A PC perspective                                                          A PC perspective




       Culture Atlas Infras...
A PC perspective                                                                                                          ...
A PC perspective                                                               A PC perspective


            Last Year: :...
A PC perspective                                                                              A PC perspective

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A PC perspective                                                                         A PC perspective




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A PC perspective                                                                                     A PC perspective



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A PC perspective                                                                     A PC perspective




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A PC perspective                                                                         A PC perspective




         Pol...
Trends: Geospatial Data                       Trends: Geospatial Users
• “Standard” data format: GML, SVG,             • F...
Places, Not Locations (2/4)       Places, Not Locations (3/4)




Places, Not Locations (4/4)
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Web3P: A Web of Place, People,                  Web3P Architecture
        and Participation

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060817 Participation Collaboration Mapping

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060817 Participation Collaboration Mapping

  1. 1. A PC perspective A PC perspective Culture Atlas Infrastructure: A Participatory and Collaborative Perspective (Part 1 of 2) If the Web is to be seen as the major platform for The PNC 2006 Annual Conference and Joint Meetings August 15-18,2006,the Seoul National University Library, 15- building Seoul, Korea the next generation Andrea Wei-Ching Huang and Tyng-Ruey Chuang Wei- Tyng- Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica Culture Atlas, Taipei, Taiwan 2 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective concrete There are some s •What is the Culture Atlas •What will the Culture Atlas questions be? Why & How What & Who needed to be addressed, especially in the infrastructure stage. conceptual 3 4 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  2. 2. A PC perspective A PC perspective @ ECAI/CAA Conference, April 18-19, 2006 Ruth Mostern answered the question: “What is a Cultural Atlas?” “Maybe ‘historical GIS’ is for Culture Atlas Historical GIS researchers and ‘cultural atlases’ are for a user public.” 5 6 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective Borrowing from the libertarian's and public science researcher’s perspectives, reasons are: • Will the Culture Atlas Infrastructure add (1)for the limitation of time, money and human one more layer as “the user-generated resource there is still plenty of space which academic field haven’t fulfilled content” layer? layer (hope after this presentation the answer will be the positive) (2)the desire for the freedom of knowledge • Why this layer is important for the Krowne, A (2003) Building a digital Library the Commons-based Peer Production Way, Culture Atlas ? D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 9, No.10 (The shortest answer for this question is: Because now is the Age of PC. (3)Now it’s time to face the challenge of The more details will be illustrated below) moving from Intellectual Property to Intellectual Commons: reducing control over proprietary information in a highly distributed, volunteer and open environment Uhlir, P.F. (2003) Re-intermediation in the Republic of 7 Science: Moving from intellectual property to 8 intellectual commons. Information Services & Use, Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 No.23, 63-66
  3. 3. A PC perspective A PC perspective Last Year: : we try to give a general picture showing that there’s a trend toward People, Place, and Participation … Online Community Mapping 9 10 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective concrete Based on the study “Online Community •What is (will) the Culture Atlas (be)? Mapping”, a considerable development in the level of understanding two essential components : Why & How What & Who Participation and Collaboration in •Who are the geospatial domain is on demand participants/contributors? •What motivate them to (In this study we put in a picture as participate? the emerging PC phenomena). phenomena conceptual 11 12 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  4. 4. A PC perspective A PC perspective a mixture of P-phrases a mixture of C-phrases Platform” , s a whole “P Web 2.0 =the Web a tion Commons-ba of Participa sed peer prod Architecture uction” (CBPP ) Personal and Participatory Media Computer-mediated Computer system A permanent link Computer Collective intelligence ing” , supported Community Participatory Journalism “Personal Publish = “Permalink Permalink” Communication (CMC) Collaborative Publishing “Photo sharing”, Collaborative Communi- Computer–mediated Community; Pro-sumer = Pro- “Ping a blog”= a Ping Computer-supported “Post online activities”, cation tools, Network Community; producer + consumer Tracback Collaboration (CSC) Web-based Community; “Podcasting”, Co- authoring Tools Online Community ; lications Community-based Public/Participatory GIS “Peer- to-Peer” app Public/ Collaborative Filtering Virtual Community ; communication; Public Empowerment mpowerment Peer Production Cyber-Community ; IT-enable Community; Community-driven services IT supported Community Participatory Research Research The Age of Participation t i ve Crea ons m The Economist, 13 Com 14 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Apr 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective concrete •What is (will) the Culture Atlas (be)? Why & How What & Who •Who are the participants/contributors? •What motivate them to participate? conceptual 15 16 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  5. 5. A PC perspective A PC perspective Motivations concrete the analysis of Wei (2006) and the 2006 Pew Internet & American Life Project survey on blogsphere •What is (will) the Culture Atlas (be)? •pursuing for meaningful sharing •social networking Why & How What & Who Other Reasoning: lessons from the success of OSS movement Individual reasons Social networking •What’s the value of •Who are the contributors? user-generated content? •What motivate them? “scratching programmer’s itch”, earning by sharing, battling with the joint “technically cool” or “the art and beauty of rival (like Linux community V.S. Microsoft), clean code”, ego-boosting of themselves sharing identity and belief systems within and gaining reputations from others communities, or building relationships and toward a better job pay future, These are further empirically verified by the leverage socializing. conceptual of creativity and intellectual stimulation. 17 18 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective Value of user-generated content Geospatial Perspective (continued) 3. Last year we talked about • Media perspectives Please refer to the full • Social Perspectives analysis in the full paper • Economic Perspectives • Geospatial Perspective 1. Empirically findings show that most internet interaction occurs in the situation where people live within an hour’s drive (after Wellman and Haase’s citation, 2001) 2. for most travellers the restaurant reviews by local citizens are more valuable than others’ comments (Figallo and Rhine, 2001). 19 20 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  6. 6. A PC perspective A PC perspective And also in theory, In this year, we find that participatory research • the common-sense geography of the world has been common- (1) Mapping is one of the best identified empirically by the recent online mapping participatory techniques. services especially in the case of Google, Yahoo and Microsoft. (2)It also offers participants a way to their self-representation. (1) The leading business magazine, Forbes, has chosen the Google (3)Tool for interrelationship map mashu-up as one of the Web’s promising user-sharing trend application (4)Contribute to community projects (2)ESRI (1969-2006) - one million users in 200 countries (5)Capacity building Google Map/Earth (2006) - one hundred million users in less a --- -----------------------------------------year’s release 21 22 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective concrete Problems : •What’s the problems of •What is (will) the Culture 1. Content Accuracy & Completeness user participation? Atlas (be)? •How to make P&C work? 2. Contributor Accountability (identity deception, online trust, trolls, flame-warriors, lamer) Why & How What & Who 3. Motivations & Incentives: WHY NOT PARTICIPATE •What’s the value of •Who are the contributors? (1) no need (2) want to know more information about the group/community user-generated content? •What motivate them? before participating (3) not confident enough to participate (4) poor usability of the software design (5)socially do not match the specific community culture. (Preece. et. Al.,2004) (1)Busy, No time (2)Hostile atmosphere and low quality conversation (3) conceptual Just want to “listen” because I am unqualified. (4) Prefer to “listen” for information. (Wei,2006) 23 24 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  7. 7. A PC perspective A PC perspective In contrast to the Me-Participation If the Culture Atlas is going type, the We-Collaboration is more toward many-to-many forms, community-driven orientation as well as collaborative authoring to adopt the concept of paradigms. participation & collaboration, the implications from the existing PC mechanisms design offer a general picture This is the major implication for the to look after. Culture Atlas Infrastructure. 25 26 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 A PC perspective A PC perspective Collaboration tools Technical Mechanisms • The RSS way 1. small independent and manageable modularity 2. flexible and transparent devices • The Blog way 3. revision-control software • The Wiki way 4. bug-reporting databases • Social tagging 5. computer-mediated communications (record-keeping for consensus) • Social bookmarking 6. governance structures (support asynchronous communication and decision-making) which support distributed development and management Learn from the success of OSS http://www.programmableweb.com/matrixall 27 28 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006
  8. 8. A PC perspective A PC perspective Policy & Social Mechanisms concrete 1. Openness Design •What’s the problems of •What is (will) the Culture user participation? Atlas (be)? 2. Trust Enabling & Consensus building •How to make P&C work? Reputation mechanism: Karma in Slashdot, XP in Everything2 Online Community Responsibility System Why & How What & who 3. Online community Framework de Souzqa, C.S. & Preece, J (2004) •What’s the value of •Who are the contributors? user-generated content? •What motivate them? conceptual 29 30 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Huang & Chuang, 2006 Cultural Atlas Infrastructure: Trends: Geospatial Tools A Participatory and Collaborative Perspective (Part 2 of 2) • Moved to Web-based systems. • Built with and released as open source At The PNC 2006 Annual Conference in Conjunction with PRDLA and ECAI software. Andrea Wei-Ching Huang • Operated as web services. Tyng-Ruey Chuang • Mixed with personal digital devices and A joint work of the social software: cell phone, camera, Open Geospatial Information Team Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica GPS, etc.; blog, wiki, social tagging, etc. Taipei, Taiwan
  9. 9. Trends: Geospatial Data Trends: Geospatial Users • “Standard” data format: GML, SVG, • From elite to the mass: personal and GeoRSS, “KML”, etc. group communication in daily life. • “Open” access to geo-data: Satellite • User-contributed geospatial data. images, topographic maps, gazetteers, community data, etc. • Collaborative authoring and mapping. • Heterogeneous data sources. • Rights arrangement and licensing of • Public licensing of geo-data. collective works. Personal Attachment to Places, Not Locations! Places, Not Locations (1/4)
  10. 10. Places, Not Locations (2/4) Places, Not Locations (3/4) Places, Not Locations (4/4) Place Names in Cultural Atlas • Where do the place names come from? Authoritative gazetteers? Communities? You? • Many kinds of place names: – “Seoul National University” … Established for a long time and known to many people. – The “Epicurean Café” at Orchid Island … Known to some people; the place is here now but maybe gone tomorrow; frequent name change. – “my favorite snorkeling spot” at Orchid Island Know only to a few; nameless places with special meaning to selves.
  11. 11. Web3P: A Web of Place, People, Web3P Architecture and Participation • Place: Web presentations of places, enriched with satellite images, topographic maps, geospatial features, gazetteers, etc. • People: Allowing places to be annotated with user-generated data. • Participation: Enabling group annotations and communications. Web3P Implementation • Built with tools that are free and interoperable: SVG map viewer, MapServer, RSS, “trackback”, etc. • Each place has a unique URL; URLs can PlaceMap: be annotated and tagged by users. An SVG- based visual • Annotations are syndicated as RSS browser for feeds. places. • PlaceDB: in need of a beter data model.
  12. 12. AnnoTag: Users RSS access attach to user annotations annotations. to places in PlaceMap. Open Geospatial Information Team at the Institute of information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan: Chin-Lung Chang, Yi-Hong Chang, Thank you Tyng-Ruey Chuang, Dong-Po Deng, Andrea Wei-Ching Huang, for your attention! Chia-Hsin Huang. Contact: Tyng-Ruey Chuang Institute of Information Science Academia Sinica Nangang 115, Taipei City, Taiwan trc@iis.sinica.edu.tw
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