Early Religions

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Early Religions

  1. 1. Early Religions<br />Mr. Taylor | World History<br />
  2. 2. KEY TERMS, part 1<br />
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  4. 4. Hinduism and Buddhism<br />
  5. 5. Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries<br />Collection of beliefs that developed slowly<br />No one founder, no single set of ideas<br />Reincarnation: reborn to new lives<br />A soul’s good and bad deeds, karma, determines course of new life<br />Today, Hindus choose own path to moksha — a state of perfect understanding<br />Why did Hinduism strengthenthe caste system?<br />
  6. 6. CREATION OF WORLD <br /><ul><li>JEWS, CHRISTIANS, MUSLIMS SAY WORLD CREATED 6,000 AGO AND WILL END SOMETIME
  7. 7. HINDUS BELIEVE WORLD CREATED 1OO TRILLION PALYAS AGO
  8. 8. TIME IT TAKES TO EMPTY A PIT I MILE DEEP BY 1 MILE WIDE FULL OF FINE HAIR IF 1 HAIR REMOVED EVERY 100 YEARS!</li></li></ul><li>MAIN MESSAGE<br /><ul><li>EVERYTHING ALIVE THAT MOVES HAS A SOUL
  9. 9. ALL LIFE IS SACRED AND CONNECTED
  10. 10. UPON DEATH A SOUL IS REBORN UNTIL IT BECOMES “ONE WITH BRAHMAN” (MOKSHA)
  11. 11. REBIRTH OF SOUL IS CALLED REINCARNATION AND IT CAN BE BORN INTO ANYTHING ALIVE</li></li></ul><li>REINCARNATION AND DIET<br />MOST HINDUS ARE VEGETARIANS<br />ALL ANIMALS CONSIDERED SACRED<br />COW IS #1 SACRED ANIMAL DUE TO ALL ITS USES<br />MONKIES CLOSE BEHIND DUE TO HUMAN SIMILARITIES<br />TEMPLES TO ELEPHANTS, ANTS, SNAKES, MONKIES, COWS, ETC<br />
  12. 12. THE CASTE SYSTEM<br />HINDU SOCIETY IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS <br />#1—PRIESTS AND TEACHERS<br />#2—RULERS AND SOLDIERS<br />#3—TRADERS AND FARMERS<br />#4—LABORERS, CRAFTSMEN, SERVANTS<br />“UNTOUCHABLES” ARE OUTSIDE THE CASTE SYSTEM<br />
  13. 13. THE CASTE SYSTEM<br />HINDU SOCIETY IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS <br />#1—PRIESTS AND TEACHERS<br />#2—RULERS AND SOLDIERS<br />#3—TRADERS AND FARMERS<br />#4—LABORERS, CRAFTSMEN, SERVANTS<br />“UNTOUCHABLES” ARE OUTSIDE THE CASTE SYSTEM<br />
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  16. 16. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment<br />Siddhartha Gautama: Founder<br />Prince raised in isolation, wants to learn about world<br />Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), escape human suffering<br />Gains enlightenment by meditating, becomes the Buddha, the “enlightened one”<br />
  17. 17. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment<br />Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of Hinduism<br />Preaches Four Noble Truths<br />
  18. 18. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment<br />Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path to achieve nirvana<br />a perfect state of understanding <br />a release from selfishness and pain<br />a break from the chain of reincarnations<br />
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  22. 22. The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment<br />Buddhism in India<br />Spreads to other parts of Asia<br />Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains strong<br />Trade and the spread of Buddhism<br />spreads by traders to:<br />Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra<br />China, Korea, Japan<br />
  23. 23. KEY TERMS, part 1<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. The Origins of Judaism<br />
  26. 26. Search for a Promised Land<br />Palestine: shores Mediterranean eastern, Hebrew people, land promised by God<br />Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews<br />God > Abraham> father of Hebrew people<br />Hebrews are monotheists: one God<br />A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham<br />Abraham promises to obey God, God promises protection<br />
  27. 27. HOW TO WORSHIP AND LOVE JEHOVAH? <br />THE “SHEMA”: (DEUT. 6: 4-9) IS THE CORE OF JUDAISM<br />AND IS CENTRAL TO TWO OTHER MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS <br />
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  29. 29. A New Covenant<br />Moses receives Ten Commandments —become basis of Hebrew law<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. China & Confucianism<br />
  32. 32. Confucius and the Social Order<br />End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder<br />Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government<br />
  33. 33. Confucius and the Social Order<br />Stresses developing good relationships, including family<br />Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors<br />Hopes to reform society by promoting good government<br />
  34. 34. Confucian Ideas<br />Thinks education can transform people<br />Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service<br />Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion<br />Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism<br />
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  36. 36. CHRISTIANITY<br />
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  39. 39. Paul’s Mission<br />Never met Jesus, at first was an enemy of Christianity<br />Reportedly had a vision of Christ. Spent the rest of his life spreading and Christ’s teachings.<br />PaxRomana, which made travel and the exchange of ideas fairly safe, provided the ideal conditions for Christianity to spread<br />Wrote influential letters, called Epistles, to groups of believers. Paul stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people’s sins. Ultimately, he wrote much of the New Testament<br />Declared that Christianity should welcome all converts, Jew or Gentile (non-Jew) which enabled Christianity to become more than just a local religion.<br />
  40. 40. Jewish Rebellion<br />In A.D. 66, a band of Jews rebelled against Rome. In A.D. 70, the Romans stormed Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple complex. <br />All that remained was a western portion of the wall, which today is the holiest Jewish shrine. About a half million Jews were killed in the course of this rebellion.<br />The Jews made another attempt to break free of the Romans in A.D. 132. Another half-million Jews died in three years of fighting. <br />Although the Jewish religion survived, the Jewish political state ceased to exist for more than 1,800 years. Most Jews were driven from their homeland into exile. This dispersal of the Jews is called the Diaspora.<br />
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  42. 42. Persecution<br />Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule. <br />By the second century, as the Pax Romana began to crumble, persecution of the Christians intensified. Thousands were crucified, burned, or killed by wild animals in the circus arenas.<br />
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  49. 49. "'O;I1,e that you are writing an essay describing the religious culture of Hinduism. Place an R<br />to each relevant fact and an I next to each statement which would not be useful to supyour<br />essay. Justify your answer.<br /> <br />When people die their souls are reborn in new bodies through a process known as reincarnation.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />2. Hinduism teaches that all gods and living beings are representations of a Single, universal<br />spirit called Brahma.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />3. Hinduism represents a synthesis of Indian religious cultures, combining elements of both<br />Aryan and pre-Aryan religions.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />4. The Era of a Hundred Schools was one of the most creative periods for Chinese religious<br />philosophy.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />5. Confucius called for respect of traditional culture and and strict observance of the princip<br />les 6f order.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />6. Kalidasa's plays and poems capture the beauty and refinement of Gupta culture.<br />Explanation ___________________________ _<br />CHAPTER<br />
  50. 50. The Muslim World<br />Blue Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey<br />
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  54. 54. The Rise of Islam<br />When and how did trade become important?<br />What was the Hijrah?<br />What are the five duties of Muslims?<br />
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  56. 56. Angel Gabrielle visiting Muhammad<br />
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  58. 58. Week’s Agenda<br />Essay due Thursday<br />Two days watching, discussing “Inside Mecca”<br />Two days on computers creating a brochure about Muslim culture<br />

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