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Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries Collection of beliefs that developed slowly No one founder with a single set of ideas Reincarnation: reborn to new lives A soul’s good and bad deeds, karma, determines course of new life Today, Hindus choose own path to moksha — a state of perfect understanding Why did Hinduism strengthenthe caste system?
The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Siddhartha Gautama: Founder Raised in isolation, wants to learn about world Seeks enlightenment (wisdom), escape human suffering Gains enlightenment by meditating, becomes the Buddha, the “enlightened one”
The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Buddha rejects caste system and multiple gods of Hinduism Preaches Four Noble Truths
The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Fourth Noble Truth is to follow the Eightfold path to achieve nirvana a perfect state of understanding a release from selfishness and pain a break from the chain of reincarnations
The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment Buddhism in India Spreads to other parts of Asia Never gains firm hold in India; Hinduism remains strong Trade and the Spread of Buddhism spreads by traders to: Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Sumatra China, Korea, Japan
The Search for a Promised Land Palestine was region on eastern shores of Mediterranean Hebrew people settled in Canaan, land promised to them by God Torah, first five books of Hebrew Bible, tells early history of Hebrews In Torah, God chose Abraham, a shepherd, to be father of Hebrew people Hebrews are monotheists: one God A mutual promise, covenant, is made between God and Abraham Abraham promises to obey God, God promises protection
Confucius and the Social Order End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government
Confucius and the Social Order Stresses developing good relationships, including family Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors Hopes to reform society by promoting good government
Confucian Ideas Thinks education can transform people Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism
Paul’s Mission Never met Jesus, at first was an enemy of Christianity Reportedly had a vision of Christ. Spent the rest of his life spreading and Christ’s teachings. PaxRomana, which made travel and the exchange of ideas fairly safe, provided the ideal conditions for Christianity to spread Wrote influential letters, called Epistles, to groups of believers. Paul stressed that Jesus was the son of God who died for people’s sins. Ultimately, he wrote much of the New Testament Declared that Christianity should welcome all converts, Jew or Gentile (non-Jew) which enabled Christianity to become more than just a local religion.
Jewish Rebellion In A.D. 66, a band of Jews rebelled against Rome. In A.D. 70, the Romans stormed Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple complex. All that remained was a western portion of the wall, which today is the holiest Jewish shrine. About a half million Jews were killed in the course of this rebellion. The Jews made another attempt to break free of the Romans in A.D. 132. Another half-million Jews died in three years of fighting. Although the Jewish religion survived, the Jewish political state ceased to exist for more than 1,800 years. Most Jews were driven from their homeland into exile. This dispersal of the Jews is called the Diaspora.
Persecution Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule. By the second century, as the PaxRomanabegan to crumble, persecution of the Christians intensified. Thousands were crucified, burned, or killed by wild animals in the circus arenas.