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  1. 1. Civilization<br />Mr. Taylor | World History | Chapter 2<br />
  2. 2. Neolithic Revolution<br />Neolithic Revolution: The major change in human life caused by the beginnings of farming (from food gathering to food producing) which took place in the Near East around ten thousand years ago and was accompanied by the appearance of a rudimentary from of beer.<br />A History of the World in Six Glasses<br />
  3. 3. Cereal Grains<br /><ul><li>Nourishment
  4. 4. Porridge, gruel
  5. 5. Payment/wages
  6. 6. Stored for months/years</li></li></ul><li>Cereal grains<br />Gets wet, turns sweet<br />Ferments<br />Part of religious fables<br />Storehouses became temples<br />Religious offerings, cause need for record keeping<br />Egypt: Strong disapprove of drunkenness<br />
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  8. 8. CITY-STATES IN MESOPOTAMIA<br />The earliest civilization in Asia rises in Mesopotamia and organizes into city-states.<br />
  9. 9. Geography: Fertile Crescent<br />Fertile Crescent — arc of land between Persian Gulf and Mediterranean<br />Includes Mesopotamia —“land between the rivers”<br />a fertile plain<br />Tigris and Euphrates rivers flood once a year, leaving rich soil.<br />
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  11. 11. Geography: Fertile Crescent<br />Environmental Challenges<br />3300 B.C.Sumerians begin farming southern Mesopotamia<br />Three disadvantages:<br />floods are unpredictable; sometimes no rain (ditches)<br />land offers no barriers to invasion (walls)<br />land has few natural resources; building materials scarce (trade)<br />
  12. 12. Sumerians<br />
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  14. 14. Babylon: Hammurabi<br />Babylonian Empire at peak during Hammurabi’s rule<br />Hammurabi’s Code<br />282 laws on all aspects of life; engraved in stone and made public<br />Set different punishments depending on social class, gender<br />Goal for government to take consistent responsibility for order, justice<br />
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  16. 16. THE CODE OF HAMMURABI<br />
  17. 17. PYRAMIDS ON THE NILE<br />Using mathematical knowledge and engineering skills, Egyptians build monuments to honor dead rulers<br />
  18. 18. The Geography of Egypt<br />The Gift of the Nile<br />Yearly flooding brings water and fertile black mud—silt<br />Farmers build irrigation system for wheat and barley crops<br />Protected from invasion<br />
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  20. 20. Egypt Unites<br />Pharaohs Rule as Gods<br />To the Egyptians, kings are gods; Egyptian god kings called pharaohs<br />Pharaohs control religion, government, army, well-being of kingdom<br />Government based on religious authority— theocracy<br />
  21. 21. Egypt<br />
  22. 22. PLANNED CITIES ON THE INDUS<br />The first Indian civilization builds well-planned cities on the banks of the Indus River.<br />
  23. 23. Geography of India<br />Environmental Challenges<br />Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can change course<br />Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods<br />Monsoons<br />Seasonal winds— monsoons —dominate India’s climate<br />Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring rain can cause flooding<br />Mountains to north, desert to east, protect Indus Valley from invasion<br />
  24. 24. Indus Valley Civilization<br />Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt<br />Planned cities<br />brick laid out on grid system<br />plumbing and sewage systems<br />Indus Valley called Harappan civilization after Harappa, a city<br />
  25. 25. RIVER DYNASTIESIN CHINA<br />Early rulers introduce ideas about government and society that shape Chinese civilization.<br />
  26. 26. The Geography of China<br />Barriers Isolate China<br />Yellow River in north, Yangtze in south<br />floods can devour whole villages<br />Geographic isolation means lack of trade; must be self-sufficient<br />