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  • AKA Toxic ColitisCharacterized as a severely dialated colon accompanied by abdominal distentionThis can be either segmental or the entire colonDiagnostic Criteria:At least 6 cm segmentAny of the 3: Fever, Tachacardia, Leukocytosis, AnemiaAny of the 1: Dehydration, altered mental status (Toxins in bloodstream), electrolyte in balance, or hypotensionThe precise pathophysiology is unknown currentlyThere is a 1-2.5% risk in anyones lifetimeStudy: 1236 patients admitted over a 19 year period, 6% were infectedGender has no affectMost commonly people between 20-40 years old are affected, but it can happen at any age.Mortality rate has imporved substantially from 20% in 1976 to 4-5% currently.The decrease is a result of earlier recognition, intensive medical management, early surgical consultation, improved surgical techniques, and improved postoperative care.
  • AKA Toxic ColitisCharacterized as a severely dialated colon accompanied by abdominal distentionThis can be either segmental or the entire colonDiagnostic Criteria:At least 6 cm segmentAny of the 3: Fever, Tachacardia, Leukocytosis, AnemiaAny of the 1: Dehydration, altered mental status (Toxins in bloodstream), electrolyte in balance, or hypotensionThe precise pathophysiology is unknown currentlyThere is a 1-2.5% risk in anyones lifetimeStudy: 1236 patients admitted over a 19 year period, 6% were infectedGender has no affectMost commonly people between 20-40 years old are affected, but it can happen at any age.Mortality rate has imporved substantially from 20% in 1976 to 4-5% currently.The decrease is a result of earlier recognition, intensive medical management, early surgical consultation, improved surgical techniques, and improved postoperative care.
  • The earliest stool of an infant. It includes intestinal cells, lanugo, mucus, amniotic fluid, bile, and H2OA study done in 2008 in Madrid, Spain tested 21 healthy neonates meconium. They found predominantly EnterococcusandStaphlococcus, among othersIf the neonate inhales meconium before, during, or after labor it can develop meconium aspiration syndrome. Meconium sticks to the airway and lungs making it difficult to breathe.6-25% of babies are born in meconium stained amniotic fluid.2-36% inhale meconium during or after birth11% experience some kind of meconium aspiration syndrome
  • Dialation of esophagus due to damaged nerves. This prevents food from entering the stomach properly.To diagnose they use an esophagram. This is a barium liquid that is then x-rayed once ingested.They also may do an endoscopyA study done in Stockhom, Swedan between 1965 to 2003 documented 2,896 patients discharged with a diagnosis of Achalasia.Achalasia is treated with oral medication, stretching of sphincter, surgery to cut the sphincter, and botox injections to the sphincter muscle.Symptoms of Achalasia: backflow, chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing liquids and solids, heartburn, and/or unintentional weight loss.
  • Is when contents of the stomach leak back into the esophagus. This can cause heartburn, nausea, regurgitation and many other symptoms.3-7% of people have GERD in the United States. Another way to look at it is 1 in 33 people have it.Treatment consists of a change in diet, OTC antacids, and in some cases oral medication.A study was conducted in 2003 on 50 pregnant women between the ages of 19-43. Of these 50 women over 40% reported GERD symptoms during their first trimester
  • Is when contents of the stomach leak back into the esophagus. This can cause heartburn, nausea, regurgitation and many other symptoms.3-7% of people have GERD in the United States. Another way to look at it is 1 in 33 people have it.Treatment consists of a change in diet, OTC antacids, and in some cases oral medication.A study was conducted in 2003 on 50 pregnant women between the ages of 19-43. Of these 50 women over 40% reported GERD symptoms during their first trimester
  • Characterized as tissue of the esophagus resembling that of intestinal tissue.Patients with chronic GERD are 3-5 times more likely of developing this disease.This disease affects about 1% of adults in the United States.Men develop this disease twice as often as womenBarrets esophagus is more common in Caucasian males and it is rare in children.Treatment for low grade dysplasia consists of periodic endoscopy, and continued treatment for GERD.Treatment for high grade dysplasia includes removal of infected esophagus, using heat to kill damaged cells, cryotherapy to freeze damaged cells, photodynamic therapy which is a special light and medicine used to destroy damaged cells.
  • A type of chronic stomach inflammation due to the action of the immune system against the stomach tissue and its components.This causes atrophy of the stomach and low hydrochloric acid productionThis is mainly an inherited disease.The frequency of autoimmune gastritis is unknown due to no symptomsThree times as many women develop this disease versus men.It is more common in Northern European and African Americans versus Southern Europeans and Asians
  • Stomach polyps are masses of cells that form on the inside lining of the stomachTypically they don’t cause signs or symptomsUsually they are found by accidentThey are rare and affect less than 1% of the USThere are many different kinds of stomach polyps.Hyperplastic polyps are one of the most common. These normally occur because of H. pylori. This bacterium causes inflammation of the lining in the stomach which leads to formation of polyps.Inflammatory polyps are composed of enlarged cystic glands. They occur where the stomach has been connected to the small intestine after a medical procedure.Fundic polyps occur in the upper part of the stomach. These stomach polyps normally affect patients who have been treated with proton inhibitor pumps or a family history of polyps. They also can occur as a result of long-term use of drugs to treat ulcers and GERD
  • Is defined as the narrowing of arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the intestines.Causes can include: blockage of arteries due to a tumor or blood clot, narrowing of arteries due to atherosclerosis, or an obstruction in the colon.This disease accounts for 1 in 1000 hospital admissionsIt is rare in patients under the age of 50.Treatment usually includes anticoagulants and angioplastyIn severe cases patients may receive papaverine injections. This dialates the arteries that supply blood to the intestines
  • A vascular lesion in the gastrointestinal tractAfter diverticulosis it is the 2nd leading cause of lower GI bleeding in patients over 60. Accounts for approximately 6% of lower GI bleeding.In 1996 occurance was 0.9-3%. In 2005 occurance was 2.6-8% This 100,000 person study increase was due to anticoagulants.Colonic angioplasia in Japanese patients is predominantly located in the left side of the colon whereas western patients are mainly located on the right side.
  • Infamation of the appendixUsually occurs when the appendix becomes blocked by feces, a foreign object, or a tumor.Soon after your doctor believes you have appendicitis, a surgeon will remove your appendix. Even if when they get in there and nothing is wrong they still remove it.This procedure is called an appendectomy.Most common between the ages of 20-40 years old. Occurrence is higher in MalesApproximately 1 in 1000 people in the US develop appendicitis each yearEach person in the US has a 7% chance of developing appendicitis.
  • A bacterial or fungal infection of the peritoneum. This can result from a rupture of any organ in the abdominal cavity.Treatment usually involves antibiotics and surgery in worse cases.Left untreated it can cause sepsis. Sepsis is an infection throughout the body not just in the abdominal cavity.A study in Hong Kong linked Peritonitis to warm and humid monthsA study in Brazil correlated catheter related peritonitis in warmer months.On the other hand, a North American study found no monthly or seasonal differences in peritonitis.A mixed or poly-microbial bacteria flora usually is present in patient suffering from suppurative peritonitis. These bacteria include E. coli, anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic and aerobic streptococci, enterococci, and chlostridia.The less frequently Klebiella pneumonia is.

Transcript

  • 1. - dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon Toxic Megacolon an acute form of colonic distension. It is characterized by a very dilated colon (megacolon), accompanied by abdominaldistension (bloating), and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.
  • 2. Lifetime Risk Diagnostic Criteria 1-2.5% •Radiographic evidence of colonic dilatation - The classic finding is more One Study than 6cm in the transverse colon -19 year period -1236 patients •Any 3 of the following - Fever (>101.5°F),-6% toxic megacolon tachycardia (>120 beats/min), -Colon diseases in leukocytosis (>10.5 x 103/µL), or anemia general 10% of ulcerative colitis •Any 1 of the following - Dehydration,admissions and 2.3% altered mental status, electrolyte of Crohns disease abnormality, or hypotension admissions
  • 3. The earliest stools of an infant. Unlike later feces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus: intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucus, amniotic fluid, bile, and water.The presence of such bacteria inmeconium of 21 healthy neonateswas investigated. The identifiedisolates belonged predominantly tothe genuses Enterococcus andStaphylococcus.
  • 4. MAS can happen before, during, or after labor and delivery when a newborn inhales (or aspirates) a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid (the fluid in which the baby floats inside the amniotic sac). The inhaled meconium can partially or completely block the babys airways. Although air can flow past the meconium trapped in the babys airways as the baby breathes in, the meconium becomestrapped in the airways when the baby breathes out. And so, the inhaled meconium irritates the babys airways and makes it difficult to breathe. Although it can be serious, most cases of MAS are not.
  • 5. Disorder of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus), which affects the ability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach. Cause:The lower esophageal sphincter does not relax. Reason isbecause the esophagus nerves have been damaged. Symptoms:Backflow (regurgitation) of food Chest pain CoughDifficulty swallowing liquids and solids Heartburn Unintentional weight loss
  • 6. Gastroesophageal refluxdisease (GERD) is a condition in which the stomachcontents (food or liquid) leakbackwards from the stomachinto the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). This action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
  • 7. Background Method Result ConclusionPrevious studies The GSAS • 50 Subjects •Over 40% of women measured 15 GERDusing subjective •Ages 19-43 report GERD symptoms reporting, related symptoms, frequency, and (Mean 29) during the first trimester of identified the distress. Higher • 91% White pregnancy, however, prevalence of scores •7% Black distress and bother related GERD in reflected morepregnancy to be •2% Hispanic to these symptoms were severe symptoms. 30-50%. GSAS and medical •74% low. However, the update •Over 40% •Over 50% of womenseverity of these questionnaires reported GERD reported GERD symptoms symptoms has were repeated symptoms in previous pregnancies, during each not been during which were untreated or trimester and at 6assessed during to 8 weeks post- pregnancy managed with over-the- the stages of partum. counter medications. pregnancy.
  • 8. Normal tissue lining the esophagus -- the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach -- changes to tissue that resemblesthe lining of the intestine. About 10%-15% of people with chronic symptoms of GERD develop Barretts esophagus.
  • 9. a type of chronic stomach inflammation due to the action of the immune system against stomach tissue and its components. It causes destruction of the stomach tissue with progressive atrophy of the stomach. AKA Autoimmune atrophic gastritisAutoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis
  • 10. Stomach polyps Mass of form incells that response form on tothe inside inflamma of the tion or stomach other making damage polyps. to the lining of the stomach.
  • 11. Any blockage or narrowing of the arteries feeding blood to the bowels can result in ischemic bowel disease. Possible blockages include tumors andblood clots, while the narrowing happens through a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis begins when the arterys inner wall becomes damaged. Possible culprits include smoking, infection, diabetes and high blood pressure. The arterial wall will try to repair itself, but in theprocess cholesterol builds up on the arterys inside surface. As this "plaque" becomes thicker, the artery becomes narrower and blood flow is reduced. It is at this point that ischemic bowel syndrome enters the picture.
  • 12. the most common vascular lesion of thegastrointestinal tract, and this condition may be asymptomatic, or it may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.[1] The vessel walls are thin, with little or nosmooth muscle, and the vessels are thin.
  • 13. a condition characterized by inflammation of theappendix. It is classified as a medical emergency and many cases require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. Untreated, mortality is high, mainly because of the risk of rupture leading to peritonitis and shock.
  • 14. an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs. Peritonitis may be localized or generalized, and may result from infection (often due to rupture of a hollow organ as may occur in abdominaltrauma or appendicitis) or from a non-infectious process.
  • 15. References Achalasia - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001313/ Achalasia Research - Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/achalasia/research.html Achalasia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000267.htm Angiodysplasia. (n.d.). Medscape: Medscape Access. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/170719-overview Angioplasia. (n.d.). Medscape: Medscape Access. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/170719-clinical Appendicitis - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001302/ Appendicitis--a study of incidence, death rates and consumption of hospital resources.. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2417863/ Appendicitis: Incidence. (n.d.). FreeMD® Your Virtual Doctor. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.freemd.com/appendicitis/incidence.htm Autoimmune Gastritis (Stomach) Causes, Signs and Symptoms | Healthhype.com. (n.d.). Current Health Articles. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.healthhype.com/autoimmune-gastritis-stomach-causes-signs-and-symptoms.htmlBarretts Esophagus - National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. (n.d.). National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/barretts/ Gastric Polyps II, El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal Video Endoscopy. (n.d.). The Gastrointestinal Video Atlas. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.gastrointestinalatlas.com/English/Stomach/Gastric_Polyps_II/gastric_polyps_ii.html Gastroesophageal reflux disease - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001311/ Gastroesophageal reflux disease - PubMed Health. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001311/ Is meconium from healthy newborns actually ste... [Res Microbiol. 2008] - PubMed - NCBI. (n.d.). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18281199 Ischemic Bowel Disease: Treatment. (n.d.). FreeMD® Your Virtual Doctor. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.freemd.com/ischemic-bowel- disease/treatment.htm Meconium Aspiration . (n.d.). KidsHealth - the Webs most visited site about childrens health. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/lungs/meconium.html# Medscape: Medscape Access. (n.d.). Medscape: Medscape Access. Retrieved September 25, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/181054-overview Peritonitis - MayoClinic.com. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/peritonitis/DS00990 Statistics about Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - RightDiagnosis.com. (n.d.). Right Diagnosis. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/g/gerd/stats.htm Stomach polyps: All - MayoClinic.com. (n.d.). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stomach- polyps/DS00758/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all far. (n.d.). FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFERENCES IN PERITONITIS RATES BETWEEN CENTERS AND REGIONS . Peritoneal Dialysis International . Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://pdiconnect.com/content/27/Supplement_2/S281.full  subject. (n.d.). American Journal of Gastroenterology - Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in Achalasia Patients, a Retrospective Cohort Study in Sweden. NaturePublishing Group : science journals, jobs, and information. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v106/n1/full/ajg2010449a.html