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  • 1. Early Religions
    Mr. Taylor | World History
  • 2. KEY TERMS, part 1
  • 3.
  • 4. Hinduism and Buddhism
  • 5. Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries
    Collection of beliefs that developed slowly
    No one founder, no single set of ideas
    Reincarnation: reborn to new lives
    A soul’s good and bad deeds, karma, determines course of new life
    Today, Hindus choose own path to moksha — a state of perfect understanding
    Why did Hinduism strengthenthe caste system?
  • 6. CREATION OF WORLD
    • JEWS, CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS SAY WORLD CREATED 6,000 AGO AND WILL END SOMETIME
    • 7. HINDUS BELIEVE WORLD CREATED 1OO TRILLION PALYAS AGO
    • 8. TIME IT TAKES TO EMPTY A PIT I MILE DEEP BY 1 MILE WIDE FULL OF FINE HAIR IF 1 HAIR REMOVED EVERY 100 YEARS!
  • MAIN MESSAGE
    • EVERYTHING ALIVE THAT MOVES HAS A SOUL
    • 9. ALL LIFE IS SACRED AND CONNECTED
    • 10. UPON DEATH A SOUL IS REBORN UNTIL IT BECOMES “ONE WITH BRAHMAN” (MOKSHA)
    • 11. REBIRTH OF SOUL IS CALLED REINCARNATION AND IT CAN BE BORN INTO ANYTHING ALIVE
  • REINCARNATION AND DIET
    MOST HINDUS ARE VEGETARIANS
    ALL ANIMALS CONSIDERED SACRED
    COW IS #1 SACRED ANIMAL DUE TO ALL ITS USES
    MONKIES CLOSE BEHIND DUE TO HUMAN SIMILARITIES
    TEMPLES TO ELEPHANTS, ANTS, SNAKES, MONKIES, COWS, ETC
  • 12. THE CASTE SYSTEM
    HINDU SOCIETY IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS
    #1—PRIESTS AND TEACHERS
    #2—RULERS AND SOLDIERS
    #3—TRADERS AND FARMERS
    #4—LABORERS, CRAFTSMEN, SERVANTS
    “UNTOUCHABLES” ARE OUTSIDE THE CASTE SYSTEM
  • 13. THE CASTE SYSTEM
    HINDU SOCIETY IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS
    #1—PRIESTS AND TEACHERS
    #2—RULERS AND SOLDIERS
    #3—TRADERS AND FARMERS
    #4—LABORERS, CRAFTSMEN, SERVANTS
    “UNTOUCHABLES” ARE OUTSIDE THE CASTE SYSTEM
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment
    Siddhartha Gautama: Founder
    Prince raised in isolation, wants to learn about world
    Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), escape human suffering
    Gains enlightenment by meditating, becomes the Buddha, the “enlightened one”
  • 17. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment
    Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of Hinduism
    Preaches Four Noble Truths
  • 18. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment
    Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path to achieve nirvana
    a perfect state of understanding
    a release from selfishness and pain
    a break from the chain of reincarnations
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment
    Buddhism in India
    Spreads to other parts of Asia
    Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains strong
    Trade and the spread of Buddhism
    spreads by traders to:
    Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra
    China, Korea, Japan
  • 23. KEY TERMS, part 1
  • 24.
  • 25. The Origins of Judaism
  • 26. Search for a Promised Land
    Palestine: shores Mediterranean eastern, Hebrew people, land promised by God
    Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews
    God > Abraham> father of Hebrew people
    Hebrews are monotheists: one God
    A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham
    Abraham promises to obey God, God promises protection
  • 27. HOW TO WORSHIP AND LOVE JEHOVAH?
    THE “SHEMA”: (DEUT. 6: 4-9) IS THE CORE OF JUDAISM
    AND IS CENTRAL TO TWO OTHER MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS
  • 28.
  • 29. A New Covenant
    Moses receives Ten Commandments —become basis of Hebrew law
  • 30.
  • 31. China & Confucianism
  • 32. Confucius and the Social Order
    End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder
    Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government
  • 33. Confucius and the Social Order
    Stresses developing good relationships, including family
    Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors
    Hopes to reform society by promoting good government
  • 34. Confucian Ideas
    Thinks education can transform people
    Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service
    Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion
    Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism
  • 35.
  • 36. CHRISTIANITY
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. Paul’s Mission
    Never met Jesus, at first was an enemy of Christianity
    Reportedly had a vision of Christ. Spent the rest of his life spreading and Christ’s teachings.
    PaxRomana, which made travel and the exchange of ideas fairly safe, provided the ideal conditions for Christianity to spread
    Wrote influential letters, called Epistles, to groups of believers. Paul stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people’s sins. Ultimately, he wrote much of the New Testament
    Declared that Christianity should welcome all converts, Jew or Gentile (non-Jew) which enabled Christianity to become more than just a local religion.
  • 40. Jewish Rebellion
    In A.D. 66, a band of Jews rebelled against Rome. In A.D. 70, the Romans stormed Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple complex.
    All that remained was a western portion of the wall, which today is the holiest Jewish shrine. About a half million Jews were killed in the course of this rebellion.
    The Jews made another attempt to break free of the Romans in A.D. 132. Another half-million Jews died in three years of fighting.
    Although the Jewish religion survived, the Jewish political state ceased to exist for more than 1,800 years. Most Jews were driven from their homeland into exile. This dispersal of the Jews is called the Diaspora.
  • 41.
  • 42. Persecution
    Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule.
    By the second century, as the Pax Romana began to crumble, persecution of the Christians intensified. Thousands were crucified, burned, or killed by wild animals in the circus arenas.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49. "'O;I1,e that you are writing an essay describing the religious culture of Hinduism. Place an R
    to each relevant fact and an I next to each statement which would not be useful to supyour
    essay. Justify your answer.
     
    When people die their souls are reborn in new bodies through a process known as reincarnation.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    2. Hinduism teaches that all gods and living beings are representations of a Single, universal
    spirit called Brahma.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    3. Hinduism represents a synthesis of Indian religious cultures, combining elements of both
    Aryan and pre-Aryan religions.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    4. The Era of a Hundred Schools was one of the most creative periods for Chinese religious
    philosophy.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    5. Confucius called for respect of traditional culture and and strict observance of the princip
    les 6f order.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    6. Kalidasa's plays and poems capture the beauty and refinement of Gupta culture.
    Explanation ___________________________ _
    CHAPTER
  • 50. The Muslim World
    Blue Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54. The Rise of Islam
    When and how did trade become important?
    What was the Hijrah?
    What are the five duties of Muslims?
  • 55.
  • 56. Angel Gabrielle visiting Muhammad
  • 57.
  • 58. Week’s Agenda
    Essay due Thursday
    Two days watching, discussing “Inside Mecca”
    Two days on computers creating a brochure about Muslim culture