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Moss to ferns
 

Moss to ferns

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    Moss to ferns Moss to ferns Presentation Transcript

    • Nonvascular & Simple Vascular Plants Mosses to Ferns 1
    • Seedless Nonvascular Plants Spore Capsules Moss 2
    • Divisions • Bryophyta – Moss • Hepatophyta – liverworts • Anthocerophyta - hornworts 3
    • Bryophytes 4
    • Characteristics • Includes liverworts, hornworts, and mosses • Lack vascular tissue (xylem & phloem) to carry water and food • Go through Alternation of generations (sporophyte & gametophyte stage) • Gametophyte is dominant stage • Reproduce by spores 5
    • Division - Bryophyta Sporophytes Gametophytes 6
    • Mosses • Division Bryophyta • Small, nonvascular plants • NO true roots, stems, or leaves • Grow in moist areas (brick walls, as thick mats on the forest floor, on the sides of trees) Moss gametophytes 7
    • Mosses • Some can survive short dry spells • Must grow close together for their life cycle • H2O moves by diffusion from cell to cell • Sperm must swim to egg through drops of water Moss growing on Moist tree trunk8
    • Mosses • Have a outer waxy Cuticle to prevent water loss • Have root like Rhizoids to anchor the plant, but NOT absorb water • Leaf like gametophyte supports sporophyte with spore capsule 9
    • Sphagnum Moss • Known for its moisture holding capacity • Absorbs 20 times its weight in water • Used by florists to keep plant roots moist 10
    • Uses for Moss Plants • Help decompose dead wood • Serve as pioneer plants on bare rock or ground • Help prevent erosion • Provide shelter for insects & small animals • Used as nesting material by birds • Peat moss is burned as fuel 11
    • Asexual Reproduction in Moss • May occur by Fragmentation (pieces of gametophyte break off & form new moss plants • May occur by Gemmae (tiny cup shaped structures on gametophytes) • Rain drops separate gemmae from the parent plant so they spread & form new moss plants 12
    • Sexual Reproduction in Moss • Moss alternate between a dominant haploid (1n) Gametophyte and a diploid (2n) Sporophyte • Gametophytes produce gametes (eggs & sperm) containing half the chromosome number • Sporophytes have a complete set of chromosomes & produces spores by meiosis 13
    • Sexual Reproduction in Moss • The sporophyte is smaller & attached to the gametophyte • Sporophyte lacks chlorophyll & gets food from the gametophyte • Sporophyte has a long, slender stalk (setae) topped with a spore producing capsule setae Spore Capsule 14
    • Asexual Reproduction in Moss • The spore capsule is full of spores that must mature • Once mature, the spore cap (operculum) comes off releasing spores • Spores germinate (grow) when they land on moist soil 15
    • Sexual Reproduction in Moss • Gametes (eggs & sperm) are protected by a jacket of sterile cells called the Gametangia • Archegonium – female gametangia • Eggs are larger & immobile 16
    • Sexual Reproduction in Moss • Antheridia – male gametangia • Antheridia forms many sperm cells • Sperm cells capable of swimming to egg • Sperm follow a chemical trail released by the egg 17
    • Sexual Reproduction in Moss • Fertilized egg (zygote) undergoes mitosis to develop Sporophyte • Spore capsule of sporophyte makes haploid spores by meiosis • Spores germinate into juvenile plants called protonema • Protonema becomes the gametophyte 18
    • 19
    • Division - Hepatophyta 20
    • Liverworts • Nonvascular • Reproduce by spores • Alternation of generations with sporophyte attached to gametophyte • Green, leafy Gametophyte dominant 21
    • Liverworts • Need abundant water for fertilization • Grow on moist soil, rocks, or other moist surfaces • Reproduce asexually by gemmae or by growing new branches • Reproduce sexually by haploid spores Gemmae Cups Capsule 22
    • Division Anthocerophyta 23
    • Hornworts • Small, nonvascular bryophytes • Gametophyte leafy and dominant like liverworts • Archegonia & antheridia form inside the plant • Zygotes develop into long, horn-shaped Sporophytes Sporophytes Gametophytes 24
    • Hornworts • Horn-shaped Sporophyte capable of photosynthesis • Sporophyte attached to, but NOT as dependent on Gametophyte Sporophyte Gametophyte 25
    • Seedless Vascular Plants Spore Cases 26
    • Divisions • Psilophyta – Whisk ferns • Lycophyta – Club mosses • Sphenophyta – horsetails • Pterophyta - ferns 27
    • Characteristics • Have specialized transport or vascular tissues (xylem & phloem) to carry food & water • Have sporophyte & gametophyte stages (alternation of generations) • SPOROPHYTE is dominant • Reproduce by spores 28
    • Division - Psilophyta 29
    • Whisk Ferns • Have a photosynthetic, aerial forked stem • Looks like a small, green twiggy bush • Have TRUE stems, but NO leaves or roots • Only two living genera Stems with spore cases 30
    • Whisk Ferns • Have rootlike stems structures called Rhizomes to anchor (can’t absorb water) • May asexually reproduce from rhizomes • Sexually reproduce by spores made in Sporangia (spore cases on the stems) Sporangia 31
    • Division - Lycophyta Oldest living vascular plants 32
    • Club Moss • Commonly called ground pines • Bushy, tree like branches above, but unbranched at the base • Have deep growing root like Rhizomes • Live in moist woods and clearings • Small leaves with single unbranched vein Leaves 33
    • Club Moss • Sporophylls (spore cases) are found in the axils of leaves • Form cone shaped structures called Strobili • May be homosporous (make one type of spore) or heterosporous (make 2 types of spores) 34
    • Club Moss Spores • Genus Lycopodium is homosporous • Contain chemicals that explode & burn quickly • Yellowish powdery spores used in fireworks and explosives Spore Burning Lycopodium powder 35
    • Club Moss Sporophylls Strobili Sporophylls 36
    • Other Uses for Club Moss • Sometimes boiled in water to produce a medicinal tea or an eye wash • Ground pines, green all winter, are used in Christmas decorations • Ancestors of modern club mosses helped form coal during the carboniferous period 37
    • Division - Sphenophyta 38
    • Horsetails • Only one living (extant) species - Equisteum • Also called scouring rushes • Hollow, jointed Stems contain silica & were once used to scrub pots • Photosynthetic aerial stem • Underground Rhizomes 39
    • Horsetails • Reproduce by spores at the tips of branches • In prehistoric times, grew as tall as trees • Found in wetlands • Stems with sunken stomata to save water • Some spores have elaters, cells that act as moisture- sensitive springs, assisting spore dispersal Stem with a whorl (at each node) of branches and dark-tipped leaves 40
    • Uses for Horsetails • Use to fight plant fungi • Used in some mouthwashes to cure mouth ulcers • Used as diuretics to eliminate excess water (weight loss products) • Toxic to animals (sheep, cattle, horses) 41
    • Division - Pterophyta Ferns 42
    • Ferns • Largest group of extant (living) vascular plants • Wide range of habitats (terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal tree ferns, epiphytic) • Can asexually reproduce by Rhizomes (underground stems) Rhizome 43
    • Ferns • Dominant Sporophyte stage has true roots, stems, and leaves • Roots and stems underground • Leaves called fronds found above ground and attached to a stem like petiole Fronds 44
    • Ferns • Newly forming fronds called fiddleheads must uncurl • Spore cases called sori are found on the underside of fronds • Wind spreads spores that land on moist soil & germinate into a prothallus Prothallus 45
    • Ferns • The prothallus starts the Gametophyte stage • Gametophyte is heart shaped and short lived • Male antheridia & female archegonia grow on gametophyte • Sperm swims to egg to fertilize Prothallus Archegonia (eggs) Antheridia Sperm 46
    • Parts of the Fern Sporophyte 47
    • 48
    • Uses for Ferns • Help prevent erosion • Fiddleheads are eaten as food • Ornamental plants for yards and homes • Helped form coal deposits millions of years ago 49
    • 50