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EarthCheck Factsheet compilation
 

EarthCheck Factsheet compilation

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    EarthCheck Factsheet compilation EarthCheck Factsheet compilation Document Transcript

    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, Egyptrecently upgraded its buildingmanagement system (BMS) to improvethe monitoring and scheduling of its air-conditioning system. The BMSautomatically operates the air-conditioning system based on the real-time cooling demand to achieve greaterenergy efficiency. Improved monitoringalso alerts staff to abnormalities in thesystem’s operation saving both time andresources that would have been spenthad the problem gone unnoticed.Improving Efficiencyand reducing emissionsConcern over the potential negativeConcern over the potential negativeConcern over the potential negativeConcern over the potential negativeimpacts of greenhimpacts of greenhimpacts of greenhimpacts of greenhouse gas (GHG)ouse gas (GHG)ouse gas (GHG)ouse gas (GHG)emissions has leemissions has leemissions has leemissions has led a number ofd a number ofd a number ofd a number ofgovernment and businesses to startgovernment and businesses to startgovernment and businesses to startgovernment and businesses to startimplementing emission reductionimplementing emission reductionimplementing emission reductionimplementing emission reductionstrategies. For many businesses thisstrategies. For many businesses thisstrategies. For many businesses thisstrategies. For many businesses thiscocococoncern to make a conscious effort toncern to make a conscious effort toncern to make a conscious effort toncern to make a conscious effort tominimise GHG emissions stems fromminimise GHG emissions stems fromminimise GHG emissions stems fromminimise GHG emissions stems fromcurrent or proposed regulations, acurrent or proposed regulations, acurrent or proposed regulations, acurrent or proposed regulations, apersonal sense of responsibility orpersonal sense of responsibility orpersonal sense of responsibility orpersonal sense of responsibility orcustomer expectations. By following ancustomer expectations. By following ancustomer expectations. By following ancustomer expectations. By following anecoecoecoeco----efficiency process, strategic decisionsefficiency process, strategic decisionsefficiency process, strategic decisionsefficiency process, strategic decisionscan be made about how to go abocan be made about how to go abocan be made about how to go abocan be made about how to go aboututututreducing emissionsreducing emissionsreducing emissionsreducing emissions....GHG Terminology:Greenhouse gases (GHG)Greenhouse gases (GHG)Greenhouse gases (GHG)Greenhouse gases (GHG) are gases thattrap heat in the atmosphere, similar to theway a greenhouse works, and are claimed tobe major contributors to climate change.There are numerous GHG’s, however, thethree main gases of concern to tourismbusinesses include carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Themain activities in tourism operations thatgenerate GHG emissions are the use ofenergy and generation of organic wastes andwastewater. Tourism operations alsoindirectly contribute to the generation ofGHG emissions from the manufacturing ofproducts they consume and the services theyoutsource.Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2----e):e):e):e):Greenhouse gases are commonly referred tocollectively as ‘carbon emissions’ andcalculated in terms of CO2 equivalents (CO2-e). CO2 provides a reference gas to allowcomparisons between the relative globalwarming potential (GWP) of the differentgreenhouse gases. See Table 1 for the relativeGWP’s of the three main greenhouse gases.Table 1:Table 1:Table 1:Table 1: GGGGlobal warming potentiallobal warming potentiallobal warming potentiallobal warming potential ofofofofgreenhouse gasesgreenhouse gasesgreenhouse gasesgreenhouse gasesGreenhousegasChemicalformulaGlobalWarmingPotentialCarbon dioxide CO2 1Methane CH4 21Nitrous Oxide N2O 310Carbon footprint:Carbon footprint:Carbon footprint:Carbon footprint: The carbon footprint of abusiness refers to the total quantity ofgreenhouse gas emissions attributed to thebusinesses activities. This typically includes:• Scope 1 emissions: direct emissions fromthe combustion of fuels such as diesel,petrol, natural or liquefied petroleum gas(LPG), wood or from onsite wastewatertreatment• Scope 2 emissions: indirect emissionsgenerally from the use of electricitygenerated off-site• Scope 3 emissions: indirect emissionsfrom goods and services such asemissions from disposal of organicwastes or emissions from the productionof goods and services consumed by thebusinessCarbon offsets:Carbon offsets:Carbon offsets:Carbon offsets: are a means for companiesor individuals to reduce their net carbonemissions by investing in energy efficiency,GHG sequestration (capture) or low emissiontechnologies (such as renewable energies)with the aim of reducing overall GHGemissions.Carbon neutral:Carbon neutral:Carbon neutral:Carbon neutral: When a business becomescarbon neutral it means they have generallyoffset all their emissions and the balance ofcarbon emissions to carbon credits is equal.Managing your emissionsThe first and most effective way to reduceGHG emissions is to avoid generating themin the first place. The next options availableinvolve reducing emissions throughimproving energy efficiency, reducingdemand or switching to low GHG emittingenergy sources. Carbon offset strategiesshould be the final option investigated forreducing GHG emissions. Use the followingas a guide to managing energy consumptionand emissions:1. Measure: How much and what type ofenergy are you consuming? What areyour total emissions? Where is energybeing consumed and why? Whatequipment is involved?2. Set objectives: What do you want toachieve? Financial savings? Energyreduction? Emissions reduction?3. Avoid: Can you avoid using energy andgenerating emissions?4. Reduce: Can you change your activities toreduce energy consumption andemissions?5. Switch: Can you switch to lessgreenhouse intensive energy sources?6. Sequester: What options are available tosequester GHG emissions?7. Assess: What are your residual GHGemissions?8. Offset: Can you offset your residual GHGemissions?1Energy ManagementEnergy ManagementEnergy ManagementEnergy Management ---- Measuring andMeasuring andMeasuring andMeasuring andmonitoringmonitoringmonitoringmonitoringActively monitoring and managing energyuse will help with understanding energy use,ensuring that energy saving initiatives areeffective and GHG emissions are minimised.Conduct a site survey to identify energyconsuming equipment and fixtures andinstall sub-meters on large energyconsuming equipment (such as boilers) orareas (such as conference rooms or kitchens).Establish an energy management systemincluding standard procedures formonitoring energy consumption and appointan energy manager to oversee the energymanagement system and coordinate energyreduction strategies.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 1111
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@ec3global.com www.earthcheck.orgImproving efficiency andreducing emissionsReplacing old inefficientequipment:Table 2 shows the relative benefits ofreplacing old inefficient motors andselecting high efficiency motors overstandard efficiency motors.Table 2Table 2Table 2Table 2 –––– Relative benefits ofRelative benefits ofRelative benefits ofRelative benefits of replacingreplacingreplacingreplacinginefficient equipmentinefficient equipmentinefficient equipmentinefficient equipmentOldmotorNew motor(Standard)New motor(Highefficiency)Motor rating (kW) 11 11 11Efficiency (%) 70 80 90Hours of operationper day14 14 14Cost of electricity($/MWh)100 100 100Annual operating cost 8,030 7,026 6,246Annual savings ($) - 1,004 1,784Purchase price ($) - 2,000 3,000Payback period(years)- 2.0 1.7Note: Individual circumstances will impact the relative costs,savings and payback periods. Request the above informationfrom suppliers when selecting new equipment and completea payback period analysis to determine the most viableoption.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Meliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã Bali,,,, Bali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaDeveloping an action plan1.1.1.1. Avoiding andAvoiding andAvoiding andAvoiding and reducing energy demandreducing energy demandreducing energy demandreducing energy demandAfter establishing an energy monitoringsystem, benchmarking energy consumptionand setting energy reduction targets, thenext step to reduce energy consumption andemissions is to identify energy efficiencyinitiatives and develop an action plan.Eliminating and reducing energy demandfrom equipment can be achieved through:• Removing unnecessary equipment andoptimising equipment capacity:− Correctly size equipment such asboilers, pumps, cooling towers, airconditioners, fans and motors to theload requirement− Install multiple smaller pieces ofequipment (such as pumps, fans andmotors) that can switch on and offdepending on demand rather thanoperating larger equipment at partloads• Reducing the load on equipment bymatching output to demand:− Turn air conditioning down duringwinter and up during summer− Reduce the temperature of your hotwater system− Implement control sequencing ofequipment to optimise efficiency andprevent system overload− Reduce water or gas pressure wherepossible• Replacing or retrofitting old inefficientequipment:− Install variable speed drives ormultiple speed motors− Replace old equipment with newhigh efficiency equipment− Consider cogeneration systems tocollect waste heat for reuse− Install insulation on hot water pipesand air conditioning ducts• Reducing operational hours ofequipment:− Switch off lights, televisions, printersand computers when not in use− Install sensors or timers on lighting− Install electronic room keys thatswitch off power to guest roomswhen removed− Reduce the hours of operation offountains, spas and water features• Specifying standard equipmentoperation and procedures:− Monitor pressures, temperatures,speeds and flow rates of equipmentsuch as boilers, fans, cooling towers,refrigeration systems, ovens, cookersand pumps to ensure they are withinpredetermined limits− Establish standard procedures andtrain staff to implement these. Forexample, food preparation: closing ofcool room doors, organisation offunctions: air conditioning turned offhalf an hour before guests leave,pool: duration of filtering• Maintaining good housekeeping andregular inspection of equipment:− Checking for water, air or gas leaks− Checking insulation on piping andducts are not degraded− Checking refrigeration seals− Regular servicing and maintenanceon all equipment according to themanufacturers recommendations• Reviewing building layout:− Remove heat producing equipmentfrom cold storage areas− Size rooms (such as cold rooms)according to needs− Maintain sufficient air turnover andtemperature in utility rooms toprevent inefficient equipmentoperation− Specify building zones according toactivities and equipment demand sothat metering and monitoringprograms can target specific areasMonitoring energy use shouldtarget large consumers initially and worktowards becoming a comprehensiveenergy monitoring and managementsystem. Smart meters can provide real-time energy information and whenintegrated with a Building ManagementSystem (BMS) can provide effective energymonitoring and management control. Itmay be worth contracting an energyefficiency specialist to provide advice onenergy metering and energy efficiencyinitiatives. For more information on energymonitoring visit:Carbon trust:http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/cuthttp://www.carbontrust.co.uk/cuthttp://www.carbontrust.co.uk/cuthttp://www.carbontrust.co.uk/cut----carboncarboncarboncarbon----reducereducereducereduce----costs/calculate/energycosts/calculate/energycosts/calculate/energycosts/calculate/energy----meteringmeteringmeteringmetering----monitoring/pages/energymonitoring/pages/energymonitoring/pages/energymonitoring/pages/energy----meteringmeteringmeteringmetering----monitoring.aspmonitoring.aspmonitoring.aspmonitoring.aspxxxx, orUnited States Department of Energy:http:/http:/http:/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs//www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs//www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs//www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/mbpg.pdmbpg.pdmbpg.pdmbpg.pdffffMeliã Bali reviewed equipment use andstaff practices and implemented thefollowing initiatives:• Reduction in the operational hours ofthe fountain pump, exhaust fans andchiller pump• Switching off televisions rather thanleaving them on standby• Reducing the capacity of fountain andheat reclaim pump• Installing a variable speed drive on thecold water and chiller water pump• Reducing operational hours of thelaundry by 4 hours if occupancy ratesare less than 70%Reducing equipment operational hours,switching off televisions and optimisingequipment capacity had minimal upfrontcosts but reduced electricity consumptionby 631,146 kWh, resulting in over US$53,500in savings.Installation of the variable speed drive onthe cold water pump cost US$17,000 andsaved 126,000 kWh of electricity andUS$10,397. The payback period wasestimated at 1.6 years.In total, these initiatives have helpedIn total, these initiatives have helpedIn total, these initiatives have helpedIn total, these initiatives have helpedMeliã Bali reduce its energy consumptionMeliã Bali reduce its energy consumptionMeliã Bali reduce its energy consumptionMeliã Bali reduce its energy consumptionby 757,146 kWh and achieved overby 757,146 kWh and achieved overby 757,146 kWh and achieved overby 757,146 kWh and achieved overUS$63,949 in savings with a paybackUS$63,949 in savings with a paybackUS$63,949 in savings with a paybackUS$63,949 in savings with a paybackperiod of less than 1 year.period of less than 1 year.period of less than 1 year.period of less than 1 year.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@ec3global.com www.earthcheck.orgImproving efficiency andreducing emissionsMeliã Bali in Bali, Indonesia installed adual gas/oil burner on its boiler toimprove its energy efficiency and allow forflexibility in fuel use. The burner allowsthe resort to use gas, a more efficientburning fuel, with the option to also selectthe most economically appropriate fuel.The dual burner cost US$41,000 and isestimated to save US$101,233.84 with apayback period of 4.5 months.2.2.2.2. Switching to low emisSwitching to low emisSwitching to low emisSwitching to low emission energysion energysion energysion energysourcessourcessourcessourcesGreenhouse gas emissions from energyconsumption are usually highest for non-renewable energy sources such as electricitygenerated from coal. By utilising alternativeenergy sources, significant reductions ingreenhouse gas emissions can be made.More sustainable energy sources can beintegrated into business operations through:• Utilising alternative energy sourcesonsite such as renewable powerinstallations (solar, wind, wave, waste orhydro) or fuel switching (using naturalgas or biofuels instead of coal)• Purchasing green power from offsiteelectricity providersOnsite alternative energy sourcesOnsite alternative energy sourcesOnsite alternative energy sourcesOnsite alternative energy sourcesRenewable power installations: Tourismoperators can benefit from installingrenewable power systems throughoperational cost savings, improved healthand safety of employees and guests andimproved image within markets and the localcommunity. The most common renewableenergy systems in tourism operationsinclude:• Photovoltaic solar panels• Wind generators• Solar hot water systemsFuel switching: Fuel switching can helpreduce emissions by substituting highemission energy sources (such as coal) to lowemission energy sources such as natural gasor biofuel. Typical fuel switching applicationsinclude:• Substituting coal, oil or electricity fornatural gas in boilers and hot watersystems• Substituting petrol and diesel forbiodiesel, bioethanol or electricity intransport applications (cars, trucks andboats)• Substituting diesel, oil or electricity forbiodiesel or natural gas in motors andpumps• Substituting coal or electricity for naturalgas in stoves, ovens and cookers.Some fuel switching applications mayrequire equipment to be retrofitted to copewith the alternate fuel source.What is a low emission fuel?: Low emissionfuels include:• non-renewable fossil fuels (such asnatural gas) which produce loweremissions per unit of energy• renewable biofuels (such as biodiesel andbiogas) made from plant or animalproducts or generated from thedegradation of plant or animal wastes.CO2 emissions from biofuels areconsidered part of the natural short termcarbon cycle and are not considered inGHG emissions reportingTable 3 provides a comparison of energydensity and emissions from some commonlyused energy sources:Table 3Table 3Table 3Table 3: Relative emissions of: Relative emissions of: Relative emissions of: Relative emissions of variousvariousvariousvariousfuelsfuelsfuelsfuels2222FuelEnergydensityUnitsGHGemissions(kg CO2-e / GJ)Brown coal 10.2 GJ/t 93.1Black coal 27.0 GJ/t 88.4Gasoline 34.2 GJ/kL 67.1LPG 25.7 GJ/kL 59.9Natural gas39.3 x10-3GJ/m3 51.3Biogas*37.7 x10-3GJ/m3 4.8Bagasse* 9.6 GJ/t 1.5Dry wood* 16.2 GJ/t 1.3Biodiesel* 34.6 GJ/kL 0.3*BiofuelsPurchasing green powerPurchasing green powerPurchasing green powerPurchasing green powerIf utilising onsite alternative energy sourcesis not practical due to availability, space orfinancial limitations, purchasing green powerfrom external electricity providers may be amore feasible option.You can determine if your green powerprovider is appropriate by:• Researching the company: Reviewwebsites, request information materials,request to speak with other clients andask about current infrastructureinstallations and future proposeddevelopments• Contacting government agencies todetermine whether the provider isregistered and licensed as a green powerprovider• Looking for accredited ecolabels andreview the ecolabel standards todetermine if the label is relevant andappropriate• Shopping around and looking foralternative providers: Compare differentproviders based on price and the sourcesof power• Comparing existing and proposedcontractual arrangements: What extracosts will be involved with switching togreen power? Will there be differenttariffs and peak periods? Can aproportion of your power be sourcedfrom renewable energy and can this beadjusted at any time?Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Meliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã BaliBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaRETScreen Clean EnergyProject Analysis SoftwareNatural Resources Canada have developeda decision support tool which can be usedinternationally to evaluate renewableenergy production and savings, costs,emission reductions, financial viability andrisks for various types of renewable energyand energy efficient technologies3. Thesoftware is available free-of-charge onlineat:http://www.retscreen.net/ang/centre.php
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@ec3global.com www.earthcheck.orgImproving efficiency andreducing emissionsThe Sydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre on Darling Harbour, Australiaencourage exhibition organisers to takeup the offer of carbon offsetting theirevent. The greenhouse emissions arebased on the floor area used. Theemissions are offset via Country Energy’sGreen Power program.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Sydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, Australia3.3.3.3. Offsetting emissionsOffsetting emissionsOffsetting emissionsOffsetting emissionsIf you have minimised energy consumptionand maximised alternative energy sourcesand are looking to further reduce emissions,carbon offsets is another opportunity. Acarbon offset is an investment in a projectaimed at reducing or preventing carbonemissions or sequestering carbon from theatmosphere. Carbon offsets involvepurchasing ‘carbon credits’ to offset yourcarbon emissions. These ‘credits’ have beengenerated from a range of greenhouse gasmitigation projects such as:• Installing renewable energy systems• Biosequestration through tree planting• Capturing methane waste emissions• Improving energy efficiencyWhere to start?Where to start?Where to start?Where to start?Calculate your residual emissions: Aftereliminating and reducing your energy useand emissions as much as possible, the nextstep is to calculate your residual carbonemissions.• Start with identifying national standardsor guidelines for calculating andreporting GHG emissions. Use datacollected from your energy metering orbills and the methodologies and emissionfactors described in these standards tocalculate your GHG emissions.• If national standards are not available,review the IPCC and InternationalStandards – ISO14064 which detailscarbon footprinting, offsetting andreporting methodologies.• Decide on what level of assessment youwant to complete (i.e. Scope 1,2 or 3).• Offsetting companies will oftenundertake a carbon foot print as part oftheir service. See below for advice onselecting a reputable company.• Alternatively, Earthcheck provides aninternational carbon footprinting tool,which can be used to estimate GHGemissions from tourism operations.I know my carbon footprint, how do II know my carbon footprint, how do II know my carbon footprint, how do II know my carbon footprint, how do Ioffset?offset?offset?offset?A number of companies are available to helpoffset your emissions. Care must be taken toselect a reputable company and offsettingscheme. When selecting a company to usefor offsetting, consider:• Accreditation: Are they accredited at anational or international scale?• Verification: Is the scheme reviewed andverified by an independent and qualifiedthird party?• Transparency: Is information provided onhow the organisation offsets emissions?Is this in-line with your objectives forcarbon offsetting?• Cost implications: How much will it costto offset per tonne of CO2-e emissions?How does this compare to similaroffsetting schemes?• Consider offering carbon offsets as anoption to guests or patronsGreen Power DevelopmentGroupThe Green Power Development Group(GPDG) have developed a tool forassessing green power opportunities forEurope and the United States. This toolcan assist when analysing the costs andbenefits of switching to green power. Visitthe GPDG for more information and todownload the tool:http://www.thegreenpowergroup.org/ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences1EPA Victoria, 2009, Carbon Management,http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/climatehttp://www.epa.vic.gov.au/climatehttp://www.epa.vic.gov.au/climatehttp://www.epa.vic.gov.au/climate----change/carbonchange/carbonchange/carbonchange/carbon----management/default.aspmanagement/default.aspmanagement/default.aspmanagement/default.asp2Australian Government Department of ClimateChange, June 2009, National Greenhouse Accounts(NGA) Factors3Natural Resources Canada, 2009, RETScreen CleanEnergy Project Analysis Software4Assuming 4.2 tonnes of GHG emissions per car peryear (Source: Greenfleet, 2010, Technical Information,httphttphttphttp://www.greenfleet.com.au/Global/Researchers://www.greenfleet.com.au/Global/Researchers://www.greenfleet.com.au/Global/Researchers://www.greenfleet.com.au/Global/Researchers/Technical_information/index.aspx/Technical_information/index.aspx/Technical_information/index.aspx/Technical_information/index.aspx)The Alto Hotel in Melborne, Australia isparticularly concerned about the impactof its GHG emissions. To reduce theircarbon footprint the hotel firstlypurchases 100% of its electricity fromrenewable energy wind farms via themain grid, which makes up 66% of thesite’s total energy consumption.Greenpower reduces the Hotel’semissions by approximately 158.6 tonnesCO2 equivalent. That’s equivalent totaking approximately 38 cars off theroad4. Purchasing Greenpower costs theHotel 40% more than standard highemissions grid electricity.To offset the remaining gas and dieselemissions the Alto supports an emissionsreduction project in India that burnswaste agricultural products such as ricehusks to produce power, mitigatingpotential emissions while also providinga new source of income for the localcommunity.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:The Alto HotelThe Alto HotelThe Alto HotelThe Alto HotelMelbourne, AustraliaMelbourne, AustraliaMelbourne, AustraliaMelbourne, Australia
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Sydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaCentre, Darling Harbour, AustraliaThe Sydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre replaced eight hundred 500Whigh bay light fittings in the Centre’sexhibition halls with 400W bulbs whichwere then connected to a digital controlsystem. The control system provides fourlevels of standard light: 25%, 50%, 75%and 100% with each level providing acorresponding energy saving. TheCentre’s large Bayside Convention Roomhas also been fitted with a new lightingcontrol system that automatically adjustsaccording to the amount of natural lightavailable throughout the day.Efficient LightingImproving the efficiency of lighting can beImproving the efficiency of lighting can beImproving the efficiency of lighting can beImproving the efficiency of lighting can beone of the mostone of the mostone of the mostone of the most simplesimplesimplesimple andandandand cost effectivecost effectivecost effectivecost effectivestrategies for tourismstrategies for tourismstrategies for tourismstrategies for tourism operationsoperationsoperationsoperations seekingseekingseekingseekingto reduce energy consumption. The wideto reduce energy consumption. The wideto reduce energy consumption. The wideto reduce energy consumption. The widerange of lighting now available can makerange of lighting now available can makerange of lighting now available can makerange of lighting now available can makeselecting the best efselecting the best efselecting the best efselecting the best efficient lighting optionficient lighting optionficient lighting optionficient lighting optionfor yourfor yourfor yourfor your businessbusinessbusinessbusiness confusing. This factconfusing. This factconfusing. This factconfusing. This factsheet will help to provide usefulsheet will help to provide usefulsheet will help to provide usefulsheet will help to provide usefulinformation on different types of lightinginformation on different types of lightinginformation on different types of lightinginformation on different types of lightingandandandand tips ontips ontips ontips on how to balancehow to balancehow to balancehow to balance functionalityfunctionalityfunctionalityfunctionality,,,,cost and environmental considerations.cost and environmental considerations.cost and environmental considerations.cost and environmental considerations.Where to start?It is important that you understand thefundamentals of lighting so that you candiscuss lighting issues with suppliers,electricians and architects. It is alsoimportant to understand your sites lightingneeds. Lighting needs can be defined by thetasks being undertaken in a particular area.For example, different lighting levels will berequired for guest rooms, kitchens, officesand outdoor public spaces.The key lighting issues to consider include:• Lighting levels (task requirements,workplace health and safety concerns,aesthetics and guest comfort)• Costs (capital, operational and disposal)• Building regulationsIt is important to collaborate with a range ofstakeholders when reviewing facility lighting.Stakeholders might include:• Building/facility manager/engineer• Maintenance staff• Electrician• Environmental officer• Finance department• Procurement officerAfter deciding to investigate efficientlighting options conduct a site survey andcollect the following information:• Number, wattage and type of existinglighting fixtures• Operational hours and procedures• Current lighting levels, lighting levelrequirements and floor areaTalk to staff about lighting levelrequirements and current lighting adequacy.Consider purchasing an inexpensive lightmeter to help review lighting levels1.After conducting your site survey consideralternative lighting solutions. Identify short,medium and long term targets and considerlife cycle costs including purchase andinstallation costs, estimated operationalsavings and replacement and maintenancecosts.What opportunities are available toWhat opportunities are available toWhat opportunities are available toWhat opportunities are available toimprove lighting efficiency?improve lighting efficiency?improve lighting efficiency?improve lighting efficiency?There are four main areas for lightingimprovement. The levels do not imply anypreferred opportunities but rather the levelof investment and effort required toimplement2.Level 1: Reduce usageThe first opportunity to improve theefficiency of lighting systems should be toreduce the number of lights and theoperating hours of lighting. Investigate thefollowing opportunities:• Establish standard procedures forlighting operation. Request staff andguests switch off lighting when it is notrequired. Use staff meetings and visualreminders such as signs near lightswitches to remind staff and guests• Remove lighting from areas withexcessive lighting• Remove or reduce the operational hoursof night lighting not directed at a surface• Optimise use of lighting (for example, byreducing intensity of room lighting andproviding specific task lighting)Level 2: Change lampsAfter identifying opportunities to reduce thenumber and operating hours, opportunitiesto replace lights should be investigated.Replacing lights can be as simple as replacingexisting bulbs with ones of a reducedwattage (i.e. replacing 100W lights with 60Wlights) or by changing the type of lighting.Don’t be fooled by low capitalcosts!The small premium for purchasingefficient lighting can usually be offset byreduced costs across the life of theproducts.Level 1 Reduce usageLevel 2 Improve efficiencyLevel 3 Use lighting controlsLevel 4 Use natural lightingand design elementsLeast effort /investmentMosteffort/investmentEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 2222Simple tips for changing lightsOne simple opportunity for upgrading theefficiency of fluorescent lights is to replacehalophosphate fluorescents withtriphosphorous fluorescents which haveup to a 20% greater light output. Byincreasing light output it may be possibleto reduce the number of light fixtureswhilst achieving equivalent lighting levels.Other replacement opportunities include:• Replacing incandescent lights withcompact fluorescents or LEDs• Replacing fluorescent T12s or T8s withmore efficient T5s to achieve up to a30% reduction in energy use3• Replacing mercury vapour lamps withmetal halide or fluorescents
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient LightingDifferent types of lightingDifferent types of lightingDifferent types of lightingDifferent types of lightingThere are many different types of lightingavailable. Your existing infrastructure maydictate replacement opportunities, howeverif you are investing in a complete retrofit ornew design, it is worthwhile taking the timeto select the most efficient lighting available.Tasks being carried out in lighting areas willalso affect the appropriateness of certaintypes of lighting.The two main issues to consider whencomparing lighting systems include:• Quality of light• Energy consumption and costsNote: The following information should beused as a guide only. The lighting industry isconstantly undergoing change with new andmore efficient products being regularly madeavailable. The characteristics of availablelighting options will also vary by region andsupplier. Request the following informationfrom suppliers when comparing availablelighting options.Light output is measured in lumens whilstthe efficacy of lighting is measured as a ratioof lumens to Watts (lumens/W). Thismeasure gives an indication of how effectivethe system is at producing light per Watt ofpower. Table 1 provides examples of efficacyfor different lighting options.Table 1 Light efficacyTable 1 Light efficacyTable 1 Light efficacyTable 1 Light efficacyType of lightTypicalwattage(W)Efficacy4(lumens/Watt)Incandescent -Standard15-1,500 10-15Incandescent -Tungsten halogen10-2,000 15-20Fluorescent 8-36 55-105High IntensityDischarge (HID) -Mercury vapour40-1,000 45-50High IntensityDischarge (HID) -High pressure sodium35-180 85 - 105Low pressure sodium535-180 Up to 180Metal halide 35-3,500 60-80Light emitting diodes(LED)3-4.2 11-15Colour Rendering Index (CRI)Colour Rendering Index (CRI)Colour Rendering Index (CRI)Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is used todetermine the appropriateness of lighting tospecific spaces and tasks. CRI differentiateslighting based on the appearance ofstandard colours subject to specific lightingconditions. A CRI of 100 will not significantlyaffect colour rendering, however as the CRIdecreases, colour distortion increases6. CRIshould be considered when selecting lightingbased on task requirements of an area. SeeTable 2 for standard CRI values of commonlight sources. Similarly, colour temperaturerefers to the ‘feel’ of the light with standardincandescent lights providing a ‘warm’yellow feel whilst lighting with higher colourtemperature produce a ‘cool’ blue light. Referto Table 3 for information on typical colourtemperatures of different lights.Table 2Table 2Table 2Table 2 ---- Typical CRI values for commonlyTypical CRI values for commonlyTypical CRI values for commonlyTypical CRI values for commonlyused light sourcesused light sourcesused light sourcesused light sourcesType of lightColour rendering7(Ra)IncandescentStandard100Incandescent -Tungsten halogen100FluorescentHalo-phosphate 55-60Triphosphor and multi-phosphor 80-95Compact fluorescents 82-98High IntensityDischarge (HID) -Mercury vapour42-52High IntensityDischarge (HID) -High pressure sodium25Low pressure sodium N/AMetal halide 60-93Light emitting diodes(LED)Wide rangeTable 3Table 3Table 3Table 3 –––– Colour temperatureColour temperatureColour temperatureColour temperatureType of lightColour Temperature8(Kelvin)IncandescentStandard2,500-2,700Incandescent -Tungsten halogen3,000-3,400Fluorescent:Cool whiteIntermediate whiteWarm whiteCompact4,000-6,0003,5002,700-3,0002,700-6,000High IntensityDischarge (HID) -Mercury vapour3,300-3,800High IntensityDischarge (HID) -High pressure sodium2,000-3,000Low pressure sodium 1,800Metal halide 3,000-10,000LED Wide rangeMeliã Bali achieved energy savings of336,276 kWh by reducing the operationalhours of lighting and replacing inefficientlighting. Overall, the resort:1. Replaced 1000, 80W garden lampswith 23W energy saving lamps2. Replaced 1200, 50W spot lamps with1.5W LED lamps3. Replaced 291, 60W incandescentlamps with 11W PLC4. Halved the number of lights in its backofficeNot only did this save energy, butsignificant cost savings were achieved.With a total capital and installationWith a total capital and installationWith a total capital and installationWith a total capital and installationcost of US$39,000 and annual savingscost of US$39,000 and annual savingscost of US$39,000 and annual savingscost of US$39,000 and annual savingsof US$32,148, a payback period 14of US$32,148, a payback period 14of US$32,148, a payback period 14of US$32,148, a payback period 14months was estimatedmonths was estimatedmonths was estimatedmonths was estimated for theseinitiatives.SafetyIt is vital that health and safety concernsare taken into account when assessinglighting opportunities. Certain tasksrequire specific lighting levels, colourrendering and colour temperaturecharacteristics. Task specific lightingrequirements are often specified in termsof lux. Lux is a measure which relates lightoutput to the area requiring lighting. Luxis calculated as lumens/m2. Typicaloutdoor lux levels on a clear day are10,000 lumens/m2 whilst standard luxlevels for office work are around 500 lux9.Before removing or changing lights orreducing lighting levels review buildingcodes and regulations and assess thetasks being carried out in the lightingspace. For more information on taskspecific lighting levels review theIlluminating Engineering Society LightingHandbook; the standard lighting guide forlighting quality and quantity.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Meliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã BaliMeliã BaliBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, IndonesiaBali, Indonesia
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient LightingTable 4 provides some qualitativeinformation on typical capital and operatingcosts and an indication of the relativeaverage life of different lighting types.TableTableTableTable 4444: Cost considerations: Cost considerations: Cost considerations: Cost considerations10Type of lightCapitalcostRelativeoperatingcostsAveragelife(hours)Incandescent -StandardLow Very high ~1,000Incandescent -Tungsten halogenHigh High2,000-8,000Fluorescent tubes:Halo-phosphateTriphosphor andmulti-phosphorLowLowLowLow7,000-8,0008,000 -18,000CompactFluorescent (CFL)Low Low8,000-10,000High IntensityDischarge (HID) -Mercury vapourModerateLow/moderate8,000-12,000High IntensityDischarge (HID) -High pressuresodiumModerate/highLow12,000-30,000Low pressuresodiumModerate/highLow14,000-18,00011Metal halideModerate/highLow8,000-12,000Level 3: Use lighting controlsAutomatic control of lighting systems maybe a more feasible option than trying toencourage staff and guests to activelymanage lighting. Opportunities forautomated lighting control include:• Timers: Timers can be electromechanicalor electronic. They are used to limit theduration a light stays on for after beingswitched on, or they can be used to turnlights on and off at specified times• Occupancy detectors: are sensors thatswitch lighting on when occupants areidentified in a room. Three main types ofoccupancy detectors are available:− Passive infrared that sensemovement of a heat-emitting body− Ultrasonic that sense changes insound wave patterns− Hybrid passive infrared/ultrasonic13• Photosensors: work by sensing theavailability of light and adjusts thelighting levels according topredetermined requirements• Room key card switches: reduce lightinguse in guest rooms by switching poweroff when the key card is removed• Building Management System (BMS)control: allows for central control ofequipment within a building or business.If there is already a BMS in operation onsite, it may be possible to incorporatelighting into this system• Power reducers: reduce the overall powersupply to the lighting system. They canbe used on fluorescent lighting systemsto reduce power demand of the system.Care should be taken to ensure that apower reducer is compatible with thelighting system. These systems aregenerally only used in retrofitapplicationsTo improve the effectiveness of lightingcontrols businesses should consider efficientlighting initiatives based on lightingrequirements. This can be achieved by:• Implementing lighting ‘zones’ wherelighting for specific areas of differentfunctions are controlled separately.Typical zones include:− Facade and outdoor lighting− Public areas (pools, gyms, etc)− Restaurants and retail spaces− Lobby and reception− Guest rooms− Corridors− Bathrooms− Conference and meeting rooms• Providing individual light switches forareas with infrequent use or areas whichcommonly only require partial lightingThese separate areas may benefit from beingcontrolled independently. For example,facade and outdoor lighting could becontrolled by a timer or photosensor set toturn lights on at night and off in themorning, whilst corridor and stairwelllighting would benefit from occupancydetectors which only switch on when thespace is occupied.Level 4: Use natural lighting anddesign elementsUse of natural lighting can have significantbenefits in terms of reduced lighting energyconsumption and enhanced guest and staffcomfort. Incorporating natural light intobuildings and rooms is most effective in newdesign and retrofit applications. Some simpleopportunities to improve daylighteffectiveness include:• Installing skylights or open roofs• Installing windows that transmit visiblelight but absorb or reflect heat(depending on climate)• Brightening interior surfaces and usingdirect and indirect lighting incombination to reduce harsh contrasts14• Using daylight for general room lightingand incorporating task lighting forspecific tasksBallastsLamp efficiency may be restricted by thetype of ballast installed. Ballaststransform and control electrical power forfluorescent, high-intensity discharge andlow-pressure sodium lights. The efficiencyof ballast-lamp combinations needs to beconsidered when reviewing lightingoptions.There are three standard types of ballast;Magnetic (least efficient), Hybrid, andElectronic (most efficient). Electronicballasts can reduce electricityconsumption of lights by 10 to 15 % overthe use of magnetic ballasts12. Factors toconsider when determining effectivenessinclude:• Ballast factor – A factor indicating therelative light output of a particularlamp-ballast combination• Ballast efficacy factor (%/W)– A ratioof ballast factor to power• System efficacy (lumens/W)– ratio oflight output to power.References1US DOE, 2001, Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy,Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for FederalFacility Managers and Designers: 5.4 Lighting,2Adapted from UNEP, 2007, Saving for a Bright Future: Amanual for efficient lighting procurement in UN agencies3Carbon Trust, 2007, CTV021: Technology overview: Lighting:Bright ideas for more efficient illumination4Carbon Trust, 2007, CTV021: Technology overview: Lighting:Bright ideas for more efficient illumination5US DOE, 2008, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:Building and Technologies Program: Commercial buildings:Lighting and daylighting6US DOE, 2001, Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy,Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for FederalFacility Managers and Designers: 5.4 Lighting7Adapted from Lighting Industry Federation Limited, 2001,Lamp Guide and Carbon Trust, 2007, CTV021: Technologyoverview: Lighting: Bright ideas for more efficient illumination8Adapted from Lighting Industry Federation Limited, 2001,Lamp Guide and Carbon Trust, 2007, CTV021: Technologyoverview: Lighting: Bright ideas for more efficient illumination9The Engineering Toolbox, 2005, Illuminance – Recommendedlight levels, available at:http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/lighthttp://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/lighthttp://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/lighthttp://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/light----levellevellevellevel----roomsroomsroomsrooms----d_708.htmld_708.htmld_708.htmld_708.html10Adapted from Carbon Trust, 2007, CTV021 Technologyoverview: Lighting: Bright ideas for more efficient illumination11Natural Resources Canada, 2005, Lighting Reference Guide12US DOE, 2008, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:Building and Technologies Program: Commercial buildings:Lighting and daylighting13US DOE, 2008, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy:Building and Technologies Program: Commercial buildings:Lighting and daylighting14US DOE, 2001, Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy,Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:The Taj Residency HotelThe Taj Residency HotelThe Taj Residency HotelThe Taj Residency HotelBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaThe Taj ReThe Taj ReThe Taj ReThe Taj Residency Hotel increased thesidency Hotel increased thesidency Hotel increased thesidency Hotel increased theefficiency of its air conditioningefficiency of its air conditioningefficiency of its air conditioningefficiency of its air conditioningcompressor by 20% by replacing ancompressor by 20% by replacing ancompressor by 20% by replacing ancompressor by 20% by replacing anold reciprocating plant, which wasold reciprocating plant, which wasold reciprocating plant, which wasold reciprocating plant, which wascontinually cycling on and off, with acontinually cycling on and off, with acontinually cycling on and off, with acontinually cycling on and off, with anew screw compressor that operatesnew screw compressor that operatesnew screw compressor that operatesnew screw compressor that operatesmore efficiently at part loads.more efficiently at part loads.more efficiently at part loads.more efficiently at part loads.Other actions taken:Installing Variable Frequency Drivestarters on motors of the air handlingunit and chiller secondary pumps sothey can operate over many speeds asopposed to a single or two-speed motorstarter.Ensuring heat exchanged across the airconditioners condenser coils is efficientby de-scaling them regularly and closelymonitoring the levels of dissolved solidsin the chilled water.Heat absorbed by the air-conditioningrefrigerant is expelled to chilled waterfrom the cooling tower that flows overthe air conditioners condenser coils.Monitoring the temperature of chilledwater in and out of the condenser by theBuilding Management System, helpedto assess the load on the airconditioning plant.Replacing pumps used for airconditioning and building plumbingwith high efficiency pumps that adjusttheir performance (i.e. speed) withdemand saving about 250saving about 250saving about 250saving about 250----300 kWh300 kWh300 kWh300 kWhper day.per day.per day.per day.Efficient AirConditioningProviding clients with comfortable,Providing clients with comfortable,Providing clients with comfortable,Providing clients with comfortable,climate controlled facilities is anclimate controlled facilities is anclimate controlled facilities is anclimate controlled facilities is animportant feature of many tourismimportant feature of many tourismimportant feature of many tourismimportant feature of many tourismoperations. Air conditioning units andoperations. Air conditioning units andoperations. Air conditioning units andoperations. Air conditioning units andsystems are commonly used to achievesystems are commonly used to achievesystems are commonly used to achievesystems are commonly used to achievespace heating and cooling as well as tspace heating and cooling as well as tspace heating and cooling as well as tspace heating and cooling as well as toooocondition the air by removing dust andcondition the air by removing dust andcondition the air by removing dust andcondition the air by removing dust anddirt and adjusting the humidity. The use ofdirt and adjusting the humidity. The use ofdirt and adjusting the humidity. The use ofdirt and adjusting the humidity. The use ofair conditioners variesair conditioners variesair conditioners variesair conditioners varies significantlysignificantlysignificantlysignificantly withinwithinwithinwithinthe tourism sectorthe tourism sectorthe tourism sectorthe tourism sector and depends greatly onand depends greatly onand depends greatly onand depends greatly onclimateclimateclimateclimate andandandand for some sectors such asfor some sectors such asfor some sectors such asfor some sectors such ashotels, air conditioninghotels, air conditioninghotels, air conditioninghotels, air conditioning can contribute upcan contribute upcan contribute upcan contribute upto 5to 5to 5to 50% of their overall energy use0% of their overall energy use0% of their overall energy use0% of their overall energy use1111....How does an air conditionerwork?To understand how best to operate an airconditioning unit or system efficiently it isimportant to know how they work. Airconditioners use a refrigerant that absorbsheat (within evaporevaporevaporevaporator coilsator coilsator coilsator coils) from air in thespace needing to be cooled. The warmrefrigerant then flows to a compressorcompressorcompressorcompressor thatincreases the pressure of this warm gas. Thewarm, pressurised refrigerant then circulatesto the condenser coilscondenser coilscondenser coilscondenser coils where the pressure isreduced and the gas cools by releasing heatto the outside air or water flowing over thecondenser coils. The cooled refrigerant thenflows back to the evaporator where the cyclestarts again. In reverse cycle systems (alsoknown as heat pumps) the refrigerant cycle isreversed and the heat is extracted from theoutside air and released into the airconditioned space for heating purposes.Types of air conditioningsystemsThe components of air conditioning systemsare either housed in a single unitsingle unitsingle unitsingle unit that istypically installed into a wall or window thatopens to the outside or come as packaged orcentral systems. In a packaged split systempackaged split systempackaged split systempackaged split systemthe condenser and compressor are locatedoutside (to reduce the noise typically madeby single units) and have lines connectingthem to indoor evaporators. PackagedPackagedPackagedPackagedducted systemsducted systemsducted systemsducted systems are similar but have thecompressor, condenser and evaporatorlocated outside and air is simply ductedthroughout the building. Central plantCentral plantCentral plantCentral plantsystemssystemssystemssystems have multiple packaged units thatare usually housed in a dedicated room withan outside condenser that is air or watercooled (using cooling towers). Central plantsystems are typically used by large tourismoperations wanting 100 kW cooling capacityor more2.Is your air conditioning unit orsystem energy efficient?What is the energy efficiency rating ofWhat is the energy efficiency rating ofWhat is the energy efficiency rating ofWhat is the energy efficiency rating ofyour system?your system?your system?your system?While energy efficient air conditioning unitsor systems are typically more expensive topurchase, the energy savings generally give ashort payback period3. If your air conditioningsystem is over 10 years old the power savingsmade from replacing it with an energyefficient model is often highly cost effective.Most central and ductless air conditioningsystems will have an energy efficiency ratingcalculated by dividing the system’s cooling orheating output by its power consumptionthroughout the season and is based on yourcountries standard load and climate. This isknown as the Seasonal Energy EfficiencySeasonal Energy EfficiencySeasonal Energy EfficiencySeasonal Energy EfficiencyRatio (Ratio (Ratio (Ratio (SEER)SEER)SEER)SEER). Older systems often have aSEER of 6 or less while the minimum in mostcountries is now 13 or more. The SEER ofsystems can reach as high as 20 makingthem 3 times more efficient than oldermodels! Single units are rated by an EnergyEnergyEnergyEnergyEfficiency Ratio (EER)Efficiency Ratio (EER)Efficiency Ratio (EER)Efficiency Ratio (EER) which is calculated inthe same way as the SEER but on ‘peak days’(the hottest days specific to the country ofoperation). Again in most countries an EER of13 or more is desirable.Is your unit or system correctly sized andIs your unit or system correctly sized andIs your unit or system correctly sized andIs your unit or system correctly sized andlocated?located?located?located?Air conditioning service providers shouldalways perform a cooling or heat loadcalculation to determine proper sizing. Anundersized air conditioning system will beinefficient while an oversized system willcool or heat an area quickly but will thencycle on and off resulting in higher operatingand maintenance costs to add to the initialhigher capital costs.In determining the location of your unit orsystem is important to ensure:• Efficient condenser heat exchange byproviding adequate air flow and locatingcondenser coils in a cool, shaded area. AirEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 3333
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient Air ConditioningCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:The Sandals Regency La Toc GolfThe Sandals Regency La Toc GolfThe Sandals Regency La Toc GolfThe Sandals Regency La Toc GolfResort and Spa in St Lucia, West IndiesResort and Spa in St Lucia, West IndiesResort and Spa in St Lucia, West IndiesResort and Spa in St Lucia, West IndiesSandals Regency La Toc Golf ResortSandals Regency La Toc Golf ResortSandals Regency La Toc Golf ResortSandals Regency La Toc Golf Resortand Spa installed air curtains on theirand Spa installed air curtains on theirand Spa installed air curtains on theirand Spa installed air curtains on theirentertainment deentertainment deentertainment deentertainment desk, jewellery storesk, jewellery storesk, jewellery storesk, jewellery storeand boutique whose front doorsand boutique whose front doorsand boutique whose front doorsand boutique whose front doorsremain open constantly to attractremain open constantly to attractremain open constantly to attractremain open constantly to attractcustomers.customers.customers.customers.Actions taken:Air curtains are powered by a fan thatforces air from the top of the door to thebottom to create an invisible barrierthat prevents around 75-85% of airconditioned air exiting, if they are welldesigned and correctly installed. Theyalso have the additional benefits ofkeeping out dust and insects.4should be able to flow freely around thecondenser and not be obstructed.• Optimum temperature settings aremaintained by locating the thermostataway from heat sources such as windowsand providing adequate supply ducts forcool air and return ducts for warm air.• Heat loss is reduced by minimising pipingand ducts.• Internal and external noise is consideredand minimised.• Adequate space is provided formaintenance.Is your unit or system suitable for yourIs your unit or system suitable for yourIs your unit or system suitable for yourIs your unit or system suitable for youroperating conditions?operating conditions?operating conditions?operating conditions?It is important to consider air conditioningenergy efficiency under different operatingconditions. If your air conditioning systemwill be operating for long periods, duringwhich time the cooling or heatingrequirements (or load) will vary considerably,the system’s compressors should be able tooperate effectively at part loads. Sites withexisting compressors operating inefficientlyat part loads could investigate the viability ofreplacing the compressor or installing aVVVVariableariableariableariable SSSSpeedpeedpeedpeed DDDDriveriveriverive (VSD)(VSD)(VSD)(VSD) that will adjustthe compressor’s motor speed to continuallymatch the load.Are your air conditioning ducts insulatedAre your air conditioning ducts insulatedAre your air conditioning ducts insulatedAre your air conditioning ducts insulatedand not leaking air?and not leaking air?and not leaking air?and not leaking air?If your air conditioning ducts are located inceilings or basements which are not airconditioned, they may be at risk ofundetected air leaks, drawing in dust, pollenand losing heat or cool air through theirwalls. This combination of leaks and heatconduction losses means that a great deal ofyour air conditioning energy consumption isbeing wasted.Check for leaksCheck for leaksCheck for leaksCheck for leaks by visually inspecting ductconnections and piping for leaking air, water,rust, rips or breaks and connections or jointsthat have come apart. Feel aroundconnections and joints for cool air escaping.If you are concerned leaks may be significant,contract your service provider to conduct amore precise leak test using pressure and airflow monitoring to determine the size of anyleaks and their location.Insulate ductsInsulate ductsInsulate ductsInsulate ducts - existing poorly insulatedducts can be wrapped in duct wrap. Newerducts will often come with an R (resistance)insulation rating. In addition to savingenergy, insulation will help maintain aconstant temperature, reduce noise levelsand prevent condensation.Is your building designed to reduce theIs your building designed to reduce theIs your building designed to reduce theIs your building designed to reduce theloss of heated or cooled air and solar gain?loss of heated or cooled air and solar gain?loss of heated or cooled air and solar gain?loss of heated or cooled air and solar gain?While ventilation is important, windows anddoors can allow drafts into and air leaks outof, air conditioned areas increasing theamount of energy consumed for cooling orheating.Check for, and seal, any leaksCheck for, and seal, any leaksCheck for, and seal, any leaksCheck for, and seal, any leaks alongwindows and door frames using sealants,foam or rubber strips, brush strips, screw-onexternal doors or compression thresholdstrips (extruded aluminium section fittedwith a rubber seal). Seal floor gaps and don’tforget other room penetrations such asaround electrical outlets or mounted airconditioners that are externally mounted.Ensure seals are regularly maintained andnot degraded.Keep in mind some ventilation is importantto maintain sufficient air turn over for spacesto remove contaminants, odours, water andcarbon dioxide.Reduce building heat gain by:Reduce building heat gain by:Reduce building heat gain by:Reduce building heat gain by:• Retrofitting single pane windows withmultiple window panes that put a seal ofair or gas between the panes of glassacting as an insulator.• Covering the window with a reflectivepane or a transparent low-emissivity(low-e) coating that reflects heat whilestill allowing light to transfer throughthe glass.• Ensuring all windows have internalcurtains and blinds or external awningsto reflect sunlight and reduce solaringress into air conditioned spaces.• Installing air curtains or automaticclosing doors to minimise loss of cool airfrom areas that must be kept open orhave high traffic.• Investigating natural landscapingoptions to help reduce heat input byproviding shade. Try planting deciduoustrees or vines that will provide shadeduring summer while allowing light inthrough winter.• Installing roof, wall and floor insulationto help keep heat in during winter andprevent heat entering during summer.Insulation works in different ways withsome trapping air within their bulkystructure while others reflect radiantheat away.Are you operating your airconditioning unit or systemefficiently?Can you switch off your air conditioning inCan you switch off your air conditioning inCan you switch off your air conditioning inCan you switch off your air conditioning inareas that are not occupied?areas that are not occupied?areas that are not occupied?areas that are not occupied?Air conditioning left operating in areas not inuse is of concern for tourism operations,especially where guests have full operationalcontrol, which can result in systems beingleft running for prolonged periods of time,often with doors and windows left open.Some operators designate specific airairairairconditioning zonesconditioning zonesconditioning zonesconditioning zones whereby unoccupiedareas are ‘zoned off’. This can be achieved bytraining housekeeping stafftraining housekeeping stafftraining housekeeping stafftraining housekeeping staff and requestingguests to switch off air conditioning in roomsnot in use. Alternatively, automated systemscan be used that are linked to thermostatswhich can block the air flow to zoned areasand maintain corrects temperature inoccupied areas.Larger accommodation operations often usean automated Building ManagementBuilding ManagementBuilding ManagementBuilding ManagementSystem (BMS)System (BMS)System (BMS)System (BMS).... BMS’s can control guestrooms as well as common spaces such asoffices, restaurants and conference roomsthat that require a system to respond quicklyto a range of thermal comfort requirements.Did you know?Insulation is given an R-value or U-rating.The higher the R value the more resistantthe insulation is to heat flow. In somecases a U-rating may be used whichmeasures the transfer of heat through thematerial rather than the resistance toheat transfer.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient Air ConditioningBMS’s allow for full manipulation oftemperature settings and the operation of airconditioning from the reception desk. Thisgives the system a longer time to reachcomfortable conditions and eliminates falseset offs which can occur with sensors. MostBMS’s includes functions to track theoperation and conditions in rooms which canbe used to assist management withunderstanding the benefits of other changesor additions to room control.Other options include:• electronic access cardselectronic access cardselectronic access cardselectronic access cards for guest roomsthat automatically turn off the room’s airconditioning when guests exit a room.Energy can also be saved by shorteningthe time it takes for control circuits toturn it off after guests leave the room.• sensorssensorssensorssensors that sense heat (infrared),movement or carbon dioxide levelsemitted occupants to determine when tocycle air conditioning on and off.• balcony and door switchesbalcony and door switchesbalcony and door switchesbalcony and door switches totemporarily turn the air conditioning offwhen the door is open.AreAreAreAre air conditioning thermostats set forair conditioning thermostats set forair conditioning thermostats set forair conditioning thermostats set foroptimal energy savings?optimal energy savings?optimal energy savings?optimal energy savings?Thermostats set at 24–25oC in summer and17-19oC in winter provide optimal comfortand energy savings. Consider conductingtrials adjusting the thermostat settings onyour air conditioning system. For every 1oC(1.8F) decrease in the temperature set pointyou can make during winter it may bepossible to reduce energy use by 15%.Similarly in summer every 1ºC (1.8F) increasewill decrease energy use by 10%5.Remember if your system vents haveadjustable louvers, make sure they aredirected towards the ceiling when coolingand down towards the floor when heating ascool air falls and hot air rises.Do you turn off heat generatingDo you turn off heat generatingDo you turn off heat generatingDo you turn off heat generatingequipment when cooling?equipment when cooling?equipment when cooling?equipment when cooling?Remove any unnecessary heat generatingequipment from air conditioned spaces andturn off heat generating equipment andlighting, especially halogen down lights,when they are not needed to reduce coolingrequirements.Do you clean and maintain your airDo you clean and maintain your airDo you clean and maintain your airDo you clean and maintain your airconditioning systems?conditioning systems?conditioning systems?conditioning systems?As a working machine, air conditioningsystems require regular cleaning andmaintenance by a suitably qualified memberof staff or air conditioning service provider.Make sure the following maintenance iscarried out as a minimum:• clean and inspect the evaporators toensure efficient heat transfer• clean and inspect the condenser coils ofdirt and debris that may block air flow• clean and inspect fins and straighten ifnecessary• check refrigerant levels and recharge iflevels are low (leak detectors can be usedto locate a leak)• clean and inspect the air vents and airducts (seal any leaks)• check oil and belts of compressor motor• check the thermostats are recording thecorrect temperatures• check the system’s electric controlsequence and electric terminals6Cooling or heating alternativesEvaporative coolersEvaporative coolersEvaporative coolersEvaporative coolers draw outside airthrough a wet pad and then blow it througha building, forcing hot internal air outthrough vents or windows. They work betterin hot, dry climates as they add humidity tothe air. While they consume considerablymore water and require more maintenance,they can use four times less electricity tooperate7.CombineCombineCombineCombinedddd Heat and Power SystemsHeat and Power SystemsHeat and Power SystemsHeat and Power Systems (CHP)(CHP)(CHP)(CHP)produce power (usually electricity) and heatin a single operation. A CHP can produceelectricity on site using a wide range ofenergy streams such waste heat, solar,biogas, LPG, natural gas, coal and oil8. Heat isalso recovered from the hot exhaust gas(from fuel or biogas turbines) or steam (fromboiler driven steam turbines) and then usedfor heating water as well as for space heatingand cooling. This type of technology isespecially viable in areas where electricityrates are high but fuel costs low.FansFansFansFans create air movement which evaporatesmoisture from the skin providing a coolingeffect. Fans used in conjunction with airconditioning can decrease the temperatureas much as 4oC potentially resulting in lowerair conditioning requirements9.Natural ventilationNatural ventilationNatural ventilationNatural ventilation replaces warm air insidea building with cooler air from outside usingnatural differences in pressure andtemperature. Take advantage of naturalconvection flows and allow for the directflow of air. If natural ventilation is notsufficient due to the building’s design, aspector location warm air can be extracted usingexhaust fans so cooler outside air can thenbe drawn in through windows.Service providercontractsDiscuss the option of incorporating energyand water performance requirements intoyour service provider contracts. This willprovide an incentive to contractors toensure your system is operatingefficiently, saving you money andreducing your environmental impacts.ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences1Bohdanowicz P. and Martinac I., 2002, Thermal Comfort and EnergySaving in the Hotel Industryhttp://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/BohdanowiczMartinacKanshttp://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/BohdanowiczMartinacKanshttp://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/BohdanowiczMartinacKanshttp://www.greenthehotels.com/eng/BohdanowiczMartinacKansas2002.pdfas2002.pdfas2002.pdfas2002.pdf2SEAV, 2004, Refrigerated Air Conditioning Systemswww.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufacturingwww.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufacturingwww.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufacturingwww.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufacturing/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&resourcei/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&resourcei/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&resourcei/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&resourceid=21d=21d=21d=213Australian Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and theArts, 2007, Tips for Choosing an Efficient Air Conditionerwwwwwwwwwwww.energyrating.gov.au/acl.html.energyrating.gov.au/acl.html.energyrating.gov.au/acl.html.energyrating.gov.au/acl.html42VV, 2009, Why invest in an air curtain?, Accessed Jan 2010:http://www.2vv.cz/index.actuality.php?view=101http://www.2vv.cz/index.actuality.php?view=101http://www.2vv.cz/index.actuality.php?view=101http://www.2vv.cz/index.actuality.php?view=1015SEAV, 2004, HVAC Tipshttp://www.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufahttp://www.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufahttp://www.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufahttp://www.seav.vic.gov.au/manufacturing/sustainable_manufacturing/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&recturing/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&recturing/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&recturing/resource.asp?action=show_resource&resourcetype=2&resourceid=46sourceid=46sourceid=46sourceid=466US Department of Energy, 1999, Energy Efficient Air Conditioningwww.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/aircond/aircond.htmwww.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/aircond/aircond.htmwww.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/aircond/aircond.htmwww.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/housing/aircond/aircond.htm7California Energy Commission, 2006, Evaporative Cooling,www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/heating_cooling/evaporawww.consumerenergycenter.org/home/heating_cooling/evaporawww.consumerenergycenter.org/home/heating_cooling/evaporawww.consumerenergycenter.org/home/heating_cooling/evaporative.htmltive.htmltive.htmltive.html8Energy Conservation Systems, 2009, Greener Air Conditioninghttp://www.ecsaustralia.com/aircon.phphttp://www.ecsaustralia.com/aircon.phphttp://www.ecsaustralia.com/aircon.phphttp://www.ecsaustralia.com/aircon.php9Engineering Extension, 2001, Space Heating and Cooling,www.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/space/air.html#fanswww.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/space/air.html#fanswww.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/space/air.html#fanswww.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/space/air.html#fansCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe Alto HotelAlto HotelAlto HotelAlto Hotel,,,, Melbourne,Melbourne,Melbourne,Melbourne, AustraliaAustraliaAustraliaAustraliaThe Alto Hotel installed split system airThe Alto Hotel installed split system airThe Alto Hotel installed split system airThe Alto Hotel installed split system airconditioning unitsconditioning unitsconditioning unitsconditioning units inininin all guest rooms.all guest rooms.all guest rooms.all guest rooms.The units useThe units useThe units useThe units use inverterinverterinverterinverter and movementand movementand movementand movementssssensor technology.ensor technology.ensor technology.ensor technology. The invertorsThe invertorsThe invertorsThe invertorscontinually adjust the capacity of the aircontinually adjust the capacity of the aircontinually adjust the capacity of the aircontinually adjust the capacity of the airconditioning systems, rather than on/offconditioning systems, rather than on/offconditioning systems, rather than on/offconditioning systems, rather than on/offcontrol, making thecontrol, making thecontrol, making thecontrol, making the units 35% moreunits 35% moreunits 35% moreunits 35% moreefficient, andefficient, andefficient, andefficient, and movement sensors reducemovement sensors reducemovement sensors reducemovement sensors reducethe air conditioning cycles when there isthe air conditioning cycles when there isthe air conditioning cycles when there isthe air conditioning cycles when there isnononono----one in the roomone in the roomone in the roomone in the room....Other actions taken:Energy consumption for heating andcooling has also been reduced by:• Using layers of floor covering toimprove insulation including a 5mmlayer of recycled car tyres• Using heat reflection in glass doors• Double glazing 95% of all windows• Energy efficient compact fluorescent orLED light globes on 95% of lights• Using energy saving key-tags whichswitch off power to the room (and airconditioning) when unoccupied
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Melia Bali, IndonesiaMelia Bali, IndonesiaMelia Bali, IndonesiaMelia Bali, IndonesiaEfficient WaterHeatingMany larger tourism operators use boilersMany larger tourism operators use boilersMany larger tourism operators use boilersMany larger tourism operators use boilersto provide their site with hot water and into provide their site with hot water and into provide their site with hot water and into provide their site with hot water and insome cases to also provide space heatingsome cases to also provide space heatingsome cases to also provide space heatingsome cases to also provide space heatingvia a heat exchanger (such as a radiator)via a heat exchanger (such as a radiator)via a heat exchanger (such as a radiator)via a heat exchanger (such as a radiator)that transfers the heat in the hot water orthat transfers the heat in the hot water orthat transfers the heat in the hot water orthat transfers the heat in the hot water orsteam tosteam tosteam tosteam to the air. Smaller tourismthe air. Smaller tourismthe air. Smaller tourismthe air. Smaller tourismoperations will typically use storage wateroperations will typically use storage wateroperations will typically use storage wateroperations will typically use storage waterheaters which hold smaller amounts ofheaters which hold smaller amounts ofheaters which hold smaller amounts ofheaters which hold smaller amounts ofwater that are heated using electricity,water that are heated using electricity,water that are heated using electricity,water that are heated using electricity,natural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) ornatural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) ornatural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) ornatural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) orrenewable energy sources such as solar.renewable energy sources such as solar.renewable energy sources such as solar.renewable energy sources such as solar.Operations with restrictOperations with restrictOperations with restrictOperations with restricted space anded space anded space anded space andaccess may use instantaneous systems thataccess may use instantaneous systems thataccess may use instantaneous systems thataccess may use instantaneous systems thatheat water to one or several taps where itheat water to one or several taps where itheat water to one or several taps where itheat water to one or several taps where itis used. They typically operate on naturalis used. They typically operate on naturalis used. They typically operate on naturalis used. They typically operate on naturalgas or LPG but in some cases 3 phasegas or LPG but in some cases 3 phasegas or LPG but in some cases 3 phasegas or LPG but in some cases 3 phaseelectricity.electricity.electricity.electricity.Both boilers and hot water systems can wastea lot of water and energy if they are notoperated efficiently. This fact sheet provides alist of opportunities to help ensure your site’ssystem is operating as efficiently as possible.Before investigating efficient water heatingoptions, consider opportunities to reduceenergy consumption from water heating byreducing the quantity of hot water consumed.See Factsheet 6: Reducing water consumptionI which focuses on reducing waterconsumption, water efficient equipment andinstalling flow restrictors and low flowshower heads.Improving boiler efficiencyBoilers waste water, energy and chemicals ina number of ways, namely:1. BlowdownBlowdownBlowdownBlowdown - When a portion of water isexpended from the boiler to prevent thebuild-up of contaminants in thecirculating water which can causebiological growth, corrosion and scale.‘BlowdownBlowdownBlowdownBlowdown’ means more fresh ‘makemakemakemake----upupupup’water is consumed to replace the waterlost from the boiler.2. Poor combustion efficiencyPoor combustion efficiencyPoor combustion efficiencyPoor combustion efficiency - Boilers canconsume excessive amounts of energy ifthey do not convert their fuel into heatefficiently. This not only wastes energy(fuel) but also increases combustion gasemissions and unburnt fuel deposits(soot) on the inside surface of the boilertubes which act as an insulator, reducingheat transfer efficiency and allowing heatto escape.3. Distribution lossesDistribution lossesDistribution lossesDistribution losses - Some losses ofsteam or hot water will occur during thedistribution of steam through leaks, lackof insulation and incorrectly sized pipes.Reduce blowdownReduce blowdownReduce blowdownReduce blowdownInstall an automatic blowdownautomatic blowdownautomatic blowdownautomatic blowdown systeminstead of undertaking manual blowdowns atset time intervals. This may require theinstallation of a conductivity probe that canmeasure the salt level within the water andonly blowdown when the level exceeds a setvalue. Conductivity probes can reduce energyreduce energyreduce energyreduce energyconsumption by 2consumption by 2consumption by 2consumption by 2----5% and typic5% and typic5% and typic5% and typically have aally have aally have aally have apayback period of 1payback period of 1payback period of 1payback period of 1----3 years3 years3 years3 years1111....Reuse boiler blowdownReuse boiler blowdownReuse boiler blowdownReuse boiler blowdown water for otheractivities such as cleaning if the water qualityis appropriate to the application (i.e. salt andchemical concentrations must be compatiblewith the intended use).Install a blowdown heat recoveryblowdown heat recoveryblowdown heat recoveryblowdown heat recovery system torecover heat from the blowdown to preheatmake-up water. Blowdown heat recoverysystems consist of a heat exchanger and flashtank that drop the pressure of the blowdown,converting some of the blowdown into low-pressure steam which is sent back to theboiler while the remainder is sent to the heatexchanger. Heat recovery systems also limitthe discharge of hot liquids to sewer systemswhich is a concern for some local authorities.Reduce the amount of mains water requiredto replace blowdown by identifying suitablealternative water sourcesalternative water sourcesalternative water sourcesalternative water sources such as rainwater,condensate, recycled water or bore water.When assessing suitability of alternativewater supplies consider:• Water quality• Availability & variability of supply/ quality• Infrastructure requirements (pumps,pipes etc.)Improve combustion and heat transferImprove combustion and heat transferImprove combustion and heat transferImprove combustion and heat transferefficiencyefficiencyefficiencyefficiencyRegularly mRegularly mRegularly mRegularly monitoronitoronitoronitor flue temperaturesflue temperaturesflue temperaturesflue temperatures(chimney/exhaust). Many boilers lose 15-20%of their fuel energy input up the stack2. Anincrease in temperature usually means sootand scale are having an insulating effect andreducing the boilers efficiency. As a 5ºC rise influe temperature indicates a 1% efficiencyloss3, find out the optimum temperature, byreading the flue temperature immediatelyafter the boiler has been serviced and cleaned.If your boiler uses inline temperature sensors,make sure they are regularly calibrated andnot fouled.Monitor boiler flue gasesMonitor boiler flue gasesMonitor boiler flue gasesMonitor boiler flue gases for excess air tohelp reduce unnecessarily high fuelconsumption. Flue gas analysers are usuallyintegrated into the boiler. If not, considerpurchasing an analyser. Installing an oxygentrim system can help by adjusting the ratio ofair to fuel to optimize fuel combustion. Alsoundertake regular checks for air leaks toreduce excess air in the system.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 4444Scale and soot deposits prevent theefficient exchange of heat betweencombustion gases and water.Scale refers to the build-up of solidifiedcontaminants on the water side of theboiler.Soot refers to the build-up of solidifiedcombustion gases on the fuel side of theboiler.Melia Bali haMelia Bali haMelia Bali haMelia Bali hassss reducedreducedreducedreduced theirtheirtheirtheir energyenergyenergyenergyconsumption of fuel oil boilers by:consumption of fuel oil boilers by:consumption of fuel oil boilers by:consumption of fuel oil boilers by:1. Installing a dual gas/oil burner ontheir boiler to improve efficiency andallow for flexibility in fuel use. The. The. The. Thedual burner cost US$41,000 and isdual burner cost US$41,000 and isdual burner cost US$41,000 and isdual burner cost US$41,000 and isestimated to save US$101,234 withestimated to save US$101,234 withestimated to save US$101,234 withestimated to save US$101,234 witha payback period of 4.5 monthsa payback period of 4.5 monthsa payback period of 4.5 monthsa payback period of 4.5 months2. Increasing the frequency of fire tubecleaning from 6 to 3 monthly3. Installing a water softener to reducescale build up and improve heattransfer efficiency.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient Water HeatingReduce distribution lossesHeat losses in the distribution system can bereduced by removing redundant pipework.Ensure pipework is correctly sloped formaximum drainage and not over-sized aslarger surface areas lose heat, whileundersized pipes result in greater pressurewhich increases the probability of leaks.Regularly check the system for leaksRegularly check the system for leaksRegularly check the system for leaksRegularly check the system for leaksincluding the tank and pipework. Ensure allsteam traps are regularly maintained toensure they are opening and closingeffectively. Traps that remain closed becomewater logged which will increase heat loss,while traps that don’t close effectively losewater, heat and chemicals.Insulating boilers and steam linesInsulating boilers and steam linesInsulating boilers and steam linesInsulating boilers and steam lines cangreatly reduce heat loss. Insulation cantypically reduce heat loss by up to 90%5.Install condensate return linesInstall condensate return linesInstall condensate return linesInstall condensate return lines to capturecondensate to be returned to the boilerreducing water and energy consumption andthe amount of treatment chemicals required.Reduce pipeworkReduce pipeworkReduce pipeworkReduce pipework by ensuring the pipesbetween the tank and points of end use are asshort as possible to reduce heat loss when thewater is being distributed.Operation and maintenanceactions to improve efficiencyMake sure boilers are operated at theiroptimum working pressure and temperature.Operating boilers at lower pressure willreduce their efficiency. If lower pressures arerequired, instead of reducing the boileroperating pressure, consider installingpressure reducing valves at the end point ofuse rather than operating the boiler at lowerpressure. Ensure thermostats are not set toohigh causing the water to be heatedunnecessarily, wasting energy and costingmoney. Make sure however that it is not setso low that there is a risk of harmful bacteriagrowing in the tank.Only operate boilers as needed and start upboilers as late as possible and shut themdown as early as possible. If the boiler isoperating at times of low demand consider ifa smaller boiler or hot water storage systemcould operate during these hours.Retrofitting and replacing hotwater systemsAssess the efficiency of your current hot watersystem to determine whether retrofitting orreplacing the system would be economicallymore efficient. New, more efficient systemsmay be able to achieve significant annualsavings in fuel or electricity.If demand for hot water or steam at your siteis variable, consider installing an accumulatorwhich is an additional vessel filled withheated water. When there is a sudden peak indemand the pressure is reduced causing someof the water to immediately become flashsteam, thus protecting the boiler frominstantaneous loads. Alternatively, considerreplacing boilers with multiple de-centralisedboilers for part-load systems.Other retrofit/replacement options toimprove efficiency and reduce fuel costsinclude:• Retrofitting gas pilot lights withautomatic electronic ignition systems.• Replacing the system with an alternativesuch as solar assisted or biomass firedboilers, heat pumps or cogenerationsystems. Combined heat and powersystems are another alternative that use asingle source of fuel to produce bothelectrical and thermal energy.Alternatives to electric storagewater heatersEnergy intensive electric storage waterheaters tend to generate more greenhousegases than other types of water heaters asTable 1 highlights.Table 1 – A comparison of greenhouse gasemissions from different types of hot watersystems8:Type of systemGHG emissions over15 years (tonnes ofCO2 equivalents)250 litre electric hotwater system*60Electric heat pump 26Gas storage (LPG) 17Gas storage (Naturalgas)15Gas instantaneous(LPG)13Gas instantaneous(Natural gas)11Solar electric boosted 8Solar gas boosted 3*Assuming electricity sourced from mains powerderived predominantly from coal fired power stations.TipSoot has an insulating value five timesgreater than asbestos. Regularly clean andinspect boilers to prevent the build-up ofscale and soot. Scale that is 1.6mm cancause a fuel loss of 4%4. Heat transfer can beimproved by cleaning the boiler:• Scale on the water side often needsmechanical or acid cleaning. As this isoften very expensive and difficult,prevention through effective watertreatment and water analysis is oftena better alternative.• Soot from combustion gases areusually removed with brushes andvacuums but can be preventedthrough more efficient combustionand use of cleaner fuels.Annual Fuel Utilisation Efficiency (AFUE) isthe measure of how efficiently a boilerconverts input energy into heat energy.When deciding whether to replace a boiler,consider the payback period (i.e. thebalance between the cost of replacing theboiler and the estimated annual fuelsavings).For example, replacing a boiler with anestimated AFUE of 50% with an 80% AFUEboiler would provide approximately $37.50in savings for every $100 in fuel costs forthe same heat output7. If the currentannual fuel costs are $10,000 per year, thisequates to approximately $3,750 in fuelsavings. For a new boiler costing $15,000,the system will pay for itself within 4years.For steam at 700 kPa, a 1 m2 of uninsulatedsurface (approximately 2.5 m long, 125mmpipe) will lose approximately 0.225 GJthrough a 24-hour period, equating toapproximately 81 GJ per year of natural gasor 2 tonnes of fuel oil6. With a fuel cost of$12/GJ, insulation could save up to $350 infuel costs per metre of pipe.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgEfficient Water HeatingGasGasGasGasAlternatives include gas heaters that producearound one third the greenhouse gasemissions which may be an alternative forsites with limited space (they are usuallysmaller than electric systems) and access topiped natural gas. If town gas is not available,bottled LPG can be used but operating costswill usually be higher.Heat pumpsHeat pumpsHeat pumpsHeat pumpsHeat pumps absorb heat from the outside airusing a refrigerant liquid which is kept at atemperature lower than the outside airtemperature. The heated refrigerant is thencompressed into a hot vapour which can beused to heat water via a heat exchanger. Acompressor is required to compressor therefrigerant and subsequently these types ofsystems do make a noise similar to an air-conditioning unit. While they still consumeelectricity, this can be up to 40% less thanconventional electric hot water heating9.If your operation is located near anothersource of heat such as hot groundwater,bedrock, or even waste heat from nearbyprocesses or businesses, heat pumps can alsoutilise this heat. Unlike solar systems thesepumps do not require sunlight so they can belocated anywhere, including sitting on top ofexisting hot water systems inside buildings.SolarSolarSolarSolarThe viability of solar systems depends largelyon the climate and the site’s level and type ofhot water usage. Smaller operations may beable to meet all their hot water needs whileoperations using large amounts of hot watermay find solar pre-heaters that feed waterheated by the sun into a conventional heatermore suitable.Solar systems typically have an insulated tankeither located on the roof so they can usegravity rather than a pump to circulate wateror on the ground where they require a pumpbut are less visually intrusive and accessiblefor maintenance. There are two commontypes of solar collectors:• Flat plate collectorsFlat plate collectorsFlat plate collectorsFlat plate collectors consisting of coppertubes attached to a dark-coloured metalplate facing the sun; or• Evacuated tube collectorsEvacuated tube collectorsEvacuated tube collectorsEvacuated tube collectors consisting ofcopper tubes encased in two layers ofglass that contains a liquid that absorbsheat from the sun and then transfers thisheat to the water. The liquid is thenpumped back up to the roof. Because oftheir cylindrical nature they are exposedto the sun throughout the day makingthem good for areas with cold sunny days.Most systems have an electric or gas boosterfor periods of insufficient sunshine. Hugeadvances in the materials used to make solarheaters and technological advances usinglenses, mirrors or dye coated glass to focussunlight into a small beam to achieve higherefficiency should make solar a much moreefficient and costs effective alternative forwater heating in the near future.The Taj Residency Hotel in Bangalore,The Taj Residency Hotel in Bangalore,The Taj Residency Hotel in Bangalore,The Taj Residency Hotel in Bangalore,India installed a heat exchanger toIndia installed a heat exchanger toIndia installed a heat exchanger toIndia installed a heat exchanger torecover heat from the site’s airrecover heat from the site’s airrecover heat from the site’s airrecover heat from the site’s airconditioning system. The hotconditioning system. The hotconditioning system. The hotconditioning system. The hotrefrefrefrefrigerant is used to preheat waterrigerant is used to preheat waterrigerant is used to preheat waterrigerant is used to preheat waterused to feed its boiler. By mixing thisused to feed its boiler. By mixing thisused to feed its boiler. By mixing thisused to feed its boiler. By mixing thiswater with water preheated usingwater with water preheated usingwater with water preheated usingwater with water preheated usingenergy captured by 100 solar panels,energy captured by 100 solar panels,energy captured by 100 solar panels,energy captured by 100 solar panels,the hotel is able to increase thethe hotel is able to increase thethe hotel is able to increase thethe hotel is able to increase theboiler’s feed water from 440C toboiler’s feed water from 440C toboiler’s feed water from 440C toboiler’s feed water from 440C to700C. This equates to an energy700C. This equates to an energy700C. This equates to an energy700C. This equates to an energysaving of arosaving of arosaving of arosaving of around 2.22 MJ per hour orund 2.22 MJ per hour orund 2.22 MJ per hour orund 2.22 MJ per hour or52 L of fuel.52 L of fuel.52 L of fuel.52 L of fuel.Actions taken:Other initiatives undertaken by thehotel to reduce energy consumptioninclude:• Closely monitoring the consumptionof fuel in the boiler and comparereadings with the manufacturer’srecommendations. When fuelconsumption starts increasing, de-scaling of the water tube boiler isundertaken. Scale acts as insulationand reduces the boilers ability totransfer heat from the burning fuelto the water.• Automatic monitoring of fuel to airratios to ensure efficient fuelcombustion.• Recovering steam condensate fromthe steam boiler for use in the boilerfeed water saving not only energybut also water and chemicals.• Using ultra diesel for the boilerwhich has a lower sulphur contentto reduce carbon monoxideemissions and increase the boilerefficiencyReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences1Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center,February 2005, Pollution Prevention Technology ProfileConductivity Controls in Water Rinsing, Cooling Towers,and Boilerswww.pprc.org/pubs/technologies/conductivity.pdfwww.pprc.org/pubs/technologies/conductivity.pdfwww.pprc.org/pubs/technologies/conductivity.pdfwww.pprc.org/pubs/technologies/conductivity.pdf2Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria, 2002, Energy andGreenhouse Management Toolkit.3Muller, MR, Simek, M, Mak, J & Mitrovic, G., 2001,Modern industrial assessments: a training manual,version 2.0, Rutgers University, New Jersey.4US Department of Energy (US DOE), 2001, Green FederalFacilities An Energy, Environmental, and EconomicResource Guide for Federal Facility Managers & Designers- 5.2.1 Boilers, www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/29267----0.pdf0.pdf0.pdf0.pdf5US DOE, 2006, Energy tips – Steam, Steam tip sheet #2,http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/39306.pdfpdfs/39306.pdfpdfs/39306.pdfpdfs/39306.pdf6Sustainability Victoria, Energy Toolbox For GovernmentEnergy Managers, Steam Boiler Losses Information Sheet,http://www.energy-toolbox.vic.gov.au/information_sheets/steam_distribtoolbox.vic.gov.au/information_sheets/steam_distribtoolbox.vic.gov.au/information_sheets/steam_distribtoolbox.vic.gov.au/information_sheets/steam_distribution_efficiency/steam_boiler_losses_continued.htmlution_efficiency/steam_boiler_losses_continued.htmlution_efficiency/steam_boiler_losses_continued.htmlution_efficiency/steam_boiler_losses_continued.html7US DOE, no date, Space heating and cooling: Furnacesand boilers,http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12530ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12530ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12530ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=125308Adapted from Queensland Government EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Energy Wise Queensland Factsheet:Solar hot waterhttp://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p00399aa.pdfhttp://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p00399aa.pdfhttp://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p00399aa.pdfhttp://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p00399aa.pdf9DOE, no date, Space heating and cooling: Heat pumpsystems,http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heathttp://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12610ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12610ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12610ing_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12610Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe TajTajTajTaj ReReReResidencysidencysidencysidencyBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreBangalore
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgLeaks & Water MonitoringIn 2004,In 2004,In 2004,In 2004, SCEC launchedSCEC launchedSCEC launchedSCEC launched theirtheirtheirtheirsustainability programsustainability programsustainability programsustainability program after a groupafter a groupafter a groupafter a groupof staff members formof staff members formof staff members formof staff members formedededed aaaacommitteecommitteecommitteecommittee to see how they couldto see how they couldto see how they couldto see how they couldreduce the Centre’s environmentalreduce the Centre’s environmentalreduce the Centre’s environmentalreduce the Centre’s environmentalfootprintfootprintfootprintfootprint....Actions taken:A series of water-saving initiativeswere introduced as part of theprogram, including the installation ofeighteen water sub-meters to monitorwater consumption and leaks. Thecentre also installed waterless urinals,sensor taps, water efficient showerheads and over 165 low flush toilets.Outcome:Water consumption has reduced 47%Water consumption has reduced 47%Water consumption has reduced 47%Water consumption has reduced 47%with total swith total swith total swith total savings of 8.69 MLavings of 8.69 MLavings of 8.69 MLavings of 8.69 ML overthree years.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Sydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionCentCentCentCentre (SCEC), Australia.re (SCEC), Australia.re (SCEC), Australia.re (SCEC), Australia.Leaks and watermonitoringAll operations will inevitablyAll operations will inevitablyAll operations will inevitablyAll operations will inevitably experienceexperienceexperienceexperiencewater leaks ranging from large leaks orwater leaks ranging from large leaks orwater leaks ranging from large leaks orwater leaks ranging from large leaks orfaults that can lose large amounts offaults that can lose large amounts offaults that can lose large amounts offaults that can lose large amounts ofwater but are usually identified andwater but are usually identified andwater but are usually identified andwater but are usually identified andrepaired quickly through to subrepaired quickly through to subrepaired quickly through to subrepaired quickly through to sub----surfacesurfacesurfacesurfaceor smaller leaks that cor smaller leaks that cor smaller leaks that cor smaller leaks that can silently losean silently losean silently losean silently loseequally, or in some cases largerequally, or in some cases largerequally, or in some cases largerequally, or in some cases largerquantities, of water over long periods.quantities, of water over long periods.quantities, of water over long periods.quantities, of water over long periods.Leaks can also affect building structures andservices, be a health and safety concern ordetract from guest amenity. A proactiveLeaks Maintenance and Detection Programwill usually pay for itself in reduced waterproduction costs, additional pumping costsbecause of pressure drops in the pipe workand reduced future repair costs.Identify and prevent leaks andfaultsDevelop preventative maintenanceschedules for water using equipment,fixtures, hoses, pipe work and replace wornjoints, valves and washers. This mightinclude; taps, toilets, showers, coolingtowers, hoses, pools and spas, compressors,dishwashers, washing machines, sprinklersand irrigation systems.Incorporate visual leak inspections intoexisting maintenance, security or cleaningroutines. Inspections should be undertakenat least weekly and should include anyoverflow pipes (which should be madevisible), water holding tanks, exposed pipework, pumps and valves and water usingfixtures and appliances.Understand your water accounts. Knowinghow much water your operation typicallyconsumes in a week will help you identifyany unexplained fluctuations that may becaused by leaks. If your operation isseasonal, divide your water account by aunit such as number of guest nights ratherthan the number of days on the account toget a more accurate measure of waterconsumption.Regularly read and record your watermeters and consider installing sub-meterson high water consuming items such ascooling towers and pools and segregatingareas such as kitchens and guest rooms.This will alert you to any unexplained spikesin water consumption or drops in pressurefrom water leaking from pipe work. Largeroperations could consider attaching a datalogger to their meters that will recordcontinuous water consumptionelectronically and feed this into a BuildingManagement System (BMS).Carry out a night flow test by reading themeter when water using activities haveceased for the day and then again thefollowing morning before water consumingactivities commence again. If water use islimited to daytime operations there shouldbe nearly no consumption during the night.If the meter readings are not the same thismay be an indication of a sub-surface leakor some other sort of uncontrolled wateruse which should be investigated further.Operations who operate 24 hours a day orthose that suspect they have a sub-surfaceleak should consider using sonic leakdetection equipment (listening device) toidentify the source of the leak. Consult alicensed plumber or water efficiency expert.Recording leaks and faultsOnce identified, leaks should beimmediately flagged with a red ribbon andthe date and location recorded forimmediate repair.Educate staff and cleaners to report leaksdirectly to maintenance or management.Where suitable (e.g. rental holidayaccommodation) contact phones numbersshould be displayed so guests can reportany leaks or faults.Over time these records will help identify(and help support funding applicationsfor) problem areas that may require itemsto be replaced rather than continuouslyrepaired. Recording leaks will also helpwhen reviewing water use benchmarkingfor certification requirements.repair leaks and faultsToiletsToiletsToiletsToiletsIn a properly functioning toilet no watershould move from the cistern tank into thebowl, unless the toilet is being flushed.Test toilets you suspect are leaking byplacing a drop of food colouring in thecistern and seeing if the water is clear in thebowl without flushing after half an hour.The water will be leaking into the bowlthrough either the overflow pipe (leakingvalves) or the seating washer (rubber ring atbottom of the tank) and should be repairedimmediately. Also, check water andwastewater pipes connected to the toilets.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 5555Did You Know?A leak losing 3 drips a secondequates to a loss of 100 litres everyday if it is left unrepaired!1
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgLeaks & Water MonitoringPipes and equipmentPipes and equipmentPipes and equipmentPipes and equipmentWhile carrying out inspections listen out forleaks and look for dampness, rust marks orswelling, particularly on pipes, joins orequipment that is poorly maintained, wornor old.TapsTapsTapsTapsTaps leaking from the spouts is usually anindication of a worn valve washer (locatedunder the handle) that needs to be replaced.If the leak continues the valve seating mayalso need to be repaired.Taps leaking from the neck shaft is usuallyan indication that the o-ring and bodywasher needs to be replaced.Some taps will have ceramic discs instead ofvalve washers which if scratched can leakindicating the cartridge may need to bereplaced.ShowerShowerShowerShowerssssShowers leaking from the arm or neck arean indication that the sealing washers needto be replaced. In some cases the arm mayjust need to be tightened. Use pipe tape andthen tighten with a wrench.PoolsPoolsPoolsPoolsIf you suspect a leak, place a bucket with aweight in it in the pool and fill the bucket tothe same level as the pool. If the water lossis due to evaporation the level should dropat the same rate in the bucket and the pool.If the pool level drops more than the bucketthere is a leak. Increased chemical usage,excessive algae growth or air or dirt pulledinto the pump and blown into the pool mayalso be indications of a water loss problem.Check for cracking in the pool structure ortile work and leaks from surface pipe work,the filter or backwash valve. If the leakcannot be found it is possible to undertake apipe pressure test to confirm whether thereis a leak in the pipe work. Leaks can then belocated using different techniquesdepending on where the problem is. Sonicdetection is often used for sub-surface leaksor helium detectors if the soil conditions aresuch that noises can’t be made at the leaklocation. Other techniques used for leaks invisual areas include dyes, scuba diving andunderwater headphones for concrete poolsor electronic devices for leaks in vinyl liners.Cooling towersCooling towersCooling towersCooling towersIf water is being lost from the overflow pipecheck the valve on the make-up line is ableto close and seal.Make sure the ball float has not been settoo high or that the overflow pipe is notleaking. If there are multiple towers makesure the water levels are even or the waterwill flow to the lowest basins when thepump is turned off causing it to overflow.This is simply fixed by adjusting the ballfloats so the water levels are equal.If water is overflowing out of the basin,check that the overflow pipe is not blockedor that the inlet pipe has not beenaccidentally left on after cleaning.Did You Know?A dripping tap or shower can loseover two litres per hour, that’s about5 buckets a day!2Did You Know?A small trickle of water from thecistern can waste 25 000 litres a year!3References1North Carolina Department of Environment and NaturalResources, 2009, Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial,Industrial and Institutional Facilities, Accessed Dec 2009:http://www.p2pays.orhttp://www.p2pays.orhttp://www.p2pays.orhttp://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/00692.pdfg/ref/01/00692.pdfg/ref/01/00692.pdfg/ref/01/00692.pdf2Savewater Alliance, 2008, Savewater,http://www.turningwaterwise.com.au/pdfs/tourism/Motel_http://www.turningwaterwise.com.au/pdfs/tourism/Motel_http://www.turningwaterwise.com.au/pdfs/tourism/Motel_http://www.turningwaterwise.com.au/pdfs/tourism/Motel_Presentation_Savewater.pdfPresentation_Savewater.pdfPresentation_Savewater.pdfPresentation_Savewater.pdf3Fix-a-loo Water Saving Initiatives, Accessed Jan 2010:http://www.fixatap.com.au/store.jsp?item_number=FIXhttp://www.fixatap.com.au/store.jsp?item_number=FIXhttp://www.fixatap.com.au/store.jsp?item_number=FIXhttp://www.fixatap.com.au/store.jsp?item_number=FIX----AAAA----LOO 20LOO 20LOO 20LOO 20 Water 20Saving 20 Initiatives &action =viewWater 20Saving 20 Initiatives &action =viewWater 20Saving 20 Initiatives &action =viewWater 20Saving 20 Initiatives &action =view_product_product_product_productThe Sandals property is located on anThe Sandals property is located on anThe Sandals property is located on anThe Sandals property is located on anisland with limited water resources. Theisland with limited water resources. Theisland with limited water resources. Theisland with limited water resources. TheResort has three pools and nine whirlResort has three pools and nine whirlResort has three pools and nine whirlResort has three pools and nine whirlpools; 200 acres of gardens/ gopools; 200 acres of gardens/ gopools; 200 acres of gardens/ gopools; 200 acres of gardens/ golf courself courself courself courseand a need to reduce water consumptionand a need to reduce water consumptionand a need to reduce water consumptionand a need to reduce water consumptionby guests without compromising theby guests without compromising theby guests without compromising theby guests without compromising thequality of their experience.quality of their experience.quality of their experience.quality of their experience.Action taken:Monitoring of pool levels is carried out, inorder to identify any abnormalities inconsumption. Should the level of any poollevel fall by more than 1.25 cm in a day, it isclosely monitored and investigated, so as toidentify the location of any leaks.Sections of the pipeline are also sealed attwo ends and pressured tested with airusing a compressor at 20-30psi for 5-10minutes. If the pressure drops after thetime has elapsed then the leak’s locationhas been identified.Other water-saving initiatives undertakenby the resort include the Irrigating theresort’s expansive grounds after dark orearly morning, using recycled water fromthe resort’s secondary aerobic wastewatertreatment system.Guest rooms are fitted with low flow tapsand showers, along with low flush toilets.Outcome:Sandals has been using the EarthCheck toolto monitor its water consumption since2004. This has resulted in a reduction inreduction inreduction inreduction inwater use by 20%.water use by 20%.water use by 20%.water use by 20%.Case Study:Sandals Regency LaSandals Regency LaSandals Regency LaSandals Regency La Toc Golf ResortToc Golf ResortToc Golf ResortToc Golf Resortand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indies
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing Water Consumption:Bathrooms, Kitchens and LaundriesCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Melia Bali,Melia Bali,Melia Bali,Melia Bali, Nusa DuaNusa DuaNusa DuaNusa DuaIndonesiaIndonesiaIndonesiaIndonesiaMelia Bali Villas and Spa Resort wereable reduce the volume of waterconsumed by its water fixtures, such astaps and showers, by reducing theincoming mains water pressure from 3.8kg/cm2 to 2.7 kg/cm2. The cost to reducethe mains water pressure by 30% wasnegligible whilst it is estimated that ithas reduced water consumption by48,000 kL and saved over US$40,000saved over US$40,000saved over US$40,000saved over US$40,000annuallyannuallyannuallyannually....Reducing WaterConsumption (I)Bathrooms, KitchensBathrooms, KitchensBathrooms, KitchensBathrooms, Kitchensand Laundriesand Laundriesand Laundriesand LaundriesThere are many areasThere are many areasThere are many areasThere are many areas withinwithinwithinwithin a tourisma tourisma tourisma tourismoperationoperationoperationoperation that consumethat consumethat consumethat consumessss water. This factwater. This factwater. This factwater. This factsheet focuses onsheet focuses onsheet focuses onsheet focuses on how you canhow you canhow you canhow you can reducreducreducreduceeeewater consumption in facilities commonwater consumption in facilities commonwater consumption in facilities commonwater consumption in facilities commontotototo manymanymanymany tourismtourismtourismtourism operationsoperationsoperationsoperations susususuch asch asch asch asbathrooms, kitchens and laundries.bathrooms, kitchens and laundries.bathrooms, kitchens and laundries.bathrooms, kitchens and laundries.Opportunities to reduce water use rangeOpportunities to reduce water use rangeOpportunities to reduce water use rangeOpportunities to reduce water use rangefrom simple changes to procedures, tofrom simple changes to procedures, tofrom simple changes to procedures, tofrom simple changes to procedures, toretrofitting old inefficient systems orretrofitting old inefficient systems orretrofitting old inefficient systems orretrofitting old inefficient systems orinstalling new water efficient systems.installing new water efficient systems.installing new water efficient systems.installing new water efficient systems.General cleaning andmaintenanceCleaning and maintenance is one issuewhich needs to be addressed across allaspects of an organisation. Some simpleopportunities exist to reduce water use incleaning, these include:• Establishing procedures that specifychemical and water volumes to be used(or install automatic cleaning chemicaldispensers) and dry cleaning with abroom before using a mop and bucket• Requesting staff to minimise thenumber of flushes used to clean toilets• Promptly repairing all leaks and faults(see Factsheet 5: Leaks and WaterMonitoring) and displaying faultreporting contacts and phone numbersBathroomsShowering and the use of toilets by patronsis a major source of water consumption formost tourism operators that can generatelarge volumes of sewerage and grey wateroften requiring on or offsite treatment.ShowersShowersShowersShowersInstall low flow shower heads (less thanInstall low flow shower heads (less thanInstall low flow shower heads (less thanInstall low flow shower heads (less than9999LLLL perperperper minute) or flow restrictors andminute) or flow restrictors andminute) or flow restrictors andminute) or flow restrictors andencourage shorter showerencourage shorter showerencourage shorter showerencourage shorter shower timestimestimestimes....Special low flow showerheads that arecompatible with instantaneous hot watersystems may be required so they do notrestrict the flow of water so much that thehot water system turns off.To reduce shower times use signage, installshower timers or consider push buttonshowers that deliver water for a set period.Decreasing water flow and shower lengthswill also result in less hot water being usedand therefore will also save energy andreduce greenhouse gas emissions.Basin tapsBasin tapsBasin tapsBasin tapsInstall low flow taps (less than 9Install low flow taps (less than 9Install low flow taps (less than 9Install low flow taps (less than 9L perL perL perL perminute), flow restrictorsminute), flow restrictorsminute), flow restrictorsminute), flow restrictors ((((either at theeither at theeither at theeither at theend of the tap opening or inend of the tap opening or inend of the tap opening or inend of the tap opening or in----linelinelineline)))) ororororreduce water pressurreduce water pressurreduce water pressurreduce water pressure.e.e.e.Flow restrictors must be periodicallycleaned and de-scaled to remain effective.Tamper-proof restrictors can be used if theyare routinely removed.Water pressure can be controlled byinstalling a pressure-reducing valve on theconnection to the water main. The pressureshould be set at the lowest water pressurethat still allows equipment such as washingmachines and dishwashers and fixtures tooperate properly.Other options for taps include timer taps(e.g. push taps) or sensors that turn taps onand off automatically.ToiletsToiletsToiletsToiletsInstall dual flush, low flow toilets or addInstall dual flush, low flow toilets or addInstall dual flush, low flow toilets or addInstall dual flush, low flow toilets or adda displacement device to toilet cisterns.a displacement device to toilet cisterns.a displacement device to toilet cisterns.a displacement device to toilet cisterns.Water efficient toilets can use as little as 4litres for a full flush and 2 litres for a halfflush, which is less than half the water of astandard toilet. A cheaper alternative can beto add a displacement device in the cisternto reduce flush volume or to modify thefloat arm however if the bowl is not shapedto manage with reduced water flow theeffectiveness of the flush may be affected.Other options include aerobic compostingtoilets that require little to no water use orhand basins above the toilet cistern so basinwater can be reused to fill the toilet cistern.UrinalsUrinalsUrinalsUrinalsReduce urinal flush volume or timingReduce urinal flush volume or timingReduce urinal flush volume or timingReduce urinal flush volume or timing,,,, ororororretrofit urinals tretrofit urinals tretrofit urinals tretrofit urinals to accommodate low oro accommodate low oro accommodate low oro accommodate low orno flow flushing.no flow flushing.no flow flushing.no flow flushing.Urinals can waste excessive amounts ofwater, even when they are not being used ifthey have a timed flush that operatesautomatically at regular intervals.Unfortunately, reducing the flush volumecan lead to problems with odours and buildup of uric acid, salt and lime scale in thepipework that can cause damage andblockages. It is important to find the rightbalance between reducing waterconsumption and increasing maintenance.Urinals may need to be replaced toaccommodate low flushing volumes.Options to reduce flush volume includeinstalling low flush urinals, flow restrictorson the water inlet valve or reducing thetiming of flushes. To reduce the number oftimes a urinal is flushed a hydraulic valvethat operates in the water inlet pipeworkcan be used that triggers the urinals to flushat specific times (e.g. when the hand basinis being used, or triggered by the bathroomdoor opening a set number of times).Flushing can also be automated usingsensors to detect movement for at least 5seconds before it triggers a solenoid valve toallow a preset amount of water into thecistern which flushes when it becomes full.Waterless urinals are now also availablethat use a range of technologies including:• Oil based liquids in a replaceablecartridge through which urine anddebris pass that traps odours. The fluidcan be degraded quickly if the correctcleaning chemicals are not used.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 6666
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing Water Consumption:Bathrooms, Kitchens and Laundries• Urinal blocks housed in the urinal outletcontaining microbial spores thatbreakdown the urine and then multiplypreventing the build-up of sludge. Theycan also generate bacteria that causeodours so correct cleaning is essential.• One-way valves that prevent odoursfrom being emitted into the bathroom.They require urine crystals and debris tobe removed and should not be allowedto become stuck open.To reduce sludge build up in the pipeworksome waterless urinals are drained so urineand debris cannot collect. This should becarefully considered if retrofitting oldsystems with waterless models.Alternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forbathroomsbathroomsbathroomsbathroomsConsider harvesting rainwater for use inConsider harvesting rainwater for use inConsider harvesting rainwater for use inConsider harvesting rainwater for use inshowers, hand basins or toilets.showers, hand basins or toilets.showers, hand basins or toilets.showers, hand basins or toilets.Investigate the potential for wastewaterrecycling for use in toilets and urinals.Depending on water quality, wastewatermay need to be treated for the health andsafety of users. Hand basin wastewater maybe able to be reused with minimaltreatment (e.g. in gardens), however, otherforms of wastewater may require moresignificant treatment. Consult a wastewatertreatment specialist and conduct a riskassessment if considering reuse or recyclingof wastewater.KitchensReview operational procedures andReview operational procedures andReview operational procedures andReview operational procedures andinstall water efficient fixtures andinstall water efficient fixtures andinstall water efficient fixtures andinstall water efficient fixtures andequipmentequipmentequipmentequipment....Appliances and fixtures such as sink taps,dish and glass washers, ice machines andsome cooking equipment such as woks canall use excessive amounts of water incommercial kitchens. Water wastage inkitchens can often be the result of staffhabits, so increasing awareness aboutefficient water practices is a good way tostart. Establish a set of kitchen proceduresthat are reinforced with training, signageand monitoring by management. Thesecould include:• Operating dish and glass washers onlywhen fully loaded and on economycycles where possible.• Dry scraping dishes and cookingsurfaces as soon as possible after use toprevent the waste hardening andbecoming more difficult to remove. Ifmanual pre-rinsing is necessary soakutensils and dishes in the sink ratherthan under a running tap.• Making sure taps are not left runningduring food preparation e.g. rinsing fruitand vegetables in a water bath ratherthan running water.• Reducing water lost through steam bykeeping equipment covered whencooking and simmering instead ofboiling where possible.• Using the minimum amount of waternecessary and keeping the lid on.• Thawing frozen food in the refrigeratorrather than under running water.• Minimising the number of pieces ofcooking equipment, to save on cleaningrequirements.• Dry cleaning with a broom before usinga mop and bucket.• Reporting and repairing water leaks andfaults immediately.Kitchens also have a number of waterconsuming fixtures and equipment such astaps, dish washers and ice machines. Wherepossible install water efficient equipment orreduce the frequency of use and thequantity of water used.Kitchen sink tapsKitchen sink tapsKitchen sink tapsKitchen sink tapsInstall water efficient tap fixtures (lessInstall water efficient tap fixtures (lessInstall water efficient tap fixtures (lessInstall water efficient tap fixtures (lessthan 9L per minute) and reviewthan 9L per minute) and reviewthan 9L per minute) and reviewthan 9L per minute) and reviewoperational procedures.operational procedures.operational procedures.operational procedures.If taps are frequently left on when notneeded consider installing pedal taps(operated by foot or leg), or sensor taps thatonly turn on when required. Install waterefficient trigger guns on taps that canreduce water consumption by automaticallyshutting off when they are not in use.Avoid the use of in-sink garbage disposalunits that reduce the quality of your site’swastewater and use sink strainers to trapfood scraps which should then be disposedof or composted.Kitchen dishwashersKitchen dishwashersKitchen dishwashersKitchen dishwashersReduce dishwasher use, ensureReduce dishwasher use, ensureReduce dishwasher use, ensureReduce dishwasher use, ensuredishwashers are operating efficiently ordishwashers are operating efficiently ordishwashers are operating efficiently ordishwashers are operating efficiently orreplace inefficient dishwashers.replace inefficient dishwashers.replace inefficient dishwashers.replace inefficient dishwashers.Ensure conveyor dishwashers are onlyrunning when necessary by linking anelectronic sensor to the conveyors motor soit only operates when dishes are detected.The conveyor speed and the length of thecleaning cycles should be adjusted for themost efficient clean while still meetinghygiene standards.Dishwashers should be well maintained, forexample regularly check for leaks, ensurecoils are free of lime deposits and the sprayjets and filter are clean. Replace any missingor worn water jets.Consider installing a collection tank so finalrinse water can be reused for the initialrinse of the next wash and install flowrestrictors on the rinse lines of older modelsof dishwashers.Kitchen ice machinesKitchen ice machinesKitchen ice machinesKitchen ice machinesEnsure only water efficient ice makingEnsure only water efficient ice makingEnsure only water efficient ice makingEnsure only water efficient ice makingmachines aremachines aremachines aremachines are used and they are onlyused and they are onlyused and they are onlyused and they are onlyoperated as required.operated as required.operated as required.operated as required.Ice machines should have a closed coolingcircuit. Some ice making machines arecooled via ’once through’ cooling water,while closed circuit cooling water systemsrecycle water several times before it isdischarged.Consider using air-cooled ice machinesrather than water-cooled ice machineswhich can use up to 10 times more waterthan similar sized air-cooled machines1.Adjust the ice machine to dispense only theamount of ice required and establishoperational procedures to ensure icemachines are only used when necessary. Forsmall amounts of ice, consider usingexisting freezers.The Alto Hotel in Melbourne had waterThe Alto Hotel in Melbourne had waterThe Alto Hotel in Melbourne had waterThe Alto Hotel in Melbourne had waterconsumption in 2008consumption in 2008consumption in 2008consumption in 2008----09 of 123L per09 of 123L per09 of 123L per09 of 123L perguest night!guest night!guest night!guest night!Actions taken:The Alto reduced water consumption by:• Reducing tap water flow in its 60bathrooms and kitchens from 9 to 6litres per minute (L.p.m)• Reducing shower water flow in its 58bathrooms from 9 to 8 L.p.m• Installing two 1500L rain water tanksto capture rain water for use in thecisterns in public toilets• Installing piping to capture airconditioning condensation waterwhich also feeds into the water tanksCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe Alto HotelAlto HotelAlto HotelAlto Hotel,,,, MelbourneMelbourneMelbourneMelbourne, Australia, Australia, Australia, Australia
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing Water Consumption:Bathrooms, Kitchens and LaundriesCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe TajTajTajTaj ReReReResidencysidencysidencysidencyBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreKitchen woksKitchen woksKitchen woksKitchen woksChange operational procedures to reduceChange operational procedures to reduceChange operational procedures to reduceChange operational procedures to reducewater use or install water efficient woks.water use or install water efficient woks.water use or install water efficient woks.water use or install water efficient woks.Water cooled woks used in Asian stylekitchens can use significant quantities ofwater as the water is left runningconstantly to cool the area around the wok.Consider installing efficient water spoutsthat can be operated using the foot or leg,or spouts which when pushed to the sideautomatically turn off.Alternatively, retrofit existing wok stoves orinstall waterless wok stoves.Kitchen cleaningKitchen cleaningKitchen cleaningKitchen cleaningMaintain good housekeeping proceduresMaintain good housekeeping proceduresMaintain good housekeeping proceduresMaintain good housekeeping proceduresand consider kitchen design to reduceand consider kitchen design to reduceand consider kitchen design to reduceand consider kitchen design to reducecleaning requirements.cleaning requirements.cleaning requirements.cleaning requirements.Keeping kitchens tidy and well organisedcan help to reduce the amount of cleaningrequired, for example use drip trays or lipson benches to help reduce the amount ofmaterial landing on the floor.Consider cleaning requirements in kitchenlayout and design to reduce waterconsumption and labour, for example installdurable and easy-to clean floor and wallsurfaces and ensure equipment is easilyaccessible.If large areas are hosed down consider usinga water efficient high pressure cleaner thatcan use up to 60 per cent less water,compared with using mains hoses2. Foodsafety issues need to be considered asaerosols from spray can carry micro-organisms from the floor back ontoequipment.Commercial laundriesCommercial laundries can use significantamounts of water for washing, drying insteam heated dryers and steam pressing.Staff and patron education is essential toimprove water use efficiency.Water efficient washing machinesWater efficient washing machinesWater efficient washing machinesWater efficient washing machinesReplace inefficient washing machinesReplace inefficient washing machinesReplace inefficient washing machinesReplace inefficient washing machinesand only operate machines on waterand only operate machines on waterand only operate machines on waterand only operate machines on waterefficient settings and only wheefficient settings and only wheefficient settings and only wheefficient settings and only when full.n full.n full.n full.Replace traditional vertical axis washers(top loaders) with high efficiency horizontalaxis washers (front loaders) that can usetwo thirds less water3.Many laundries use washer-extractormachines (rotating drum) which use freshwater for washing and rinsing. Waterconsumption can be reduced by as much as70% by replacing these inefficient washerswith continuous batch washers (tunnelwashers) that use sensors to control the useof water and energy in line with volume.They also only use clean water for the finalrinse, reuse the water for the wash cycleand have an extractor that reduces waterretention in the linen, which means lessenergy is required for drying4.Pre-sort laundry and select the type of washcycle suitable to the level of soiling. Manylaundries wash for longer than is necessary.Only operate washing machines when theyare fully loaded or reduce water levels forpartial loads. Regularly check that the waterlevels are correct while the machine isoperating.Use low-temperature detergents that notonly reduce energy consumption butrequire less rinsing. Ensure detergents aredosed correctly as overuse not onlyincreases costs but also increases rinsingrequirements. Investigate cleaning chemicaloptions that may help reduce waterconsumption, for example ozone is a veryeffective disinfectant that requires lessrinsing saving up to 10% in water along with30-90% less detergent5. It can also be usedin cold water, saving energy.Keep washing machines well maintainedand carry out regular inspections for waterleaks or faults.Using a water softener to improve waterquality can deliver a number of keyadvantages including:• Reduced levels of detergent use,requiring less water to rinse• Reduced scale build-up, which prolongsthe life of machinery and reduces thelikelihood of leaksWater softeners require regularregeneration of ion exchange columns;make sure you:• Check the salt levels on a daily basis• Avoid manual or timed regeneration asthis can be wasteful• Replace the ion exchange resin whennecessaryAlternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forAlternative water supply and recycling forlaundrieslaundrieslaundrieslaundriesWastewater from washers has the potentialto be reused or recycled for use in areassuch as gardening. Depending on theapplication, treatment such as micro ornano filtration or high pressure reverseosmosis may be required.Consider harvesting rainwater for laundrywashing.Reducing washing requirementsReducing washing requirementsReducing washing requirementsReducing washing requirementsConsider providing guests with the optionof reusing towels and bed linen rather thanreplacing them every day to reduce theamount of washing required. Signage thatpromotes the environmental benefits ofreusing linen may increase the effectivenessof this initiative.If your operation is not well equipped forthe volume of laundry it generates considerusing commercial laundries that tend to bemore energy and water efficient. It couldsave your operation time and energy,detergent, water and labour costs, howeveradditional costs such as transport and theneed to purchase additional linen will alsoneed to be considered.ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences1Brisbane Water ,2006, Commercial kitchens - Fact Sheet,Brisbane City Council, Brisbane, Queenslandwww.brisbane.qld.gov.au/bccwr/lib199/commercial_kitchwww.brisbane.qld.gov.au/bccwr/lib199/commercial_kitchwww.brisbane.qld.gov.au/bccwr/lib199/commercial_kitchwww.brisbane.qld.gov.au/bccwr/lib199/commercial_kitchens_factsheet.pdffens_factsheet.pdffens_factsheet.pdffens_factsheet.pdff2Envirowise, 1998, Reducing the cost of cleaning in the foodand drink industry, ETBPP GG154 www.envirowise.gov.ukwww.envirowise.gov.ukwww.envirowise.gov.ukwww.envirowise.gov.uk3North Carolina Department of Environment and NaturalResources, 1998, Water Efficiency Manual For Commercial,Industrial and Institutional Facilitieswww.p2pays.org/ref/01/0069202.pdfwww.p2pays.org/ref/01/0069202.pdfwww.p2pays.org/ref/01/0069202.pdfwww.p2pays.org/ref/01/0069202.pdf4North Carolina Department of Environment and NaturalResources, 19985North Carolina Department of Environment and NaturalResources, 1998The Taj Residency Hotel have aThe Taj Residency Hotel have aThe Taj Residency Hotel have aThe Taj Residency Hotel have acollection tank on their dishwashercollection tank on their dishwashercollection tank on their dishwashercollection tank on their dishwasherthat enables the final rinse water tothat enables the final rinse water tothat enables the final rinse water tothat enables the final rinse water tobe reused for the dishwashers initialbe reused for the dishwashers initialbe reused for the dishwashers initialbe reused for the dishwashers initialrinse saving 15L every cycle or 9000Lrinse saving 15L every cycle or 9000Lrinse saving 15L every cycle or 9000Lrinse saving 15L every cycle or 9000Lannually.annually.annually.annually.“Environment conscious equipmentalways turns out to be economical inthe long run.”Arvid Sahai, Chief Engineer, The TajResidency Hotel, Bangalore, India
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:www.earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Novotel SydneyNovotel SydneyNovotel SydneyNovotel Sydney,,,, Darling HarbourDarling HarbourDarling HarbourDarling HarbourAustraliaAustraliaAustraliaAustraliaNovotel Sydney replaced one of theNovotel Sydney replaced one of theNovotel Sydney replaced one of theNovotel Sydney replaced one of thetwo cooling towers used to removetwo cooling towers used to removetwo cooling towers used to removetwo cooling towers used to removeheat from the Hotel’s air conditioningheat from the Hotel’s air conditioningheat from the Hotel’s air conditioningheat from the Hotel’s air conditioningplant with an air cooled system.plant with an air cooled system.plant with an air cooled system.plant with an air cooled system.Previously, on hot days the coolingtowers were consuming up to 30% of theHotel’s total water consumption.Although very efficient, any increase inenergy consumption by the air cooledsystem has been recouped in water,maintenance and chemical savings. Theremaining cooling tower is connected tothe air cooled chiller and now only cuts induring hot weather when demand ishigh. In addition, blowdown from thecooling tower has been automated usinga conductivity probe ensuring water ispurged only when predetermined levelsof dissolved solids have been reached,saving both water and staff time.Reducing WaterConsumption (II)Cooling Towers,Cooling Towers,Cooling Towers,Cooling Towers,Pools & LandscapingPools & LandscapingPools & LandscapingPools & LandscapingThere are many areasThere are many areasThere are many areasThere are many areas withinwithinwithinwithin a tourisma tourisma tourisma tourismoperationoperationoperationoperation that consumethat consumethat consumethat consumessss water. This factwater. This factwater. This factwater. This factsheet focuses onsheet focuses onsheet focuses onsheet focuses on how you canhow you canhow you canhow you can reducreducreducreduceeee waterwaterwaterwaterconsumption in facilities common toconsumption in facilities common toconsumption in facilities common toconsumption in facilities common to manymanymanymanytourismtourismtourismtourism operationsoperationsoperationsoperations ssssuch asuch asuch asuch as cooling towerscooling towerscooling towerscooling towers,,,,poolspoolspoolspools andandandand landscapinglandscapinglandscapinglandscaping.... Opportunities toOpportunities toOpportunities toOpportunities toreduce water use range fromreduce water use range fromreduce water use range fromreduce water use range from optimisingoptimisingoptimisingoptimisingequipment functionalityequipment functionalityequipment functionalityequipment functionality,,,, to installingto installingto installingto installingalternative water sources such as rainwateralternative water sources such as rainwateralternative water sources such as rainwateralternative water sources such as rainwatertankstankstankstanks, effectively treating water, effectively treating water, effectively treating water, effectively treating water andandandandplanting local plant spplanting local plant spplanting local plant spplanting local plant species thatecies thatecies thatecies that areareareareadapted to local climate conditionsadapted to local climate conditionsadapted to local climate conditionsadapted to local climate conditions....Cooling TowersCooling towers are heat removal devices thattourism operators use to remove heat fromthe hot refrigerant gases of large walk inrefrigerators, freezers or air-conditioningunits or to cool kitchen equipment such asjacket kettles.Cooling towers are basically one or morebasins through which heated water (used forcooling equipment) is cooled down. Gravitypulls the water down through the basinwhich contains ‘fill’ that allows the water tospread out in a cascade to increase thecooling area. At the same time a moving airstream (a natural air draft or mechanical fans)blows cool air over the water which causes asmall portion of the water to evaporate whichcools the rest of the water stream. The cooledwater is then circulated back to theequipment to absorb more heat.When the water evaporates it leaves salts andminerals that if allowed to accumulate in thebasin, can cause biological growth, scale andcorrosion. These are removed through aprocess called ‘blowdown’ (or ‘bleed’) wheresome of the circulating cooled water isremoved which is then replaced with fresh‘make-up’ water.Under normal operating conditions, water islost through evaporation and blowdown,however, if towers are not carefullymaintained and operated they can wastelarge amounts of water, energy andchemicals.Reduce the cooling loadReduce the cooling loadReduce the cooling loadReduce the cooling loadThe first step to reducing water consumptionin cooling towers is to reduce the cooling load.Reducing the cooling load placed on a coolingtower can save considerable amounts ofwater. Try raising the set temperature of airconditioning systems or reducing theiroperating hours.Reduce unnecessary water lossReduce unnecessary water lossReduce unnecessary water lossReduce unnecessary water lossExcessive overflowExcessive overflowExcessive overflowExcessive overflowCooled water collects at the bottom of thebasin before being pumped back to theequipment needing cooling. To ensure thebasin does not overfill with water, a ball float(similar to those used in toilet cisterns) is setat a predetermined level. If the water risesabove this level it drains through an overflowpipe. Regularly check that there is not anexcessive flow from this overflow pipe whichmay be the result of:• The ball float being set to high• The make-up pipe has been left on or isleaking• The overflow drain pipe is leaking• The water levels in connected basin arenot equal causing water to flow to thebasin with the lowest water levelExcessive splashExcessive splashExcessive splashExcessive splashExcessive splashing from the tower mayindicate that the flow of water being fed intothe tower needs to be reduced or the speed ofcooling fans is too high. If the tower is locatedin a windy area water may also be blown outof the tower and a wind break or anti-splashlouvers should be installed.Excessive driftExcessive driftExcessive driftExcessive driftWhen the water evaporates it can also carryout tiny water droplets called drift. If drift isexcessive, drift eliminators can be installed orexisting eliminators repaired.LeaksLeaksLeaksLeaksIt is essential that the basin along with anyconnections and pumps are checked regularlyfor leaks. It is a good idea to install meters onboth the make-up and blowdown pipes toTipIt is essential that no changes are made tocooling towers without first consultingyour cooling tower service provider. It isvery important that they understand thatwater, energy and chemical efficiency is apriority. Consider drawing upperformance based contracts related toreducing water and energy consumptionwhile still keeping fouling, scale andcorrosion at acceptable levels. All reportsshould explain the purpose of all watertreatment regimes and the related costs orsavings.Make sure you understand your system soyou can properly analyse any test results.Sometimes it is even valuable toundertake independent testing to verifythe performance of your cooling tower.Below are some ideas you could startdiscussing with your service provider andmaintenance staff.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 7777
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing Water Consumption:Cooling Towers, Pools & Landscapingidentify normal patterns of consumption soany abnormalities can be identified quickly.These can be connected to a BuildingManagement System (BMS) so managementcan be alerted immediately.Excessive blowdownExcessive blowdownExcessive blowdownExcessive blowdownBlowdown to remove contaminants, salts andminerals can be done manually by staff at setintervals or automatically using a timer orconductivity probe. Conductivity probesmeasure the amount of total dissolved solidsin the basin water and will only initiateblowdown when it is required, saving waterand staff time. If your tower has aconductivity probe already installed, makesure it is cleaned and calibrated regularly.Conductivity probes also make it possible toset total dissolved solid levels (cycles ofcycles ofcycles ofcycles ofcccconcentrationoncentrationoncentrationoncentration). Once this level is reached, ittriggers the system blowdown.Cycles of concentration compares the levels ofdissolved solids in the blowdown water withthe level of dissolved solids in the incomingfresh make-up water. For example, cycles ofconcentration =By increasing the number of cycles it ispossible to reduce the amount of blowdownand thus the need for make-up water. Theoptimum cycles of concentration is influencedby the quality of make-up water, corrosionresistance of the tower basin and theequipment it is cooling e.g. air conditioningcondenser. The ability to increase the cycles ofconcentration often relies on effective waterwaterwaterwatertreatmenttreatmenttreatmenttreatment that can help reduce corrosion andscale build up.Possible cooling tower water treatmentoptions include:• Pre-treating make-up water using watersofteners to precipitate out ions such ascalcium and magnesium or reverseosmosis to remove ions• Direct dosing with chemicals such asphosphonates, polymers and organiccorrosion inhibitors that prevent scale andcorrosion• Acid dosing to keep ions in solution tocontrol pH and scale• Microbial treatment or ozone dosing toprevent the growth of harmful bacteriasuch as Legionella• Side stream filtration (e.g. centrifugalseparation and sand filtration) to removesuspended solidsAlternative cooling tower water sourcesAlternative cooling tower water sourcesAlternative cooling tower water sourcesAlternative cooling tower water sourcesConsider alternative water sources such asrecycled water, rainwater or even airconditioning condensate that couldsubstitute or supplement cooling towermake-up water. The key issues to considerwhen assessing potential alternative watersupplies include:• Water quality• Quantity and consistency of supply• Health and safetyReuse cooling tower blowdown waterReuse cooling tower blowdown waterReuse cooling tower blowdown waterReuse cooling tower blowdown waterInvestigate if there are opportunities to usecooling tower blowdown water for toilets andurinal flushing, landscaping or cleaning.Before proceeding, fully investigate if anyfurther treatment would be required toeliminate any health risks or water qualityissues. The water may need to be diluted (e.g.with harvested rainwater) to preventcorrosion or scale build up on infrastructuresuch as pumps and pipes.Replace cooling tower with airReplace cooling tower with airReplace cooling tower with airReplace cooling tower with air chillerschillerschillerschillersIf the region is particularly water constrained,tourism operations could consider replacingwater cooling towers with air chillers,however additional costs in energy may needto be considered.PoolsPools and spas are an important part of manytourist destinations however it is essentialthat they are managed carefully to preventunnecessary water wastage. Pools requiremake-up water to replace water lost throughleaks, evaporation, backwashing (to flush outthe filter) and splash.Cracks and leaksCracks and leaksCracks and leaksCracks and leaksConduct regular inspections of the pool toidentify leaks and undertake repairsimmediately (see Factsheet 4: Monitoring andleaks). As leaks may not be visible it is best toinstall sub-meters on the make-up lines. If themeters are read frequently any excessivewater consumption will be identified early.Optimize backwashingOptimize backwashingOptimize backwashingOptimize backwashingLink backwashing to a filter pressure gaugewhich will electronically initiate backwashingwhen necessary. If backwashing is carried outmanually, investigate if it is possible todecrease the frequency while still remainingwithin the limits of health codes. Onlybackwash your filter until the water runsclean. If necessary install a clear view screeninto the backwashing hose. Investigate if it ispossible to reuse the backwash water for non-potable applications such as irrigation.Reduce evaporation lossReduce evaporation lossReduce evaporation lossReduce evaporation lossPool covers greatly reduce evaporationhowever they may not be suitable foroperations requiring extended hours of poolaccess. They should however be consideredfor cooler periods when the pool may not bein use. They are also extremely effective inreducing heat loss from heated pools whenused overnight. The temperature of heatedpools should be kept as low as possible, whilestill meeting the needs of guests, to helpreduce evaporation while also saving energyand chlorine costs.Another alternative is to provide shade toreduce evaporation as well as to provideshade for guests. This could be as simple asplacing a number of umbrellas around thepool, or a shade cloth covering the entire poolarea. Pools situated in a windy location shouldalso consider installing a barrier or plantedtrees to reduce evaporation, making surevisibility for pool safety is not compromised.Reduce splash lossReduce splash lossReduce splash lossReduce splash lossInstall drainage barriers around the pool tocollect splash and overflow. These drains feedthe water back into the pool. If possible, avoidoverfilling the pool which will only increasesplash and overflow losses. Keep theoperation of waterfalls, water features andslides to a minimum to avoid fine sprays thatare also easily lost to evaporation.Alternative water sourcesAlternative water sourcesAlternative water sourcesAlternative water sourcesInstall a rainwater tank to help supplementpool make-up water.Total dissolved solids inthe blowdown waterTotal dissolved solids inthe make-up water= 6= 2= 3Meliã Bali, Indonesia
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing Water Consumption:Cooling Towers, Pools & LandscapingThe Taj Residency Hotel sends all of itseffluent and pool backwash water to aSingle Phase Biological Treatment plant.In an aeration tank the effluent issupplied with air to create a highlyoxygenated environment suitable forbacteria that use the organic matter inthe effluent as an energy source.Unfortunately the bacteria cannot digestall of the solids in the effluent and thesesolids eventually settle out as sludge. Thissludge is sent to rotational contractorsfor further treatment. The treated waterfrom the aeration tank overflows to asettling tank where the microbes thathave treated the wastewater settle out ofthe water. This bacterial sludge isreticulated back into the aeration tank tohelp maintain the bacterial population.The treated water then undergoes atertiary treatment to improve its qualityby being fed though a sand and activatedcarbon filter. The treated water is usedfor irrigating the hotel’s gardens andcooling tower. This ambitiouswastewater recycling project cost thehotel around AUD$95,000 to purchaseand install and savessavessavessaves aroundaroundaroundaround 15151515----20202020kilolitreskilolitreskilolitreskilolitres of waterof waterof waterof water per dayper dayper dayper day,,,, in additionto reducing energy costs that were beingincurred pumping raw water from bores.Any unused treated water is sent to themunicipal sewage treatment plant.LandscapingBeautiful landscaping is extremely importantfor welcoming guests and adding to theenjoyment and relaxation of their visit.Gardens should be healthy and well designedto save both water and labour.UndeUndeUndeUnderstand your gardens wateringrstand your gardens wateringrstand your gardens wateringrstand your gardens wateringrequirementsrequirementsrequirementsrequirementsWatering schedules that remain constant allyear round will typically over water or underwater plants and lawns. Make sure wateringschedules take account of seasonal variations,vegetation types and daily weatherconditions.Keeping a rain gauge or using a soil moisturesensor will help determine if gardens havereceived enough water through naturalrainfall while a rain sensor will ensureautomatic irrigation systems turn off when itis raining. It is also essential to have a goodunderstanding of the soil. A soil analysis canprovide useful information on any soilamendments required to provide plants withnutrients and help retain water.Water efficient irrigationWater efficient irrigationWater efficient irrigationWater efficient irrigationAvoid irrigating gardens during times whenhigh evaporation is likely to occur, such as themiddle of the day. More appropriate times arelate at night or early in the morning. Timerscan be used to ensure gardens and lawns arewatered at the right time and for the correctlength.The most efficient option is to install anautomatic control system that will adjustirrigation rates according to local weatherconditions and soil moisture levels. Whenwatering make sure plants receive a thoroughsoaking, rather than more frequent lightsurface watering, so as to encourage deeperroot growth.Ensure that water goes directly to the rootsand is not lost to runoff and/or overspray.Drip or soaker irrigation systems that areclose to the ground or subsurface are ideal.Installing a meter in your irrigation systemwill help identify leaks and excessive waterconsumption quickly. Make sure all hosesused for watering or cleaning outside havetrigger nozzles that shut off waterautomatically.Plant water efficient gardensPlant water efficient gardensPlant water efficient gardensPlant water efficient gardensIt is always best to plant species that are localto the region. These plants are not onlyadapted to your region’s climate and soil butwill also support local wildlife. Always avoidplanting invasive or environmental weeds.Plants should be grouped with other plants ofsimilar water requirements to avoid someplants being overwatered. Adding mulch togardens will also reduce the water needs ofyour gardens by reducing soil evaporationwhile also breaking down to add nutrientsand organic matter to help improve soil waterretention and structure.Soils that are particularly water constrainedcould benefit from wetting agents (thatpenetrate the organic coating of soils thatrepel water) or water gels (that absorb largeamounts of water that can be later released).Alternative water sourcesAlternative water sourcesAlternative water sourcesAlternative water sources and wastewaterand wastewaterand wastewaterand wastewatertreatmenttreatmenttreatmenttreatmentInvestigate alternative water sources forirrigating gardens. Options include rainwaterdiverted from gutters and storm water drainsor collected in dams or tanks and recycledwater including grey water from showers andlaundries, treated sewage, cooling towerblowdown water, pool backwash water andcondensate from air conditioning systems.There may be local restrictions on the use ofrecycled water so check with your localauthority and environmental agency. It islikely that the use of recycled water forirrigation will require irrigation hardware tobe adapted e.g. nozzles that will not clog andwastewater treatment.Wastewater treatment can involve a numberof steps with each additional step improvingsome aspect of the wastewater. The numberof steps required will be based on the qualityof the wastewater required for the end use.The five main steps are:• PretreatmentPretreatmentPretreatmentPretreatment to remove bulk materialsuch as using screens to remove objectsfrom the surface and pH adjustment• Primary trPrimary trPrimary trPrimary treatmenteatmenteatmenteatment to remove materialthat floats such as oils and greases andorganic and inorganic solids that settle assludge. This could involve using clarifiersthat use gravity settling for sludge andfloatation and dissolved air flotation (DAF)systems that use air to float insolublematerial like fats and oils to the surfacewhere it can be removed• Secondary treatmentSecondary treatmentSecondary treatmentSecondary treatment removes organicmatter and some nutrients such asnitrogen and phosphorus. These includeanaerobic systems that allow bacteria (inthe absence of oxygen) to breakdownhigh strength organic waste intomethane, carbon dioxide and inertbiological cells. Aerobic systems usebacteria to breakdown low strengthorganic waste, but in the presence ofoxygen, provided through an artificialaeration system. The cells settle as sludgein a clarifier or pond• Tertiary treatmentTertiary treatmentTertiary treatmentTertiary treatment removes any organicand inorganic material that resists theprimary and secondary treatment toproduce high quality water for reuse. Thistype of treatment includes the use ofmembranes (micro- filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration and reverseosmosis), filtration through filter beds,chlorination, ultra violet disinfection, ionexchange, ozonation and addingchemicals that will cause substances toprecipitate out of the solutionCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe TajTajTajTaj ReReReResidencysidencysidencysidency,,,, BangaloreBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreIndiaIndiaIndiaIndia
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:The Alto Hotel, MelbourneThe Alto Hotel, MelbourneThe Alto Hotel, MelbourneThe Alto Hotel, MelbourneAustraliaAustraliaAustraliaAustraliaReducing Waste toLandfillTourism operators generate a range ofTourism operators generate a range ofTourism operators generate a range ofTourism operators generate a range ofdifferent wastes. The size and type ofdifferent wastes. The size and type ofdifferent wastes. The size and type ofdifferent wastes. The size and type ofoperation will influence how much wasteoperation will influence how much wasteoperation will influence how much wasteoperation will influence how much wasteis produced. The location of the tourismis produced. The location of the tourismis produced. The location of the tourismis produced. The location of the tourismoperation will also affect the impact thisoperation will also affect the impact thisoperation will also affect the impact thisoperation will also affect the impact thiswaste has on the surrwaste has on the surrwaste has on the surrwaste has on the surrounding communityounding communityounding communityounding communityand environment as well as the availabilityand environment as well as the availabilityand environment as well as the availabilityand environment as well as the availabilityof possible reuse and recycling options.of possible reuse and recycling options.of possible reuse and recycling options.of possible reuse and recycling options.Typical wastes generated from tourismbusinesses include:• Organic wastes (in particular food andOrganic wastes (in particular food andOrganic wastes (in particular food andOrganic wastes (in particular food andgarden waste):garden waste):garden waste):garden waste): Food waste includingcooking oils are typically generated inkitchens, guest rooms and communalareas. Garden wastes include grassclippings, leaves and branches• Construction and renovation wasteConstruction and renovation wasteConstruction and renovation wasteConstruction and renovation waste(wood, concrete, metal, plastic, fabric):(wood, concrete, metal, plastic, fabric):(wood, concrete, metal, plastic, fabric):(wood, concrete, metal, plastic, fabric):This is generally only generated duringconstruction and renovation activities.Wastes can also include furniture andfixtures being replaced or upgraded• Office wastes (paper, ink cartridges,Office wastes (paper, ink cartridges,Office wastes (paper, ink cartridges,Office wastes (paper, ink cartridges,computers):computers):computers):computers): Generally restricted tooffice areas and reception, with somepaper waste which may also be found inguest rooms and communal areas• Packaging waste (plastic, wood, metal,Packaging waste (plastic, wood, metal,Packaging waste (plastic, wood, metal,Packaging waste (plastic, wood, metal,cardboard):cardboard):cardboard):cardboard): Typically from guest rooms,kitchens and goods receiving and storageareasWhat are the costs of not reducing waste?What are the costs of not reducing waste?What are the costs of not reducing waste?What are the costs of not reducing waste?Waste in not just about disposal costs. Wasteitself represents a loss of valuable resourcesthat cost your operation money. There arealso many other hidden costs such as lostrevenue from not recycling, a loss of floorspace, valuable staff time spent onunproductive waste storage andmanagement, degraded guest amenity and apoor public image. There are also costs to theenvironment and community including:• Greater landfill requirements• Greater resource consumption• More energy consumption• More greenhouse gas emissionsPreventing waste from being generated inthe first place will eliminate these costs.Alternatively, by reusing or recycling waste,there is the potential to reduce disposal costsand possibly even generate some revenue orcontribute to charitable causes.What can I do?What can I do?What can I do?What can I do?There are many options available to reducewaste. First, it is necessary to undertake awaste audit to understand the typical typesand quantities of wastes being generated.The waste minimisation hierarchy below canthen be used to help prioritise wasteefficiency opportunities.Example: Office paperStart with an assessment of the quantityand type of paper currently in use.Investigate how paper is utilised in theoffice and why it ends up as waste. Forexample, excessive single sized printing orthe filing of documents that could bestored electronically.EliminateEliminateEliminateEliminateCan we eliminate the need for paper insome circumstances e.g. electronic receiptsor using a whiteboard to put up notices tostaff?ReduceReduceReduceReduce• Are there mistakes being made that areavoidable?• Are there print outs that areunnecessary e.g. extra copies?• Can the default printer setting be fixedto print double sided?ReuseReuseReuseReuse• Can we reuse waste paper as notepads?• Can somebody else reuse our wastepaper?RecycleRecycleRecycleRecycle• Are we purchasing paper that can berecycled?• Are we recycling our waste paper?• Are we buying paper made withrecycled content?Eliminate /avoidReduceReuseRecycleTreat and disposePollutionpreventionWasteManage-mentEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 8888The Alto Hotel on Bourke in Melbourne,Australia follows the principals of thewaste minimisation hierarchy looking firstat opportunities to eliminate and reduceits volume of waste before exploring reuseand recycling options. By successfullyimplementing a number of initiatives thehotel has been able to reduce the amountof waste being sent to landfill to only 3.9litres per guest night. Initiativesimplemented by the hotel include:• Eliminating all plastic bottles fortoiletries by installing refillable, pump-action dispensers in guest rooms• Offering a book exchange at thehotel’s library to reduce paper waste• Returning bulk containers to suppliersfor reuse• Onsite composting of all green wastefrom the central kitchen in an ‘aerobin’for use on staff’s personal gardens• Recycling all deep-frying oils from thecentral kitchen into bio-fuel• Reusing all cardboard boxes by thelocal post-office• Giving preference to suppliers withproducts made from recycled content.For example, all the hotel’s officepaper, toilet tissues and paper towelsare made from recycled paper• Giving preference to suppliers withproducts that are recyclable. Forexample, the site recycles 90% of itswaste through specialist companies(paper waste, glass, plastics andfluorescent globes)• Giving preference to biodegradableproducts such as bio-degradable bin-liners and key cards made from cornstarch
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing waste to landfillEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, Egypthas reduced the volume of waste ithas reduced the volume of waste ithas reduced the volume of waste ithas reduced the volume of waste itsends to landfill by 95% over the foursends to landfill by 95% over the foursends to landfill by 95% over the foursends to landfill by 95% over the fouryears it hayears it hayears it hayears it has been benchmarking solids been benchmarking solids been benchmarking solids been benchmarking solidwaste.waste.waste.waste.The site’s remarkably low waste volumes(0.1 litre of waste sent to landfill perguest night) can be attributed to a rangeof waste reduction and recyclinginitiatives including its most successfulinitiative that involves segregating wasteinto colour coded garbage bags andcontainers. This occurs initially in-housefollowed by further segregation at the ElGouna ‘Green Area’ resulting in a veryresulting in a veryresulting in a veryresulting in a verysuccessful 93% recycling rate.successful 93% recycling rate.successful 93% recycling rate.successful 93% recycling rate.The success of this initiative has relied onstaff following appropriate wastemanagement practices. Departmenttrainers monitor and update staff onwaste management practices on aweekly basis whilst regular reviews arecarried out by heads of department andthe training manager.Things to consider at each stage:Things to consider at each stage:Things to consider at each stage:Things to consider at each stage:When reviewing waste managementprocedures and identifying waste reductionopportunities, the following should beconsidered across all areas and at each stageof the waste management hierarchy:• Supply chain managementSupply chain managementSupply chain managementSupply chain management:::: How canwe work with both suppliers and wastecontractors to minimise waste quantitiesreceived and maximise waste reuse andrecycling opportunities?• Standard operating proceduresStandard operating proceduresStandard operating proceduresStandard operating procedures:::: Do wehave clear standard operating procedureswhich address waste issues and specifyappropriate procedures for wastemanagement?• Training and educationTraining and educationTraining and educationTraining and education:::: Do we trainand educate staff and guests on standardoperating and waste managementpractices?• Monitoring and reviewMonitoring and reviewMonitoring and reviewMonitoring and review:::: Do wecontinually monitor and reviewprocedures to ensure wastemanagement processes are beingfollowed and are working properly?Eliminate/AvoidEliminate/AvoidEliminate/AvoidEliminate/AvoidThe best way to reduce waste to landfill is totry and eliminate as much waste as possible.Ways to eliminate or avoid waste requireinnovative thinking about the businessprocedures and product purchasing. Becritical when assessing whether productsand procedures add value or are superfluousto the business operations. Investigate thefollowing opportunities to eliminate or avoidwaste:• SubstitutingSubstitutingSubstitutingSubstituting one product for another:one product for another:one product for another:one product for another:If there is a waste of a particular concern(such as hazardous or non-recyclablewaste) are there products which could besubstituted to eliminate this wastealtogether? Could a new piece ofequipment help to eliminate this waste?For example, eliminating styrofoamboxes by using reusable containers orproviding refillable dispensers in guestrooms to eliminate the need forindividually wrapped toiletries• Reviewing standard operatingReviewing standard operatingReviewing standard operatingReviewing standard operatingproceduresproceduresproceduresprocedures to ensure waste reductionissues are included. For example, foodhandling procedures to include guidanceon the correct storage to eliminatewastage from spoilage or damageReduceReduceReduceReduceSome waste may be unavoidable. If wasteappears unavoidable and there is no feasibleway to substitute, avoid or eliminate theproduction of this waste, reducing thequantity of waste is the next preferred stepin the waste management hierarchy. Someopportunities to reduce waste include:• Implementing an inventory managementsystem to monitor product purchasing,storage and waste. For example,excessive food waste can result from overpurchasing and poor menu planning• Discussing opportunities to reducepackaging with suppliers. These mightinclude returnable containers, bulkpurchasing, reducing the amount ofpackaging or increasing its recycledcontent or recyclability• Maximising visibility, reducing clutterand shortening the distance productstravel to decrease the likelihood ofproduct damage and accidents such asspills• Use visual reminders such as signs andcolour coding to help with wastereduction, reuse and recycling initiatives• Keeping equipment well maintained andoperating efficiently. For example, testand recalibrate oven and refrigeratorthermostats to prevent food being spoilt• Design areas to reduce waste. Forexample, could kitchen surfaces beredesigned to reduce cleaningrequirements?Developing standardproceduresDeveloping standard procedures can helpto eliminate and reduce waste. A numberof useful housekeeping strategies areavailable to assist businesses identify andminimise unplanned wastes. Some keystrategies derived from the “5’S”systematic framework for goodhousekeeping practices include:• Sorting: removing all items not needed• Setting in order: placing items for easyaccess and return• Shining: cleaning and inspection tokeep items in good condition• Standardising: standards and rulesthat are easily recognised (visualmanagement)• Sustaining: continuous improvementCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptTip: Incorporate waste discussions intoregular meetings. Inform staff about howmuch waste is being generated in specificareas and the success of initiatives toreduce or recycle waste. Ensure opencommunication channels exist betweendifferent departments so they are able tocommunicate about waste issues andcollaborate on possible solutions.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing waste to landfillReuseReuseReuseReuseIf a waste cannot be eliminated and allefforts have been made to reduce thequantity of waste generated, there may beopportunities for its reuse either onsite or byexternal businesses, customers orcommunity groups. Reuse is not just aboutreusing packaging but also includespurchasing items that can be reused such ascrockery and utensils or equipment that canbe easily upgraded and repaired. Reuse isdifferent from recycling in that it involvesreusing waste without first significantlyaltering its physical form. This can beachieved through:• Onsite reuse where products orpackaging are reused for the sameprocedure or utilised in a differentprocedure or department• Offsite reuse through sale of oldequipment or donations to staff, otherbusinesses and community groupsRecycleRecycleRecycleRecycleRecycling incorporates the reuse of productmaterials in different forms or within newproducts. Recycling can be conducted onsite(such as organic waste composting) or offsiteusing waste service providers.Key issues that need to be considered whendetermining the potential for recyclingwastes include:• Quantity, quality and cost of wasterecycling• Availability of service providers andprocesses to accept waste for recyclingThe keys to successful recycling: SourceThe keys to successful recycling: SourceThe keys to successful recycling: SourceThe keys to successful recycling: Sourceseparation, standard procedures,separation, standard procedures,separation, standard procedures,separation, standard procedures,monitoring and educationmonitoring and educationmonitoring and educationmonitoring and educationSuccessful recycling relies on the carefulsegregation and sorting of different waste.Depending on the requirements of yourwaste service provider, general waste willneed to be separated into material categoriessuch as food and organics, paper andcardboard, plastics, glass, metal, e-waste andwaste to landfill. Issues can arise betweentourism operators and waste serviceproviders when poor waste separationprocedures lead to cross contamination ofrecyclable wastes. Establishing standardprocedures for waste separation andrecycling and regularly monitoring theimplementation of these procedures canhelp to reduce contamination issues. Thefollowing provide some additionalsuggestions for implementing successfulrecycling initiatives:• Provide clear and visual signs and labelsfor different waste bins (i.e. general,glass, paper, etc.). This might includepictures or colour coding to helpdistinguish waste types• Locate recycling bins near to where wasteis generated and where possible alsoprovide a general waste bin to reduce thechance of recycling being contaminatedwith non-recyclable wastes• Provide training to staff and educationmaterials to guests on what and how torecycle• Contract a licensed waste serviceprovider and ensure downstream wasterecycling facilities are appropriatelydealing with recyclable waste. Confirmcapacity and technical capabilities areappropriate for the waste types andvolumes produced by your operation• Regularly consult with your waste serviceprovider to identify irregularities such ascross contamination and review recyclingprocedures accordingly. Always belooking for new opportunities to divertwaste from landfill• Specify recyclable products andpackaging in procurement guidelines andwork with both suppliers and wasteservice providers to identifyopportunitiesTreat & disposeTreat & disposeTreat & disposeTreat & disposeThe treatment and disposal of waste shouldbe adopted as a last resort. Treatment anddisposal should be carried out through alicensed waste service provider in line withlocal laws and regulations and in a way thatcauses the least harm to the environment.Managing the receipt ofgoodsEnsure products are delivered on time andare of the correct quantity and quality toensure you are not purchasing productsthat are likely to become waste.Provide a dedicated, restricted and climatecontrolled storage area and implement aninventory management system to trackproduct stocks to help reduce spoilage andover purchase. These systems also providevaluable information to feed into productpurchasing reviews.Tip: Where possible, set up a wastesorting and segregation area and appoint astaff member responsible for maintainingrecycling procedures. If space is limiteddiscuss alternative recycling opportunitieswith your waste service provider.The Sandals Regency is located on anThe Sandals Regency is located on anThe Sandals Regency is located on anThe Sandals Regency is located on anisland and is therefore particularlyisland and is therefore particularlyisland and is therefore particularlyisland and is therefore particularlyconsciousconsciousconsciousconscious of the volume of waste itof the volume of waste itof the volume of waste itof the volume of waste itgenerates. Where possible the Resortgenerates. Where possible the Resortgenerates. Where possible the Resortgenerates. Where possible the Resortattempts to reduce its generation ofattempts to reduce its generation ofattempts to reduce its generation ofattempts to reduce its generation ofwaste by reducing or reusing itswaste by reducing or reusing itswaste by reducing or reusing itswaste by reducing or reusing itspackaging.packaging.packaging.packaging.The Resort has partnered with theWindward and Leeward Brewery in itscanister refill program. The resort returnsaround 175, empty 9 litre beer canisters tothe beer supplier each week, where theyare washed and reused. This program hasreduced the total amount of wastereduced the total amount of wastereduced the total amount of wastereduced the total amount of wastegoing to landfill by around 82m3 as wellgoing to landfill by around 82m3 as wellgoing to landfill by around 82m3 as wellgoing to landfill by around 82m3 as wellas saving valuable raw materials, energyas saving valuable raw materials, energyas saving valuable raw materials, energyas saving valuable raw materials, energyand waterand waterand waterand water that would have been requiredto manufacture new canisters.Other actions include:As the island does not currently have anyrecycling services the Resort ships its glass,plastics and cardboard to recycling plantsoff the island. In some cases the crushedglass is used in construction by localcontractors. All food waste is donated topig farmers in a nearby community.Purchasing in bulk and working with thetwo other Sandals Resorts on the island toreduce packaging.Training staff to segregate waste and thehotel has systems in place to closelymonitor their efforts.The resort’s 210 acres generateconsiderable amounts of green wastewhich is composted on-site and used formulching.Old furniture and used linen are donatedto the community or to near-by medicalfacilities.The Resort is undertaking trials to see ifthey can recycle their waste kitchen oil tocreate a bio-diesel for the resort’smotorised boats.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Sandals Regency LaSandals Regency LaSandals Regency LaSandals Regency La Toc Golf ResortToc Golf ResortToc Golf ResortToc Golf Resortand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indiesand Spa, St Lucia, West Indies
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Sydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionSydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre (SCEC), Australia.Centre (SCEC), Australia.Centre (SCEC), Australia.Centre (SCEC), Australia.Green ProcurementProducts purchased and consumed byProducts purchased and consumed byProducts purchased and consumed byProducts purchased and consumed bytourism businesses can have significanttourism businesses can have significanttourism businesses can have significanttourism businesses can have significantenvironmental and social impacts that areenvironmental and social impacts that areenvironmental and social impacts that areenvironmental and social impacts that areimportant to consider duringimportant to consider duringimportant to consider duringimportant to consider duringprocurement. Staff responsible forprocurement. Staff responsible forprocurement. Staff responsible forprocurement. Staff responsible forpurchasing products need to be aware ofpurchasing products need to be aware ofpurchasing products need to be aware ofpurchasing products need to be aware ofthe rangethe rangethe rangethe range of potential impacts of aof potential impacts of aof potential impacts of aof potential impacts of aproduct. This factsheet aims toproduct. This factsheet aims toproduct. This factsheet aims toproduct. This factsheet aims to provideprovideprovideprovidesome guidance on how to adequatelysome guidance on how to adequatelysome guidance on how to adequatelysome guidance on how to adequatelyassess and compare potential products toassess and compare potential products toassess and compare potential products toassess and compare potential products toreduce the environmental impact of theirreduce the environmental impact of theirreduce the environmental impact of theirreduce the environmental impact of theirtourism business.tourism business.tourism business.tourism business.Sustainable procurement is closely alignedwith waste reduction initiatives. Along withstandard procurement considerations suchas cost, health and safety and availability, itis important to initially consider:• Whether the product is essential• If the need can be met by resources orproducts already available• Whether the use of products can bereduced• How the products purchased may impactcurrent waste management strategies(i.e. can the product be reused orrecycled?)For more information on waste managementconsiderations, refer to Fact sheet 8 –Reducing Waste to Landfill.Where to start?1.1.1.1. Think of sustainable procurement asincremental and start by choosing a smallselection of products you regularly purchasethat have clear environmental or socialimpacts that are readily known andunderstood2e.g. items with packaging that isnot biodegradable or that cannot be reusedor recycled leading to waste being sent tolandfill, wasting natural resources andincreasing greenhouse gas emissions.First consider what the main environmentaland social issues are and what criteria couldbe used to start differentiating betweenproducts. It might be easier to assessproducts on one impact initially andgradually work towards incorporating moreenvironmental or social aspects.Table 1 provides some examples of criteria fordifferent stages of the product life cycle toassist with differentiating between products.Table 1: Examples of product comparisonTable 1: Examples of product comparisonTable 1: Examples of product comparisonTable 1: Examples of product comparisoncriteriacriteriacriteriacriteriaImpact ofExamples of criteria to startdifferentiating between productsResourceextractionIs the product made fromrenewable, sustainable and naturalresources? What is the product’srecycled content?Is resource extraction having anunsustainable impact oncommunities?Production:What is the product’s embodiedenergy, water, waste andgreenhouse gas emissions?How much packaging is used?Are there any toxic chemicals(VOC’s, heavy metals, carcinogens)or ozone depleting substancesbeing emitted?Does the production and sale of theproduct align with fair tradestandards?What are labour conditions like?Are there concerns about humanrights abuse (for children inparticular)?TransportWhere is the productmanufactured?Are equivalent products availablelocally?How far does the product have tobe transported? What mode oftransport is used?UseAre there any health and safetyconcerns for staff, guests andcommunities (i.e. toxicity andsanitation)?Is the quality and durability of theproduct appropriate?Can the product easily be repairedand/or upgraded?Is the product fit for purpose (i.e.size, quantity and applicationefficiency)?DisposalIs the product biodegradable?Are there any environmentaltoxicity concerns for disposal?Can the product be recycled orreused?EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 9999The Sydney Convention and ExhibitionCentre, Darling Harbour, Australia uponreviewing its purchasing proceduresdecided it would no longer accept fooddeliveries in Styrofoam packaging whichcould not be recycled. Thanks to thecooperation of the venue’s supplier, fooddeliveries now arrive in recyclable andreusable packaging.Procurement PolicyThe most effective way to ensure greenprocurement is considered is to developstandard procurement policies to helpstaff select the most suitable productavailable with the least environmental andsocial impacts.A procurement policy should consider thefull range of environmental, social andeconomic issues across the lifecycle of aproduct (from extraction of resources,through production, transport, purchase,use, final disposal and everything inbetween). Policies should be simple andclear and outline decision makingstrategies that incorporate greenprocurement initiatives. Policies shouldspecify:• The types of products that can bepurchased• Environmental, social and economicissues to consider• The basis of product comparison (i.eper 100 sheets of office paper)• The approval procedures to befollowedMake sure policies are continuouslyreviewed and updated as new informationon products becomes availableWhat defines a sustainableproduct?A sustainable product is the result of adesign process in which environmental,social, ethical and economic questionswere partly or totally integrated1.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing waste to landfill2.2.2.2. Next, assess the functionality, availabilityand difference in costs to determine whethercapital cost of purchasing theenvironmentally or socially preferredproduct. When making purchasing decisionsit is very important to take a holistic view andnot just focus on the initial capital cost butalso consider the many hidden costs such as:• Operational costs including water,energy, waste and ongoing cleaning andmaintenance• Repair, replacement, disposal or resalecosts• Administration and regulation costs• Staff training and health and safetyconsiderations3Lifecycle costing comparisons clearly showthat green products do not necessarily costmore when operational costs are considered.The higher initial investment can be offset bylower ongoing savings in resources such aswater, energy and waste4.A lifecycle costing tool incorporating theoption of environmental costs has beendeveloped by the Swedish EnvironmentalManagement Council. The tool is freelyavailable online to assist with procurementdecision making. See:www.msr.se/en/green_procurement/LCCwww.msr.se/en/green_procurement/LCCwww.msr.se/en/green_procurement/LCCwww.msr.se/en/green_procurement/LCCThe EU Energy Star can also assist withassessing lifecycle energy costs. See: www.euwww.euwww.euwww.eu----energystar.org/en/en_calculator.shtmlenergystar.org/en/en_calculator.shtmlenergystar.org/en/en_calculator.shtmlenergystar.org/en/en_calculator.shtml3.3.3.3. Finally, consider the transparency andcredibility of available information and data.An environmentally or socially preferableproduct is a product which has an overallminimum environmental or social impactthroughout its lifecycle (i.e from theextraction of resources to make the productto its final disposal). Assess what theinformation is telling you about the lifecycleof the product and how the information hasbeen developed. Ask the following questions:• What stages of the lifecycle are includedand are there aspects which have beenleft out?• Is the information verified by anindependent third party?• Does the information apply to theoperating procedures of your business?• Are products being compared on thesame basis?How do I find productinformation?To find out the main environmental andsocial issues which are relevant to yourproducts and services and the creditability ofinformation about your product, you mayneed to:1. Research the company and its productsResearch the company and its productsResearch the company and its productsResearch the company and its productsto get an insight into what importantaspects need to be considered and howwell the company is addressing theseissues:− Does the company’s web site orpromotional material mention codesof practice, standards, charters orguidelines by which they abide?− Does the company have anenvironmental or social responsibilitypolicy, relevant certifications and/orEnvironmental ManagementSystems?2. Look for products with informationLook for products with informationLook for products with informationLook for products with informationavailable on their environmental andavailable on their environmental andavailable on their environmental andavailable on their environmental andsocial impacts across their lifecycle.social impacts across their lifecycle.social impacts across their lifecycle.social impacts across their lifecycle.Lifecycle assessments (LCAs) provideimportant and useful information,however they are quite sophisticated anddetailed so they will not always beavailable3. Consider rating labelsConsider rating labelsConsider rating labelsConsider rating labels such as energy orwater ratings or ‘stars’. They can provideuseful information to procurers whencomparing products, but are generallysingle issue focused4. Environmental and ecolabelsEnvironmental and ecolabelsEnvironmental and ecolabelsEnvironmental and ecolabels can makepurchasing decisions easier however;they need to be critically assessed basedon the operation of the business. Anecolabel is basically a label whichidentifies overall environmentalpreference of a product or service basedon lifecycle considerations5.− What to look out for in an ecolabel:− Independent third party certification− Comprehensive and based onlifecycle considerations− Standards developed withparticipation from a range ofstakeholders, based on soundscientific evidence and available forreview− Transparency of informationprovided− Ongoing auditing and recertificationrequirements− Compare products of similar functionEco-labels should not be used exclusively. If aproduct or service is able to demonstrateequivalent performance, it should not beexcluded from procurement considerations.TipIt is important to compare products ofequivalent function. For example:• Paper products:Paper products:Paper products:Paper products: Environmental andsocial impacts should be compared persheet of paper (or per 100 or 1,000sheets of paper)• Chemicals and pesticides:Chemicals and pesticides:Chemicals and pesticides:Chemicals and pesticides: Theseproducts should be compared based ontheir application efficiency andeffectiveness. For chemicals, determinethe full range of impacts to clean aspecified area such as per 10m2, whilstfor pesticides consider the impacts ofpesticide use per 1m2 of effectivepesticide treatmentEl Gouna Movenpick in El Gouna, Egyptpurchase environmentally friendlyproducts through a central controlsystem which ensures preference is givento bulk purchasing and ecolabelledproducts. 99% of internal surfacecleaners are ecolabelled with trainingprovided on a weekly basis to relevantemployees whilst pesticides are suppliedby an environmentally certified companyapproved by local authorities.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna Movenpick,El Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptEl Gouna, EgyptCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:The Langham Hotel, AucklandThe Langham Hotel, AucklandThe Langham Hotel, AucklandThe Langham Hotel, AucklandNew ZealNew ZealNew ZealNew ZealandandandandThe Langham Hotel in Auckland, NewZealand has developed a Green SuppliersQuestionnaire and Sustainable ProcurementPolicy which applies the cradle to graveapproach to all procurement activity.Suppliers are requested to provideenvironmental credentials or evidence of anenvironmental management system. A listof preferred product characteristics hasbeen developed stipulating a range ofpreferred environmental criteria. Thepurchasing manager is trained onsustainable procurement by attendingconferences and workshops.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing waste to landfillProcurers should be aware of the three typesof eco-labels:• Type I ecolabelsType I ecolabelsType I ecolabelsType I ecolabels have a set ofpredetermined requirements to identifyproducts which are environmentallypreferable• Type 2 ecolabelsType 2 ecolabelsType 2 ecolabelsType 2 ecolabels make self-declaredenvironmental claims. Assuranceregarding the accuracy of claims can beprovided through verification and a clear,transparent, scientifically sound anddocumented evaluation methodology6• Type 3 ecolabelsType 3 ecolabelsType 3 ecolabelsType 3 ecolabels provide quantifiedenvironmental information on thelifecycle of a product to enablecomparisons between products fulfillingthe same function. They should:− Involve independently verifiedlifecycle assessment (LCA) data− Be developed using predeterminedparameters− Be subject to certification by anecolabel system e.g. Green SealThe United Nations Office for Project Services(UNOPS) has developed a guide to reliableand relevant international environmentallabels. The guide is not intended to beexclusive or exhaustive, but can help toprovide some guidance and information forproduct purchasing. The guide is available at:www.ungm.orwww.ungm.orwww.ungm.orwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsg/SustainableProcurement/toolsg/SustainableProcurement/toolsg/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/EnvLabels_executive%20summary.pdfUN/EnvLabels_executive%20summary.pdfUN/EnvLabels_executive%20summary.pdfUN/EnvLabels_executive%20summary.pdfFor a complete list of ecolabels worldwidevisit the Global Ecolabelling Network (GEN)at www.globalecolabelling.netwww.globalecolabelling.netwww.globalecolabelling.netwww.globalecolabelling.netSpecific issues to consider forcleaning, pesticide and paperproductsChemiChemiChemiChemicals (cleaning and pesticides)cals (cleaning and pesticides)cals (cleaning and pesticides)cals (cleaning and pesticides)Cleaning chemicals and pesticides can havedetrimental effects on the environment andhealth and safety of employees, guests andthe community. It is essential that cleaning iseffective to provide sanitary and safefacilities, however there are countlessproducts now available that can achieveequivalent performance at a reduced cost tothe environment.Request suppliers provide you with MaterialSafety Data Sheets (MSDS) on the chemicalproducts you are purchasing. Thisinformation will provide you with the keyenvironmental and health and safetyinformation required for making informeddecisions.TipThe Responsible Care Initiative is a globalvoluntary initiative of the chemical andpharmaceutical industry. Find out whetheryour supplier has signed up to the initiativeand what steps they have taken toimplement the “Fundamental Features” ofthe initiative. For more information visit:www.responsiblecare.orgwww.responsiblecare.orgwww.responsiblecare.orgwww.responsiblecare.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe TajTajTajTaj ReReReResidencysidencysidencysidencyBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreBangaloreThe Taj Residency in Bangalore, India usesJohnson Diversey cleaning productsbecause the company is committed toenvironmental stewardship not only in itsproducts but also in the design,production and use. More than 100 of itsproducts have been certified byindependent third party groups such asGreen Seal, Ecologo, EU Flower andNordic Swan. The supplier also trainsstaff in the correct use of its products.At the Taj Residency 100% of theirweedicide and fungal, rodent and insectkillers are eco-labelled Bayers productswho have been identified as a worldsustainability leader using the Dow JonesSustainability World Index for over adecade. The company has aligned itselfwith the voluntary ‘Responsible Care’initiative of the chemical andpharmaceutical industries and signed therevised Global Charter of that initiative.
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E: info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgReducing waste to landfillCleaning productsCleaning productsCleaning productsCleaning productsCleaning products vary considerably in theircomposition, function, availability andeffectiveness. Ecolabelled products can helpto distinguish some cleaning chemicals. TheGreen Seal standard recommends cleaningchemicals be available for purchase inconcentrated form (to reduce packaging) andcontain minimal phosphorous. In addition,the standard specifies some ingredientswhich should be prohibited:• Heavy metals including, lead, hexavalentchromium, or selenium; either in theelemental form or compounds• 2-butoxyethanol• Alkylphenol ethoxylates• PhthalatesPesticides and herbicidesPesticides and herbicidesPesticides and herbicidesPesticides and herbicidesThe first issue to consider when assessingpesticide and herbicide use is whether theyare actually needed:• Can the area be hand weeded instead ofusing an herbicide?• Are there passive design options whichmight negate the need for pesticide use,for example:− planting with natural pesticide plants− regrading areas to prevent waterpooling which encourages pests− better housekeeping including notleaving food scraps or rubbish around− segregating problem areas to reducethe amount of pesticide required− installing physical barriers to preventpest invasion− mulching to prevent weedsAlong with the Responsible Care Initiative,the Pesticide Action Network provides aninternational database on pesticide toxicityand regulatory information. For moreinformation visit: www.pesticideinfo.orgwww.pesticideinfo.orgwww.pesticideinfo.orgwww.pesticideinfo.orgPaper productsPaper productsPaper productsPaper productsPaper products are common to most tourismoperations and although they can representa relatively small cost, the embodiedenvironmental impacts can be significant.Key issues to consider when purchasingpaper products include:• Whether the paper comes fromsustainable forestry practices (such asForest Stewardship Council (FSC)certified)• Chemicals used during manufacture (forexample chlorine bleaching)• Recycled content• RecyclabilityFor more informationFor more information on environmental standards for cleaning products visit:• Green Seal: www.greenseal.org/certification/cleaning_products.cfmwww.greenseal.org/certification/cleaning_products.cfmwww.greenseal.org/certification/cleaning_products.cfmwww.greenseal.org/certification/cleaning_products.cfm• Euro Flower:ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htm• Australian Environmental Choice: www.geca.orgwww.geca.orgwww.geca.orgwww.geca.org.au/StandardsRegister.htm.au/StandardsRegister.htm.au/StandardsRegister.htm.au/StandardsRegister.htmFor more information on sustainable paper products, review the standards available through:• GreenSeal: www.greenseal.org/certification/paper_products.www.greenseal.org/certification/paper_products.www.greenseal.org/certification/paper_products.www.greenseal.org/certification/paper_products.cfmcfmcfmcfm• EU Flower:ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htmec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/ecolabelled_products/product_categories_en.htm• Good Environmental Choice Australia: www.geca.org.au/StandardsRegister.htmwww.geca.org.au/StandardsRegister.htmwww.geca.org.au/StandardsRegister.htmwww.geca.org.au/StandardsRegister.htmWhere to go for more information on green procurement and sustainable products:• United Nations Global Marketplace,www.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/moreInfo.aspxwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/moreInfo.aspxwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/moreInfo.aspxwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/moreInfo.aspx• UNOPS, 2009, A Guide To Environmental Labelswww.ungm.org/Publications/sp/Env_Labels_Guide.pdfwww.ungm.org/Publications/sp/Env_Labels_Guide.pdfwww.ungm.org/Publications/sp/Env_Labels_Guide.pdfwww.ungm.org/Publications/sp/Env_Labels_Guide.pdf• European Commission, 2004, Buying Green! - A Handbook on Environmental PublicProcurementReferences1UN – Sustainable procurement: Buying for a better world -www.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININGResGResGResGResourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdf2UN – Sustainable procurement: Buying for a better world -www.ungm.org/Suwww.ungm.org/Suwww.ungm.org/Suwww.ungm.org/SustainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININGResstainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININGResstainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININGResstainableProcurement/toolsUN/TRAININGResourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdfourceBook_UNSustainableProcurementTraining.pdf3UNDP Practice Series - Environmental Procurement Practice Guide4UNOPS 2009, A GUIDE TO ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS - forProcurement Practitioners of the United Nations System5Global Ecolabelling Network (GEN), “Introduction to Ecolabelling”,July 2004, p.1. www.globalecolabelling.net/pdf/pub_pdf01.pdfwww.globalecolabelling.net/pdf/pub_pdf01.pdfwww.globalecolabelling.net/pdf/pub_pdf01.pdfwww.globalecolabelling.net/pdf/pub_pdf01.pdf6ISO 14021:1999 - Environmental labels and declarations - Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling)7ISO 14025:2006 - Environmental labels and declarations - Type IIIenvironmental declarations - Principles and procedures
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgCase Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Taj ReTaj ReTaj ReTaj ResidencysidencysidencysidencyBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaBangalore, IndiaCommunity service is one of the corevalues in the Taj Group of Hotels. Sinceinception, the company has beencommitted to responsibility to society andthe community in which it operates, whichis reaffirmed by way of inclusion of aClause of Social Responsibility in thecompany’s Articles of Association. The TajResidency Hotel is one of many hotels inthe Group that has undertaken a range ofinitiatives to support local communities,including:• Adoption of a slum where theyprimarily work with AIDS affectedvictims. The objective is to createlasting change in the lives of children,families and communities living inpoverty and injustice.• In-kind assistance to communities bysending clothes and bed sheets to theFriend in Need Society who providenecessities such as shelter and clothingfor aged and destitute people.• Engaging with a Public Charitable Trustwhich works to improve the workingand economic condition of ragpickersand an ecological sustainable wastemanagement system by engaging withmunicipal authorities and communitygroups to identify solutions. This isreducing the threat to public healthand environmental degradation.• Involvement with a NGO which enablesunderprivileged youth to “Learn, Earnand Stand Tall”. This is a vocationaltraining centre for the underprivilegedyouth offering free three monthprograms with assured placement atthe end of the course. Taj Residency hastaken three trainees and is providingtraining in housekeeping of food andbeverage production departments.Supporting LocalCommunitiesSupporting and sustaining localSupporting and sustaining localSupporting and sustaining localSupporting and sustaining localcommunities underpins a triple bottomcommunities underpins a triple bottomcommunities underpins a triple bottomcommunities underpins a triple bottomline approach to sustainable tourism whereline approach to sustainable tourism whereline approach to sustainable tourism whereline approach to sustainable tourism whereeconomics, environmental and socialeconomics, environmental and socialeconomics, environmental and socialeconomics, environmental and socialthinking are all integrated into corethinking are all integrated into corethinking are all integrated into corethinking are all integrated into corebusiness activities. Strong, rebusiness activities. Strong, rebusiness activities. Strong, rebusiness activities. Strong, respected,spected,spected,spected,healthy and prosperous local communitieshealthy and prosperous local communitieshealthy and prosperous local communitieshealthy and prosperous local communitiesare more likely to be hospitable to visitorsare more likely to be hospitable to visitorsare more likely to be hospitable to visitorsare more likely to be hospitable to visitorsand concerned for their welfare and safety.and concerned for their welfare and safety.and concerned for their welfare and safety.and concerned for their welfare and safety.They often have a greater ability andThey often have a greater ability andThey often have a greater ability andThey often have a greater ability andwillingness to preserve their own culturewillingness to preserve their own culturewillingness to preserve their own culturewillingness to preserve their own cultureand the destination on which the tourand the destination on which the tourand the destination on which the tourand the destination on which the tourismismismismoperator relies, resulting in rewarding andoperator relies, resulting in rewarding andoperator relies, resulting in rewarding andoperator relies, resulting in rewarding andauthentic visitor experiences.authentic visitor experiences.authentic visitor experiences.authentic visitor experiences.This fact sheet has been developed in linewith the goals of The Global Partnership forSustainable Tourism Criteria (GSTC)Partnership1. The key areas of communitysupport involve government lobbying andeducation, infrastructure and planning,community engagement and consultation,employment, business partnerships andproduct development and guest education.The focus is on identifying opportunities fortourism operations to provide:• Financial assistance (loans, donations,bursaries, business partnerships etc.);• Technical assistance (businessmanagement, engineering and design,planning etc.); or• In-kind service (use of facilities such asconference rooms, food, human resources,equipment, etc.)Government lobbying andeducationGSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.1. The company actively supportsB.1. The company actively supportsB.1. The company actively supportsB.1. The company actively supportsinitiatives for social and infrastructureinitiatives for social and infrastructureinitiatives for social and infrastructureinitiatives for social and infrastructurecommunity development including, amongcommunity development including, amongcommunity development including, amongcommunity development including, amongothers, education, health, and sanitation.others, education, health, and sanitation.others, education, health, and sanitation.others, education, health, and sanitation.Consider government lobbying andcommunity engagement on social issues suchas health and education services.Work with the community to identifyeducation needs and provide financial,technical or in-kind resources and assistanceto deliver training and support programs for:• Health and sanitation (HIV/AIDS, TB,malaria etc.)• Literacy and language courses• Financial and business management skills(developing business plans and fundingproposals)• Environmental management andmanaging special tourist sitesHelp identify appropriate training providersand provide resources and assistance todeliver training through financial, technicaland in-kind support. This might include:• Local community members co-trainingwith employees• Funding (or in kind contribution such asfood and board) for training programs• Providing buildings as classrooms• Employee run community trainingSet targets for the percentage of financialassistance provided to local communityinitiatives based on total revenue ofoperations. Continually review and increasethese targets if possible. For example, for abusiness revenue of $2 million the targetmight be set at 1% to increase by 0.5% peryear for 5 years ($20,000 initially followed byan additional $10,000 every year following).GSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.6. The company has implementedB.6. The company has implementedB.6. The company has implementedB.6. The company has implementeda polia polia polia policy against commercial exploitation,cy against commercial exploitation,cy against commercial exploitation,cy against commercial exploitation,particularly of children and adolescents,particularly of children and adolescents,particularly of children and adolescents,particularly of children and adolescents,including sexual exploitation.including sexual exploitation.including sexual exploitation.including sexual exploitation.Implement a company policy against thecommercial and sexual exploitation of localcommunities (especially children).Ensure staff and guests are aware of thepolicy and that any breaches to the companypolicy will not be tolerated. For moreinformation visit: http://www.thecode.orghttp://www.thecode.orghttp://www.thecode.orghttp://www.thecode.orgDid You Know?To assist with facilitating communityengagement, consider appointing acommunity liaison officer to facilitateactive communication with thecommunity. Also, promote your initiativesto staff and encourage them to getinvolved with community initiatives. Youmay even consider staff incentives such asdiscounts for local businesses to encouragesupport and commitment.EarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck FactEarthCheck Fact Sheet:Sheet:Sheet:Sheet: 10101010
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgSupporting Local CommunitiesInfrastructure and planningGSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.9. The activB.9. The activB.9. The activB.9. The activities of the companyities of the companyities of the companyities of the companydo not jeopardize the provision of basicdo not jeopardize the provision of basicdo not jeopardize the provision of basicdo not jeopardize the provision of basicservices, such as water, energy, orservices, such as water, energy, orservices, such as water, energy, orservices, such as water, energy, orsanitation, tosanitation, tosanitation, tosanitation, to neighbouringneighbouringneighbouringneighbouring communities.communities.communities.communities.Consider the operations current and futureimpact on local infrastructure and resourcesand how your operation could be directlyinvolved in infrastructure improvements orwhat kind of financial or technical assistanceyou could provide. This might includeimproved transport options such as roads,bridges and public transport. Consider thefollowing issues:• What is the impact of current operationson traffic, congestion and roadconditions?• Is there adequate public transport?• What financial, technical or in-kindsupport might be needed to help improvetransport infrastructure?Water, energy and natural resources:• Does the local community haveappropriate technology and sufficientaccess to water, energy and naturalresources?• What are the current and futureestimates of water, energy and naturalresource demand on local resources andwill tourism demand cause deficiencies(or price rises) to water, energy or othernatural resource supply to localcommunities?• Are there projects which could beundertaken to help reduce, reuse orrecycle within the community to improvethe sustainability of water, energy andnatural resource supplies? Whatassistance (financial, technical or in-kindsupport) could be provided?• Are there technologies or alternatesources of water, energy or naturalresources that can be identified to reduceresource consumption within thecommunity?2Solid waste and wastewater systems:• What are the current and futureestimates of waste generation and arelocal services and infrastructureadequate?• Are tourism operations causing anyhealth and/or sanitation concerns in thelocal community?• Could tourism operations facilitate reuseor recycling schemes within thecommunity?• What assistance (financial, technical or in-kind support) could be provided to helpinitiate and maintain these schemes?3Hospitals, fire brigades and emergencyinfrastructure and planning• What are the most likely emergencysituations that could potentially occur inthe region (floods, tsunamis, earthquakesetc.)?• Are there appropriate managementsystems in place to deal with theseemergency situations if they arose?• Will the emergency facilities available,such as hospitals and fire brigades, beable to cope with an emergency situation?• What services (such as bedding, shelter,human and financial resources or medicalaid) could tourism operators in the regionprovide if an emergency situation arose?• Is the local community aware of potentialemergency situations and how torespond?Schools and sports facilities• What local schools are in the area?• What facilities or financial assistancecould tourism operators provide (such asbooks, donations, scholarships to localschool children, transport, facilities forteachers, etc.)?• Are there enough sport and recreationfacilities available to local communitiesand their children?• Could tourism operators help fostercollaborations between internationalorganizations and schools and localcommunities?Community engagement andconsultationInvolve communities in consultation andInvolve communities in consultation andInvolve communities in consultation andInvolve communities in consultation andplanning processes for tourismplanning processes for tourismplanning processes for tourismplanning processes for tourismdevelopments and work with communitiesdevelopments and work with communitiesdevelopments and work with communitiesdevelopments and work with communitiesand governments to identify infrastructureand governments to identify infrastructureand governments to identify infrastructureand governments to identify infrastructuredeficiendeficiendeficiendeficiencies.cies.cies.cies.There are many different ways to engage andconsult with communities. Be considerate ofthe individual needs and customs ofcommunities. Every community is differentand will require a different approach toconsultation. The following provide someoptions to consider when engagingcommunities:• Community meetings• Interviews• Public exhibitions, displays andinformation sheets• Advisory committees• Media and advertising• Written submissions• Telephone polls and surveys• Focus groups• Open days• Guided information tours• Conferences or workshops• Residents’ feedback sessions• Pictorial and photographic illustration4.EmploymentGSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.2. Local residents are employed,B.2. Local residents are employed,B.2. Local residents are employed,B.2. Local residents are employed,including in management positions.including in management positions.including in management positions.including in management positions.Training is offered as necessary.Training is offered as necessary.Training is offered as necessary.Training is offered as necessary.GSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.7. The companyB.7. The companyB.7. The companyB.7. The company is equitable inis equitable inis equitable inis equitable inhiring women and local minorities,hiring women and local minorities,hiring women and local minorities,hiring women and local minorities,including in management positions, whileincluding in management positions, whileincluding in management positions, whileincluding in management positions, whilerestraining childrestraining childrestraining childrestraining child labourlabourlabourlabour....GSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.8. The international or nationalB.8. The international or nationalB.8. The international or nationalB.8. The international or nationallegal protection of employees is respected,legal protection of employees is respected,legal protection of employees is respected,legal protection of employees is respected,and employees are paid a living wage.and employees are paid a living wage.and employees are paid a living wage.and employees are paid a living wage.It is important that tourism operationsemploy local people to help keep the financialbenefits associated with the operation in thecommunity. Set employment targets for localpeople at your operation, for example 80% ofall employees live within 20km of operations.Continually review and increase these targetsover time.When advertising and recruiting, ensure:• Hiring policies are fair and equitablewithout bias on the basis of gender,ethnicity, age or disability. Advertisepositions locally and be open andtransparent about job requirements andselection criteria. Provide feedback on jobsubmissions• Fair wages are paid above the minimumstandard for your region. Incorporateadditional benefits into employmentcontracts including sick and holiday pay,reasonable working hours, overtime andhealth cover• Additional employee assistance (whereappropriate) is included such as freeuniforms, transport, meals,accommodation or child care• Training is provided for employees andopportunities provided for localcommunity members to participate• Staff are provided with incentives andbonuses linked to performance or servicelevels5
    • EarthCheck Pty Ltd. PO Box 12149. George Street. Queensland 4003. Australia. T: +61 7 3238 1900 E:info@earthcheck.org www.earthcheck.orgSupporting Local CommunitiesThe Sydney Novotel held an Indigenous JobReady Food & Beverage Training Programfor Indigenous job seekers. Participantsengaged in a five day program to equip thecandidates with the appropriate skills andknowledge to commence within breakfastshifts or conferences and events. From thisprogram the hotel employed three newIndigenous employees.Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:Case Study:TheTheTheThe Novotel, Sydney, AustraliaNovotel, Sydney, AustraliaNovotel, Sydney, AustraliaNovotel, Sydney, AustraliaBusiness partnerships andproduct developmentGSTCGSTCGSTCGSTC ---- B.3. Local and fairB.3. Local and fairB.3. Local and fairB.3. Local and fair----trade services andtrade services andtrade services andtrade services andgoods are purchased by the business,goods are purchased by the business,goods are purchased by the business,goods are purchased by the business,where available.where available.where available.where available.GSGSGSGSTCTCTCTC ---- B.4. The company offers the meansB.4. The company offers the meansB.4. The company offers the meansB.4. The company offers the meansfor local small entrepreneurs to developfor local small entrepreneurs to developfor local small entrepreneurs to developfor local small entrepreneurs to developand sell sustainable products that areand sell sustainable products that areand sell sustainable products that areand sell sustainable products that arebased on the area’s nature, history, andbased on the area’s nature, history, andbased on the area’s nature, history, andbased on the area’s nature, history, andculture (including food and drink, crafts,culture (including food and drink, crafts,culture (including food and drink, crafts,culture (including food and drink, crafts,performance arts, agricultural products,performance arts, agricultural products,performance arts, agricultural products,performance arts, agricultural products,etc.).etc.).etc.).etc.).Business partnerships provide a mutuallybeneficial development opportunity fortourism operations and local communities. Bypartnering with local businesses, tourismoperators can benefit from promotion of theiroperation, pooled skills and resources and byproviding new and unique tourismexperiences.Partnerships can be formal contractualarrangements or informal cooperativeagreements, but be sure to consider:• Partnerships are fair, equitable andsustainable to both the community andthe businesses involved.• Documentation is prepared indicatingrights and responsibilities, financialarrangements and any other agreedterms and conditions. Ensure thisdocumentation is reviewed by all parties.Legal advice should be considered whereappropriate.• Communication channels betweenparties are clearly established andagreements are regularly reviewed.When developing or reviewing businessoperations, consider how the local communitycould be better represented. Identify thepercentage of products currently beingprocured from local businesses and settargets to increase this percentage, forexample 50% of services and products to beprocured from local businesses within 5 years.Identify business operations that could bereviewed to accommodate locally availableproducts or services:• Select food and products that areappropriate to the region and availablelocally• Develop menus based on seasonalavailability of local produce• Pay a fair and reasonable price forproducts taking into account the cost andtime required to produce. Provideinformation to visitors about theproducers, and be transparent about themark-up of any products• Promote local initiatives to guests andencourage them to also buy local produceby providing information on localrestaurants and markets• Provide retail space for local businesses tosell their products and services and helpsupport local business cooperatives bysupporting local business events• Provide assistance to local producers tohelp them meet quality and quantityspecifications and develop contracts tomaintain supply. This might includefinancial assistance through donations,loans or development support agencies.• Encourage local dealers to stock requiredproducts not available locally. Similarly,encourage and facilitate, internationalbusiness contacts to engage with localbusinesses in a fair and equitable mannerEnsure any products or services acquiredlocally abide by any laws relating to the saleof artefacts, local resources and produce.Guest educationInformed tourists lead to positive communityexperiences that help sustain tourismoperations and communities. Provideinformation to your guest on the localcommunity including:• Language• Religion• Food (and alcohol)• Local currency and prices• Community structure• Respect for cultures and customs andappropriate behaviour (dress codes,gender issues, sacred sites, etc.)• Local environment and environmentalprotection measures• Local maps and sustainable transport• Health and safety considerations• Emergency contactsTipWork with the local community to developeducational materials to provide to guests.Materials might include informationbrochures, video clips, notice boards, posters,guides, community talks and organizedcommunity tours. Establish an avenue forcommunities to continually contributeinformation and advertise communityprojects, events and activities.References1GSTC Partnership, 2008,http://www.sustainabletourismcriteria.org/2Australian Government Department of the Environment andHeritage, 2004, Steps to Sustainable Tourism3Australian Government Department of the Environment andHeritage, 2004, Steps to Sustainable Tourism4Australian Government Department of the Environment andHeritage, 2004, Steps to Sustainable Tourism5Greening the WSSD Initiative, 2003, Responsible TourismHandbook: A Guide to Good Practice For Tourism Operators