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Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy
The Autonomy of Automated Systems
Andrea Omicini Giovanni Sartor
European Univ...
Outline
1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
2 Multi-level Autonomy
3 Conclusion
Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Sy...
Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
Outline
1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
2 Multi-level Autonomy
3 Conclusion
Omicini, Sartor (E...
Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
Agents, Coordination, and Societies I
Complex systems as MAS
Nowadays, most of the complex co...
Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
Agents, Coordination, and Societies II
Agent societies & coordination
A group of agents coord...
Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
A Layered View of MAS I
Layering
From the software engineering viewpoint, agent societies rep...
Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
A Layered View of MAS II
Autonomous systems out of autonomous components
As a result, a MAS c...
Multi-level Autonomy
Outline
1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
2 Multi-level Autonomy
3 Conclusion
Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Uni...
Multi-level Autonomy
Diverse Levels of Autonomy I
Independence
The key point here is the fact that conceptually there is n...
Multi-level Autonomy
Diverse Levels of Autonomy II
Artefacts: making it more complex
Even more, a more articulated referen...
Multi-level Autonomy
Issues I
Classifying complex MAS
Classifying a complex MAS – either a software or a robotic one – as
...
Multi-level Autonomy
Issues II
Global MAS level might not be enough
What if we assume that the global level of autonomy of...
Multi-level Autonomy
Issues III
Non-determinism
This is particularly the case of non-deterministic systems—for instance in...
Conclusion
Outline
1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
2 Multi-level Autonomy
3 Conclusion
Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna...
Conclusion
Artificial Systems. . . I
. . . are not mere social systems
where humans and groups provide essentially two dist...
Conclusion
Multi-level Autonomy. . .
. . . mandates for new concepts and tools
where artificial systems of any sorts could ...
Outline
1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems
2 Multi-level Autonomy
3 Conclusion
Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Sy...
Bibliography
Bibliography I
Ciancarini, P. (1996).
Coordination models and languages as software integrators.
ACM Computin...
Bibliography
Bibliography II
Noriega, P. and Sierra, C. (2002).
Electronic Institutions: Future trends and challenges.
In ...
Bibliography
Bibliography III
Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008).
Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-age...
Bibliography
Bibliography IV
Ricci, A., Omicini, A., Viroli, M., Gardelli, L., and Oliva, E. (2007).
Cognitive stigmergy: ...
Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy
The Autonomy of Automated Systems
Andrea Omicini Giovanni Sartor
European Univ...
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The Autonomy of Automated Systems: Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy

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In this part of the presentation, we extend our discussion of the notion of autonomy to include multi-agent, coordinated, and self-organising systems, by introducing the notion of multi-level autonomy.

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Transcript of "The Autonomy of Automated Systems: Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy"

  1. 1. Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy The Autonomy of Automated Systems Andrea Omicini Giovanni Sartor European University Institute Alma Mater Studiorum—Universit`a di Bologna Autonomous Weapons Systems – Law, Ethics, Policy European University Institute in Florence, Italy 24 April 2014 Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 1 / 22
  2. 2. Outline 1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems 2 Multi-level Autonomy 3 Conclusion Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 2 / 22
  3. 3. Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Outline 1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems 2 Multi-level Autonomy 3 Conclusion Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 3 / 22
  4. 4. Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Agents, Coordination, and Societies I Complex systems as MAS Nowadays, most of the complex computational systems of interest can be thought, modelled, and built as multi-agent systems (MAS) [Zambonelli and Omicini, 2004] In a MAS, many autonomous components (the agents) with their own individual goal interact in order to achieve the overall designed system goal Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 4 / 22
  5. 5. Agents & Multi-Agent Systems Agents, Coordination, and Societies II Agent societies & coordination A group of agents coordinating in order to achieve some (local, non-individual) goal is called an agent society Agent societies are built around coordination media [Gelernter and Carriero, 1992], encapsulating social (coordination) laws Agent societies may have collective goals, possibly independent of the individual agent goals [Ciancarini, 1996] Examples: norms as coordination mechanisms enforced by computational institutions (aka electronic institutions) [Noriega and Sierra, 2002] working as the coordination abstractions Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 5 / 22
  6. 6. Agents & Multi-Agent Systems A Layered View of MAS I Layering From the software engineering viewpoint, agent societies represent a layering mechanism [Molesini et al., 2006] There, agents, societies, individual and social goals are conceptual tools to be used at the most suitable level of abstraction Each group of agents could be seen in principle as a single agent at a higher level of abstraction Viceversa, each agent could be modelled / built as an agent society at deeper level of detail – with the global MAS level working as the uppermost layer Accordingly, individual / social / global goals could in principle be layered in the same way Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 6 / 22
  7. 7. Agents & Multi-Agent Systems A Layered View of MAS II Autonomous systems out of autonomous components As a result, a MAS could be in principle conceived, designed, and built as an autonomous system made of autonomous components Even more, each agent society could be handled in the same way So, autonomy could be conceived as a multi-level property of computational systems designed as MAS, associated to each agent, to agent societies, and to the global MAS level as well Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 7 / 22
  8. 8. Multi-level Autonomy Outline 1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems 2 Multi-level Autonomy 3 Conclusion Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 8 / 22
  9. 9. Multi-level Autonomy Diverse Levels of Autonomy I Independence The key point here is the fact that conceptually there is no direct dependence between the diverse levels of autonomy at the different levels of the MAS In the case of coordinated systems, the coordination media could embed the reactive behaviour for an automatic coordinated behaviour the implicit mechanisms for a teleonomic behaviour of the agent society the operational plans for a teleologic social behaviour—for instance, by adopting ReSpecT tuple centres [Omicini and Denti, 2001] as the coordination media All this, independently of the level of autonomy of the individual agents composing the agent society Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 9 / 22
  10. 10. Multi-level Autonomy Diverse Levels of Autonomy II Artefacts: making it more complex Even more, a more articulated reference model for MAS, such as the agents & artefacts (A&A) meta-model [Omicini et al., 2008] could make the picture even more intricate An A&A MAS is basically composed by agents and artefacts, where artefacts are the tools that agents use to achieve their own goals as such, they are typically automated, deterministic entities, which are not required to be autonomous So, for instance, by extending layering to include artefacts, any level of a MAS could then feature any sort of automatic / autonomic / autonomous behaviour, essentially independently of any other individual / social / global property Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 10 / 22
  11. 11. Multi-level Autonomy Issues I Classifying complex MAS Classifying a complex MAS – either a software or a robotic one – as automatic / teleonomic / teleologic is not necessarily a trivial task It may require in general some articulated model Arguably, a multi-level model of autonomy Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 11 / 22
  12. 12. Multi-level Autonomy Issues II Global MAS level might not be enough What if we assume that the global level of autonomy of a MAS is the most relevant system feature? Issues such as responsibility and liability cannot a priori be reduced to the simple observation of the main level of a MAS Existing works on collective moral and responsibility typically refer to human groups, and just account for a two-level layering For instance an individual may participate to more than one MAS, possibly expressing different levels of autonomy in the diverse contexts however, being a single component of more than one system, it could in principle work as an element of inter-system interference, possibly undetected, which could make issues like responsibility and liability much more complex Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 12 / 22
  13. 13. Multi-level Autonomy Issues III Non-determinism This is particularly the case of non-deterministic systems—for instance in the case of stochastic behaviours in nature-inspired models There, in fact, upper-level behaviour could appear by emergence without any linear connection with the lower level components—as in the case of swarm systems For instance, coordination media could used to encapsulate local interaction leading to self-organising behaviours [Ricci et al., 2007] There, teleonomic components would self-organising around automatic abstractions such as tuple-based coordination media The resulting behaviour would be essentially unpredictable and be classified as either teleonomic – since it tends to autonomously preserve some essential system property – or even (possibly) teleologic—when coordination artefacts would contain the local policies explicitly designed to produce the overall self-organising behaviour [Omicini et al., 2004] Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 13 / 22
  14. 14. Conclusion Outline 1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems 2 Multi-level Autonomy 3 Conclusion Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 14 / 22
  15. 15. Conclusion Artificial Systems. . . I . . . are not mere social systems where humans and groups provide essentially two distinct levels of abstraction to be used for the attribution of properties in artificial systems, many levels can be used, and possibly with the same set of criteria . . . are not natural systems where the hierarchical view concerns fundamentally diverse layers each one with its own entities and laws in artificial systems, the many levels possibly available should be described with a uniform set of criteria Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 15 / 22
  16. 16. Conclusion Multi-level Autonomy. . . . . . mandates for new concepts and tools where artificial systems of any sorts could be understood and classified according to their (possibly diverse) levels of autonomy along with the many related concepts, such as (collective) responsibility and liability Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 16 / 22
  17. 17. Outline 1 Agents & Multi-Agent Systems 2 Multi-level Autonomy 3 Conclusion Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 17 / 22
  18. 18. Bibliography Bibliography I Ciancarini, P. (1996). Coordination models and languages as software integrators. ACM Computing Surveys, 28(2):300–302. Gelernter, D. and Carriero, N. (1992). Coordination languages and their significance. Communications of the ACM, 35(2):97–107. Molesini, A., Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Denti, E. (2006). Zooming multi-agent systems. In M¨uller, J. P. and Zambonelli, F., editors, Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VI, volume 3950 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 81–93. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 6th International Workshop (AOSE 2005), Utrecht, The Netherlands, 25–26 July 2005. Revised and Invited Papers. Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 18 / 22
  19. 19. Bibliography Bibliography II Noriega, P. and Sierra, C. (2002). Electronic Institutions: Future trends and challenges. In Klusch, M., Ossowski, S., and Shehory, O., editors, Cooperative Information Agents VI, volume 2446 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pages 14–17. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 6th International Workshop (CIA 2002), Madrid, Spain, 18–20 September 2002. Proceedings. Omicini, A. and Denti, E. (2001). From tuple spaces to tuple centres. Science of Computer Programming, 41(3):277–294. Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 19 / 22
  20. 20. Bibliography Bibliography III Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008). Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent systems. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 17(3):432–456. Special Issue on Foundations, Advanced Topics and Industrial Perspectives of Multi-Agent Systems. Omicini, A., Ricci, A., Viroli, M., Castelfranchi, C., and Tummolini, L. (2004). Coordination artifacts: Environment-based coordination for intelligent agents. In Jennings, N. R., Sierra, C., Sonenberg, L., and Tambe, M., editors, 3rd international Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2004), volume 1, pages 286–293, New York, USA. ACM. Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 20 / 22
  21. 21. Bibliography Bibliography IV Ricci, A., Omicini, A., Viroli, M., Gardelli, L., and Oliva, E. (2007). Cognitive stigmergy: Towards a framework based on agents and artifacts. In Weyns, D., Parunak, H. V. D., and Michel, F., editors, Environments for MultiAgent Systems III, volume 4389 of LNCS, pages 124–140. Springer. 3rd International Workshop (E4MAS 2006), Hakodate, Japan, 8 May 2006. Selected Revised and Invited Papers. Zambonelli, F. and Omicini, A. (2004). Challenges and research directions in agent-oriented software engineering. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 9(3):253–283. Special Issue: Challenges for Agent-Based Computing. Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 21 / 22
  22. 22. Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy The Autonomy of Automated Systems Andrea Omicini Giovanni Sartor European University Institute Alma Mater Studiorum—Universit`a di Bologna Autonomous Weapons Systems – Law, Ethics, Policy European University Institute in Florence, Italy 24 April 2014 Omicini, Sartor (EUI & Univ. Bologna) Social Systems and the Multi-level Autonomy AWS-LEP – 24/4/2014 22 / 22
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