Theory of relativity — space and time are not constant
Make world seem more uncertain
New ideas about the mind
Claims human behavior not based on reason
Revolution in Science
Suffering caused by World War I leads many to doubt old beliefs Thinkers React to Uncertainties Existentialism: no universal meaning to life Surrealism: art movement that links dreams with real life Jazz:music that captures new freedom Art & Literature
Women take on new roles during World War I
right to vote
Automobile Airplanes • Lindbergh Radio Movies Technology
A Worldwide Depression An economic depression in the United States spreads throughout the world and lasts for a decade.
Unstable New Democracies
Financial Collapse A Flawed U.S. Economy • Wealth distributed unevenly • People too poor to buy goods • Factory owners cut back on production, lay off workers • Farmers produce more food than people can eat • Farmers cannot repay loans and lose their land • The stock market crashes
Fascism Rises in Europe In response to political turmoil and economic crises, Italy and Germany turn to totalitarian dictators.
Fascism Rises • Fascismis new, militant political movement • Emphasizes nationalism and loyalty to authoritarian leader • Italians want a leader who will take action • Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, promises to rescue Italy • Italian king puts Mussolini in charge
Fascism Rises • Adolf Hitler—obscure political figure in 1920s Germany • Nazism—German brand of fascism • Hitler believes that Germany needs lebensraum, or living space • Germans turn to Hitler when economy collapses
1. The 17th century was a period of great upheaval in Europe. The decline of feudalism, constant religious and territorial conflicts, and rebellions of overtaxed peasants led monarchs to seek absolute power. What political and social crises led to the rise of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s?
2. Rulers can increase their own power by limiting the power of other institutions in society— the Church, representative government, the nobility, and political opponents. Absolute monarchs consolidated their power by limiting the power of the nobility, establishing royal bureaucracies and taking personal control of the central government, and bringing the Church under state control. How did Fascist leaders increase their own power?
3. Absolute monarchs sought to control economic affairs by giving tax benefits to expand trade and manufacturing and by creating new bureaucracies to control economic life. How did Fascist leaders take command of their countries’ economies?
4. In an effort to control every aspect of society and the lives of citizens, absolute monarchs regulated religious worship, social gatherings, and other aspects of daily life. What steps did Fascist leaders take to control the lives of their citizens?
5. Absolute monarchs believed that the divine right of kings gave them authority to rule with unlimited power. What beliefs or principles did Fascist leaders use to justify their unlimited power?
Aggressors Invade Nations Germany, Italy, and Japan conquer other countries; the rest of the world does nothing to stop them.
Britain urges appeasement, a policy of giving in to aggression
Germany, Italy, and Japan—the Axis Powers— form an alliance
United States Follows an Isolationist Policy
Isolationism—avoidance of political ties with other countries
In 1935, Congress passes Neutrality Acts
Britain and France again choose Appeasement, let Hitler take Sudetenland
• But in 1939, Hitler still takes rest of Czechoslovakia • Mussolini takes Albania; Hitler demands part of Poland • Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact • In 1939, Stalin and Hitler pledge never to attack one another
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