- dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon Toxic Megacolon an acute form of colonic distension. It is characterized by a very dilated colon (megacolon), accompanied by abdominaldistension (bloating), and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.
Lifetime Risk Diagnostic Criteria 1-2.5% •Radiographic evidence of colonic dilatation - The classic finding is more One Study than 6cm in the transverse colon -19 year period -1236 patients •Any 3 of the following - Fever (>101.5°F),-6% toxic megacolon tachycardia (>120 beats/min), -Colon diseases in leukocytosis (>10.5 x 103/µL), or anemia general 10% of ulcerative colitis •Any 1 of the following - Dehydration,admissions and 2.3% altered mental status, electrolyte of Crohns disease abnormality, or hypotension admissions
The earliest stools of an infant. Unlike later feces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus: intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucus, amniotic fluid, bile, and water.The presence of such bacteria inmeconium of 21 healthy neonateswas investigated. The identifiedisolates belonged predominantly tothe genuses Enterococcus andStaphylococcus.
MAS can happen before, during, or after labor and delivery when a newborn inhales (or aspirates) a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid (the fluid in which the baby floats inside the amniotic sac). The inhaled meconium can partially or completely block the babys airways. Although air can flow past the meconium trapped in the babys airways as the baby breathes in, the meconium becomestrapped in the airways when the baby breathes out. And so, the inhaled meconium irritates the babys airways and makes it difficult to breathe. Although it can be serious, most cases of MAS are not.
Disorder of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus), which affects the ability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach. Cause:The lower esophageal sphincter does not relax. Reason isbecause the esophagus nerves have been damaged. Symptoms:Backflow (regurgitation) of food Chest pain CoughDifficulty swallowing liquids and solids Heartburn Unintentional weight loss
Gastroesophageal refluxdisease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomachcontents (food or liquid) leakbackwards from the stomachinto the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). This action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
Background Method Result ConclusionPrevious studies The GSAS • 50 Subjects •Over 40% of women measured 15 GERDusing subjective •Ages 19-43 report GERD symptoms reporting, related symptoms, frequency, and (Mean 29) during the first trimester of identified the distress. Higher • 91% White pregnancy, however, prevalence of scores •7% Black distress and bother related GERD in reflected morepregnancy to be •2% Hispanic to these symptoms were severe symptoms. 30-50%. GSAS and medical •74% low. However, the update •Over 40% •Over 50% of womenseverity of these questionnaires reported GERD reported GERD symptoms symptoms has were repeated symptoms in previous pregnancies, during each not been during which were untreated or trimester and at 6assessed during to 8 weeks post- pregnancy managed with over-the- the stages of partum. counter medications. pregnancy.
Normal tissue lining the esophagus -- the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach -- changes to tissue that resemblesthe lining of the intestine. About 10%-15% of people with chronic symptoms of GERD develop Barretts esophagus.
a type of chronic stomach inflammation due to the action of the immune system against stomach tissue and its components. It causes destruction of the stomach tissue with progressive atrophy of the stomach. AKA Autoimmune atrophic gastritisAutoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis
Stomach polyps Mass of form incells that response form on tothe inside inflamma of the tion or stomach other making damage polyps. to the lining of the stomach.
Any blockage or narrowing of the arteries feeding blood to the bowels can result in ischemic bowel disease. Possible blockages include tumors andblood clots, while the narrowing happens through a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis begins when the arterys inner wall becomes damaged. Possible culprits include smoking, infection, diabetes and high blood pressure. The arterial wall will try to repair itself, but in theprocess cholesterol builds up on the arterys inside surface. As this "plaque" becomes thicker, the artery becomes narrower and blood flow is reduced. It is at this point that ischemic bowel syndrome enters the picture.
the most common vascular lesion of thegastrointestinal tract, and this condition may be asymptomatic, or it may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The vessel walls are thin, with little or nosmooth muscle, and the vessels are thin.
a condition characterized by inflammation of theappendix. It is classified as a medical emergency and many cases require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, mortality is high, mainly because of the risk of rupture leading to peritonitis and shock.
an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs. Peritonitis may be localized or generalized, and may result from infection (often due to rupture of a hollow organ as may occur in abdominaltrauma or appendicitis) or from a non-infectious process.
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