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"The Role of Education and Women in Development" by Birgit Philipsen (Adventist Development & Relief Agency)
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"The Role of Education and Women in Development" by Birgit Philipsen (Adventist Development & Relief Agency)

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Presentation for the seminar "Why is Africa (still) poor?", April 30, 2013, UMB, Norway. …

Presentation for the seminar "Why is Africa (still) poor?", April 30, 2013, UMB, Norway.
http://africapoor.wordpress.com/

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  • 1. Amartya Sen,economist.philosopher andNobel Price Laureate(Development andFreedom, 1999)Poverty leads to anintolerable waste oftalent. Poverty isnot just a lack ofmoney; it is nothaving the capabilityto realize one’s fullpotential as ahuman being.
  • 2. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary EducationTarget 3: Ensure that by 2015, children every-where, boys and girls alike, will be able toComplete a full course of primary schoolingGoal 3: Promote Gender Equalityand Empower WomenTarget 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primaryand secondary education, preferably by 2005,and in all levels of education no later than 2015
  • 3. • None of the eight MDGs can be achieved withoutsustained investment in education. Education gives theskills and knowledge to improve health, livelihoods andpromote sound environmental practices. (UNESCO)• Education is a fundamental human right, to be respectedat all times. It is one of the most effective tools forachieving inclusive and sustainable economic growth andrecovery, reducing poverty, hunger and child labour,improving health, incomes and livelihoods, for promotingpeace, democracy and environmental awareness.Education empowers individuals with the knowledge,values and skills they need to make choices and shapetheir future.Oslo Declaration “Acting Together” Eighth Meeting of the High-LevelGroup on Education for All, 16 – 18 December 2008.
  • 4. • “Across Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a generalawareness that the last decade has witnessedunprecedented progress in the development ofeducation”Zulmira Rodrigues, Education Coordinator for Africa, ,UNESCO, Dakar• Never in African history has so much been achievedin education over such a short period of time andgovernments are legitimately proud of theirachievements. But the gap between the have andhave-nots in education remains too large.Sub-Saharan Africa 2012 Education for All Report, Paris,21 – 23 November 2012
  • 5. SCHOOL ENROLLMENT; PRIMARY (% NET) IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA (World Bank 2012)19672013CHART TYPE
  • 6. SCHOOL ENROLLMENT; PRIMARY; FEMALE (% GROSS) INSUB SAHARAN AFRICA (World Bank 2012)19672013CHART TYPE
  • 7. Despite the great achievements, very few countries in theSub-Saharan African region will reach the Education for AllGoals by the year 2015. (Zulmira Rodrigues)
  • 8. SCHOOL ENROLLMENT; SECONDARY (% GROSS) INSUB SAHARAN AFRICA (World Bank 2012)19672013CHART TYPE
  • 9. Global Action Week 2013 (April 21 - 27)Without adequate numbers ofprofessionally qualifiedteachers, including femaleteachers, who are deployed inthe right places, well-remunerated and motivated,adequately supported andproficient in local languages,we cannot offer the world’s(Africa’s) children qualityeducation.Without teachersa school is just abuildingAfrica needs 1 million teachersin order for every child to haveaccess to primary education
  • 10. UN Human Development Report 2011
  • 11. Dryland zones - Pastoralists, NomadsAreas of Conflict or War – Displaced People
  • 12. • New Country – Emerging from decades of war• 50% of population living below the poverty line• Very high maternal and under-five mortality rate• Insecurity and conflicts, 300,000 displaced peopleSouth Sudan
  • 13. Education Indicators• Second lowest net primary school enrolment rates in theworld (of 123 countries).• The last of 134 countries on secondary school enrolment• 1.3 million children of primary school-age out of school.• High drop-out rates, 436,000 pupils in grade I and just 22,000in the final year of secondary school• High grade repetition - 16% of students repeat grade I• Starting school late (reaching adolescence in early grades)• Girls account for two in every three out-of-school children• Less than 600 girls are enrolled in the last grade of secondaryschool (1/3 of the number of boys).
  • 14. Learning Infrastructure• Female teachers: 13% in primary, 10% in secondary(2012)• Student/teacher ratio - 52:1, in Jonglei 104:1• Student/qualified teacher ratio - 104:1• 1/3 of teachers have only a primary education• Only 16% of teachers have professional qualifications• Deficit of 30 – 40,000 teachers (only 1,100 graduating)to keep the 50:1 teacher/pupil ratio• Shortage of text books and classrooms:Permanent classrooms 3.7%; Semi-permanent23.9%; Roof only 8.5%: Open air 34%; Other 0.8%.
  • 15. Kapoeta North & Budi Counties – South Sudan
  • 16. RemotenessPoor RoadsRainsInsecurityEastern Equatoria,South SudanEducation CHALLENGES
  • 17. Pastoralism, illiterate/uneducated parents notunderstanding the importance of education
  • 18. PovertyGirls’Labour
  • 19. Lack of school buildings.Budi County classrooms: 17 permanent, 102 semi-permanentKapoeta North only 6 schools
  • 20. Long Distance to School – Need for Dormitories for Girls
  • 21. Lack of qualified teachers – low salaries• Kapoeta North - 31 male and 4 female teachers• Budi County - trained teachers: 47 male;untrained teachers: 341 male, 24 female
  • 22. Late delivery of food from WFP in 2012 - enrollment drop inKapoeta North: 2011 – 702 learners (463 boys, 239 girls2012 – 388 learners (304 boys, 84 girls
  • 23. Michale Lopuke Lotyam – Minister of Education Eastern Equatoria State
  • 24. • Education holds the key to South Sudan’sfuture. It is vital to poverty reduction and thedevelopment of strategies aims at building aninclusive, peaceful and resilient society. Withone of the world’s youngest populations,South Sudan needs education to create jobsand strengthen livelihoods. And withoutexpanded opportunities for schooling, therewill be no progress toward gender equity.Accelerating Progress to 2015 – South Sudan A report series to theUN Special Envoy for Global Education, April 2013 Working Paper.
  • 25. Holistic education - Access, Quality, InclusivenessAdapted to local context - Access to jobs & incomeAccess to Global Market
  • 26. Girls/WomenPotential
  • 27. Rights, equal participation in decision-making
  • 28. Health issues:Water/sanitation/HygieneDe-wormingVaccines, bed netsFood, supplements (iron,iodine, vitamins)
  • 29. «Past generations have developed only some of the potential ofsome of our children. We can be the first generation to realizeall of the potential of all of the world’s young people througheducation.»Gordon Brown,UN Special Envoyfor Global EducationEvery year of schoolAttendance raisesWages of 4– 8 %

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