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Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper)

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Andrei Ciortea, Olivier Boissier, Antoine Zimmermann, and Adina Florea. The 4th International Workshop on the Web of Things. September, 2013.

Andrei Ciortea, Olivier Boissier, Antoine Zimmermann, and Adina Florea. The 4th International Workshop on the Web of Things. September, 2013.

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  • 1. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) Andrei Ciortea1,2 Olivier Boissier1 Antoine Zimmermann1 Adina Florea2 1 ´Ecole Nationale Sup´erieure des Mines, FAYOL-ENSMSE, LSTI, Saint-´Etienne, France 2University ”Politehnica” of Bucharest, Romania 4th International Workshop on the Web of Things September 9, 2013
  • 2. 1 On the Evolution of the Web Socialness Pervasiveness When Social meets Pervasive Pro-activeness 2 Towards a Social Web of Things Vision Objective and Motivation Challenges 3 A Layered Model for the SWoT Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 2/27
  • 3. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Socialness Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 3/27
  • 4. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Socialness Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 3/27
  • 5. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pervasiveness WoT [Guinard, 2011] Webinos Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 4/27
  • 6. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions When Social meets Pervasive WoT [Guinard, 2011] Webinos [Guinard et al., 2010] [Kranz et al., 2010] Ericsson Research Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 5/27
  • 7. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 8. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. I’m a Web user and I write my own Web. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 9. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. I’m a Web user and I write my own Web. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 10. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. I’m a Web user and I write my own Web. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 11. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. I’m a Web user and I write my own Web. • Web technologies enabled users to be proactive on the Web. • Exciting times ahead: semantic Web Technologies, Linked Data Platform, Push API, WebRTC, CoAP, etc. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 12. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness I’m a Web user and I consume content. I’m a Web user and I write my own Web. • Web technologies enabled users to be proactive on the Web. • Exciting times ahead: semantic Web Technologies, Linked Data Platform, Push API, WebRTC, CoAP, etc. • How about things? Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 6/27
  • 13. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness • Properties of agents (the weak notion of agency) [Wooldridge et al., 1995]: • social ability; • reactivity; • autonomy; • pro-activeness: the ability to exhibit goal-driven behavior by taking the initiative. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 7/27
  • 14. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness • Properties of agents (the weak notion of agency) [Wooldridge et al., 1995]: • social ability; • reactivity; • autonomy; • pro-activeness: the ability to exhibit goal-driven behavior by taking the initiative. • Multi-agent systems [Boissier, 2012]: EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 Environment Agent Interaction op2 op1 Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 7/27
  • 15. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness • Properties of agents (the weak notion of agency) [Wooldridge et al., 1995]: • social ability; • reactivity; • autonomy; • pro-activeness: the ability to exhibit goal-driven behavior by taking the initiative. • Multi-agent systems [Boissier, 2012]: role mission scheme EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 Environment Agent Organization Interaction op2 op1 group Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 7/27
  • 16. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Pro-activeness • Properties of agents (the weak notion of agency) [Wooldridge et al., 1995]: • social ability; • reactivity; • autonomy; • pro-activeness: the ability to exhibit goal-driven behavior by taking the initiative. • Multi-agent systems [Boissier, 2012]: role mission scheme EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 op2 op1 Environment Agent Organization Interaction op2 op1 group Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 7/27
  • 17. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Vision Pervasiveness Web of Things Socialness Web of People Pro-activeness Web of Agents Social Web of Things (SWoT) Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 8/27
  • 18. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Objective and Motivation • Placing autonomous and proactive things on the Web. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 9/27
  • 19. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Objective and Motivation • Placing autonomous and proactive things on the Web. • Where to start? • Extend and transform social networks into socio-technical networks (STN) by introducing autonomous and proactive things as full-fledged users and service providers. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 9/27
  • 20. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Objective and Motivation • Placing autonomous and proactive things on the Web. • Where to start? • Extend and transform social networks into socio-technical networks (STN) by introducing autonomous and proactive things as full-fledged users and service providers. • Such a STN would be suitable for: • providing a good experience to the WoT user (straightforward model of interaction); • extending the perception of things by tapping into the rich amount of information being published on social networks; • providing a framework for the development of complex WoT applications. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 9/27
  • 21. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Challenges • Enable things as active participants in an open set of social networks. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 10/27
  • 22. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Challenges • Enable things as active participants in an open set of social networks. • Enable things to reason and make decisions in achieving their goals. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 10/27
  • 23. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Challenges • Enable things as active participants in an open set of social networks. • Enable things to reason and make decisions in achieving their goals. • Enable control over the autonomy of things and enhance coordination towards achieving goals. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 10/27
  • 24. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions A Layered Approach Application Organizational Social Agency RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 11/27
  • 25. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Application Organizational Social Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Integration with APIs of social networking services. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 12/27
  • 26. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Agents as individuals Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 13/27
  • 27. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Agents as individuals Hey washing machine, do my laundry! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 13/27
  • 28. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Agents as individuals Hey washing machine, do my laundry! Washing. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 13/27
  • 29. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Agents as individuals Hey washing machine, do my laundry! Washing. Done washing. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 13/27
  • 30. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Agency Layer Agents as individuals Hey washing machine, do my laundry! Washing. Done washing. • Connectivity: Integration at the level of the social networking service (SNS). • Relationship management: Hardcoded in the agent. • Decision-making: Based on agent’s knowledge. • Coordination mechanisms: Hardcoded in the agent. • Control of autonomy: Application-level. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 13/27
  • 31. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Application Organizational Social Agents in social structures Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Decision-making based on individual knowledge. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 14/27
  • 32. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer • What would a STN look like? Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 15/27
  • 33. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer • What would a STN look like? Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 15/27
  • 34. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer • What would a STN look like? • The Socio-technical Graph (STG) is an edge-labeled directed multigraph. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 15/27
  • 35. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer • What would a STN look like? • The Socio-technical Graph (STG) is an edge-labeled directed multigraph. • Uniform interface: the set of common relevant nouns in SNSs. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 15/27
  • 36. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 37. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Hey washing machine, do my laundry! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 38. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Hey washing machine, do my laundry! What is the current power consumption in the building? Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 39. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Hey washing machine, do my laundry! What is the current power consumption in the building? Some big value! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 40. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Hey washing machine, do my laundry! What is the current power consumption in the building? Some big value! John, would it be ok to wait a bit? Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 41. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Agents in social structures Hey washing machine, do my laundry! What is the current power consumption in the building? Some big value! John, would it be ok to wait a bit? • Connectivity: Access to an open set of social networks. • Relationship management: Hardcoded in the agent. • Decision-making: Based on collective knowledge. • Coordination mechanisms: Hardcoded in the agent. • Control of autonomy: Application-level. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 16/27
  • 42. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Social Layer Application Organizational Social Agents in social structures Access to an open set of social networks. Decision-making based on collective knowledge. Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Decision-making based on individual knowledge. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 17/27
  • 43. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Application Organizational Agents in organizations Social Agents in social structures Access to an open set of social networks. Decision-making based on collective knowledge. Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Decision-making based on individual knowledge. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 18/27
  • 44. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Agents in organizations • Organizational models: AGR [Ferber et al., 2004], MOISE+ [Hubner et al., 2007], OperA [Dignum, 2004], etc. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 19/27
  • 45. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Agents in organizations • Organizational models: AGR [Ferber et al., 2004], MOISE+ [Hubner et al., 2007], OperA [Dignum, 2004], etc. • Organizations can enable control on 3 dimensions: structural, communication, and functional. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 19/27
  • 46. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Agents in organizations • Organizational models: AGR [Ferber et al., 2004], MOISE+ [Hubner et al., 2007], OperA [Dignum, 2004], etc. • Organizations can enable control on 3 dimensions: structural, communication, and functional. • A SWoT app for student houses: • Setting: • 6 floors; • 20 studios and 1 laundry room per floor; • 1 washing machine and 1 dryer per laundry room. • Objectives: • Enhance interaction among students. • Improve the QoS of the laundromats. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 19/27
  • 47. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Structural control Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 20/27
  • 48. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Structural control Hello StudentHouse! I’m Joe’s door and I’m enacting role Door in group 3rd floor. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 20/27
  • 49. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Structural control Hello StudentHouse! I’m Joe’s door and I’m enacting role Door in group 3rd floor. Hello Joe’s door! In this student house, all Doors are connected. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 20/27
  • 50. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Structural control Hello StudentHouse! I’m Joe’s door and I’m enacting role Door in group 3rd floor. Hello Joe’s door! In this student house, all Doors are connected. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 20/27
  • 51. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Structural control Hello StudentHouse! I’m Joe’s door and I’m enacting role Door in group 3rd floor. Hello Joe’s door! In this student house, all Doors are connected. • The structural specification can encourage or discourage connections in the STG. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 20/27
  • 52. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Communication control Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 21/27
  • 53. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Communication control Door, I’m going to throw a party on my floor! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 21/27
  • 54. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Communication control Door, I’m going to throw a party on my floor! All Doors in 3rd floor, Joe is throwing a party! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 21/27
  • 55. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Communication control Door, I’m going to throw a party on my floor! All Doors in 3rd floor, Joe is throwing a party! Woohoo!:( Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 21/27
  • 56. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Communication control Door, I’m going to throw a party on my floor! All Doors in 3rd floor, Joe is throwing a party! Woohoo!:( • Placing information in the appropriate context. • Object-centered communication. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 21/27
  • 57. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Functional control Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 22/27
  • 58. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Functional control You will have to check out the demo for this one! ;) Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 22/27
  • 59. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Functional control You will have to check out the demo for this one! ;) • Coordination mechanisms through top-down specifications of organizational processes. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 22/27
  • 60. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer • Agents in organizations • Connectivity: Access to an open set of social networks. • Relationship management: Can be enforced at the organizational level. • Decision-making: Based on collective and organizational knowledge. • Coordination mechanisms: Organizational proceses (e.g. goal decomposition trees). • Control of autonomy: Organization-level. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 23/27
  • 61. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Organizational Layer Application Organizational Agents in organizations Control and coordination at the organization-level. Decision-making based on organizational knowledge. Social Agents in social structures Access to an open set of social networks. Decision-making based on collective knowledge. Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Decision-making based on individual knowledge. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 24/27
  • 62. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions The Application Layer Application Standards, protocols and mechanisms Management of services, content and social platform resources. Organizational Agents in organizations Control and coordination at the organization-level. Decision-making based on organizational knowledge. Social Agents in social structures Access to an open set of social networks. Decision-making based on collective knowledge. Agency Agents Agent architecture: simple model, reactive, cognitive, etc. Decision-making based on individual knowledge. RESTful WoT API Devices addressable through IRIs RESTful API for the WoT Identification and representation of things Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 25/27
  • 63. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions • We have offered an interpretation on the evolution of the Web from several perspectives: socialness, pervasiveness, and pro-activeness. • We have defined and motivated our vision for the SWoT at the convergence of these 3 dimensions. • We have discussed a possible approach towards implementing this vision, introducing a layer of normative organizations for: • bringing more autonomy to things; • enabling control over the autonomy of things; • supporting coordinated behavior in SWoT apps. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 26/27
  • 64. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Thank you! Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 27/27
  • 65. On the Evolution of the Web Towards a Social Web of Things A Layered Model for the SWoT Conclusions Olivier Boissier. Multi-agent oriented programming and intelligent environments. Invited talk, 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2012. URL http://2012.ai4ie.de/presentations/ai4ie_boissier.pdf. MV Dignum. A model for organizational interaction: based on agents, founded in logic. 2004. Jacques Ferber, Olivier Gutknecht, and Fabien Michel. From agents to organizations: an organizational view of multi-agent systems. In Agent-Oriented Software Engineering IV, pages 214–230. Springer, 2004. Dominique Guinard. A Web of Things Application Architecture: Integrating the Real-world Into the Web. PhD thesis, 2011. Dominique Guinard, Mathias Fischer, and Vlad Trifa. Sharing using social networks in a composable web of things. In Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops), 2010 8th IEEE International Conference on, pages 702–707. IEEE, 2010. Jomi F Hubner, Jaime S Sichman, and Olivier Boissier. Developing organised multiagent systems using the moise+ model: programming issues at the system and agent levels. International Journal of Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, 1(3):370–395, 2007. Matthias Kranz, Luis Roalter, and Florian Michahelles. Things that twitter: social networks and the internet of things. In What can the Internet of Things do for the Citizen (CIoT) Workshop at The Eighth International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2010), 2010. Michael Wooldridge, Nicholas R Jennings, et al. Intelligent agents: Theory and practice. Knowledge engineering review, 10(2):115–152, 1995. Reconsidering the Social Web of Things (Position Paper) 27/27