"Why is Africa (still) Poor?" by Ruth Haug (Professor, Development, UMB)
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"Why is Africa (still) Poor?" by Ruth Haug (Professor, Development, UMB)



Presentation for the seminar "Why is Africa (still) poor?", April 30, 2013, UMB, Norway.

Presentation for the seminar "Why is Africa (still) poor?", April 30, 2013, UMB, Norway.



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  • H: slavery, colonial times. Cultural: Extended family not individual drive. Economic: external/internal: corruption taxes, bad agreements, marked access. Political: structural adjustment (external), IMF, internal: bad governance. Population: 2 billion in 2050

"Why is Africa (still) Poor?" by Ruth Haug (Professor, Development, UMB) "Why is Africa (still) Poor?" by Ruth Haug (Professor, Development, UMB) Presentation Transcript

  • Why is Africa (still)poor?Professor Ruth HaugNoragric/UMBApril 2013
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noWhy is Africa (still) poor?HistoricalCulturalEconomicPoliticalViolent ConflictsClimate, NaturalresourcesPopulation increaseSocial/Gender equityStructuralTimingBad luckAfrica isnot poor.Africa isjust poorlymanagedArchitect Mumo Museva,Kenya3
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noGlobal Monitoring Reports 2012:(WB&IMF, 2012; UNDP/MDG, 2012)--MDG 1 on poverty is met.No of people living in extreme poverty & povertyrates fell in every developing region—includingAfrica. In the developing regions, the proportionof people living on less than $1.25 a day* from 47 % (1990) to 24 % (2008).*In Africa: 386 million poor (47%) 2008.--MDG 1 on hungerOnly 40 out of 90 countries are ontrack to reach the MDG 1 onhunger.4
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noThe State of Food Insecurity inthe World (FAO, 2012; UNDP 2012)870 mill people are undernourished(in terms of dietary energy supply) in theperiod 2010–12. 12.5 % of theglobal population, or one in eightpeople. Of these, 852 mill peoplelive in developing countries.More than one in four Africans -close to 218 million people - isundernourished5
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.no 6 Africa can feed the worldThe president of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Dr Kanayo Nwanze claims that, by focusing on farming, Africa has the potential to feed not only itself but the rest of the world (www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/jul/27/africa-potential-to-feed-world)•                                    
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noPoverty and Food Insecurity Underlying causes of food insecurity in Africa:– Misguided policies– Weak institutions– Market failure (UNDP, 2012) Structural causes and neglect of agro-investment indeveloping countries (Diouf, 2011)There is no such thing as anapolitical food problem. (Aamartya Sen)7
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noSecuring availability and affordability offood in Tanzania (Haug & Hella 2013)Poverty and food insecurity– Poverty 34% (37%)– Food insecurity 34% (44%?)Agricultural development– Low ag productivity– 80% employed in farmingFood and agriculture policy– Mix state control and market liberalism– Farmers pay the price of food security?– Trust, predictability and accountability8
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noFood dilemmas framing future food policy(Haug, 2011)Confusion around present/future food situationBalancing the food pricesGlobal food policy failure – national actionsPolitical problem – technical solutions”Food and Fredom” Democracy-the Arabic springThe African agriculture disasterFood relief and long term ag. DevelopmentAgro-investment and land grabbingClimate change“The Global Food Waste Scandal” (Tristram Stuart/Sofie price)9
  • NORWEGIANUNIVERSITYOFLIFESCIENCESwww.umb.noMaking a differenceRe-imagine development:Keep challenging our assumptionsand theories of change aboutdevelopment (IDS Bulletin, 2011; John Lennon, 1971)Uncertainty: Chaos and complexity–“Crisis” needed to initiate action?–Diverse responses needed10