, forced to live in ghettos
  • 43.  Hitler’s final plan for treatment of Jews  Chooses genocide — systematic killing of an entire people  Russia joins effort
  • 44. Death camps not in Germany, kept secret from German citizens
  • 45. Reading: “Night”
  • 46.  Use your notes to write a paragraph describing Nazi Germany’s policy towards Jewish people.  Include the following terms:  Aryan  Holocaust  ghetto  Final Solution  genocide
  • 47. World War II European Theater Prelude & November 1942-May 1945
  • 48.  Africa: Allied resistance starts in Africa, British against Germany & Italy  The Battle for Stalingrad: Germany moves to capture Soviet oil fields  Italy: United States and Brittan use Africa to launch invasion of Italy
  • 49.  Fighting the war requires complete use of all national resources  18 million U.S. workers — many of them women — make weapons  People at home face shortages of consumer goods  Propaganda aims to inspire civilians to aid effort
  • 50. The D-Day Invasion D-Day — June 6, 1944; day of “Operation Overlord” allied invasion of France
  • 51. Special Invasion (1944) In 1943 the tide of the war had turned against Germany. The Germans were losing ground against the Soviets in the East. British Empire and US forces invaded Italy, Germany′s ally. By June 1944 the Allies had gathered enough troops and equipment to invade France and try and drive the Germans out. Although they were successful, losses were heavy and bitter fighting would continue until Germany surrendered in May 1945.
  • 52.  By 1945, Allied armies approach Germany from two sides  Soviets surround Berlin in April 1945  Hitler commits suicide  On May 9, 1945, Germany officially surrenders, marking V-E Day  President Roosevelt dies in April (stroke); Truman becomes president
  • 53.  U.S. takes Philippines in late 1944  Kamikazes: Japanese pilots who fly suicide missions  In March 1945, American forces capture Iwo Jima  U.S. takes Okinawa in June 1945; Japan suffers huge casualties
  • 54.  Advisors warn Truman that invasion of Japan will cost many lives  He has alternative; powerful new weapon called atomic bomb  Manhattan Project — secret program  Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Aug. 6, 1945; 75,000 die  Nagasaki bombed on Aug. 9; 70,000 die  Japanese surrender on Sept. 2, 1945
  • 55.  Persecution of Jewish scientists, sought asylum  Einstein, abandoning his belief in pacifism, urged then president Franklin Roosevelt to develop an atomic bomb before Hitler did.  He later regretted his support of the A-Bomb.
  • 56. “The Japanese were ready to surrender and it wasn't necessary to hit them with that awful thing.” General Eisenhower Advisors warn Truman that invasion of Japan will cost many lives
  • 57. “I made one great mistake in my life ... when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification - the danger that the Germans would make them.”
  • 58.  Nuremberg Trials: trials of 22 Nazi leaders for war crimes  Some Nazi leaders executed for their actions
  • 59.  Germany  Page 942: Circle extent of Axis-controlled area  Page 953: Where were most Holocaust “death camps”  Japan  Page 933: Mark extent of Japanese expansion  Midway, 1942  Hiroshima, 1945  Nagasaki, 1945  Italy  France  Normandy (D-Day), 1944  England  Russia  Japan  Pearl Harbor  Korea, 1950-53  Vietnam, 1957-73  Cuba, 1962  India, 1947  Israel, 1947