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Coordination for Situated MAS: Towards an Event-driven Architecture
 

Coordination for Situated MAS: Towards an Event-driven Architecture

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Complex software systems modelled as multi-agent systems (MAS) are characterised by activities that are generated either by agents, or by the environment in its most general acceptation — that is, ...

Complex software systems modelled as multi-agent systems (MAS) are characterised by activities that are generated either by agents, or by the environment in its most general acceptation — that is, environmental resources and the spatio-temporal fabric. Modelling and engineering complex MAS – such as pervasive, adaptive, and situated MAS – requires then to properly handle diverse classes of events: agent operations, resource events, spatio-temporal situation. In this talk we first devise out the requirements and sketch a software architecture for an agent middleware based on boundary artefacts such as agent coordination contexts, resource transducers, and space-time transducers. Then we discuss its system architecture exploiting agent, environment & space-time managers, and show some examples of a concrete architecture based on the TuCSoN middleware for MAS coordination.

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    Coordination for Situated MAS: Towards an Event-driven Architecture Coordination for Situated MAS: Towards an Event-driven Architecture Presentation Transcript

    • Coordination for Situated MAS:Towards an Event-driven ArchitectureAndrea Omiciniandrea.omicini@unibo.itStefano Marianis.mariani@unibo.itDISIAlma Mater Studiorum–Universit`a di BolognaModBE’13 / PNSE’13Universit`a di Milano – Bicocca25 June 2013Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 1 / 45
    • Outline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 2 / 45
    • MotivationOutline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 3 / 45
    • MotivationSituatednessCoupling with EnvironmentToday’s complex computational systems require strict coupling withthe environmentpervasive, adaptive, self-organising systems need to work as situatedsystemsA situated system should be able toreact to relevant changes in the environmentpossibly act over the environment appropriately and timelyInteractionInteraction with the environment is then one of the main issue incomplex computational systems nowadays [Weyns et al., 2007]More generally, interaction is the foremost source of complexity intoday computational systems [Goldin et al., 2006]Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 4 / 45
    • MotivationAgency & MAS IAgent-oriented computingAgent-oriented abstractions and technologies provide a solid groundfor complex system modelling and engineeringFor instancemeta-models like A&A [Omicini et al., 2008]middlewares like CArtAgO [Ricci et al., 2007], JADE[Bellifemine et al., 2007], TuCSoN [Omicini and Zambonelli, 1999]agent-oriented methodologies like Gaia [Zambonelli et al., 2003],PASSI [Cossentino et al., 2005] and SODA [Molesini et al., 2006]already proved their effectiveness in dealing with the engineering ofcomplex software systems [Zambonelli and Omicini, 2004]Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 5 / 45
    • MotivationAgency & MAS IIReactiveness vs. ProactivenessThe reactive nature of situated systems does not cope well with theproactive nature of agencyIn particular, the event-driven model pushed by situatedness does notmatch high-level agent-oriented programming modelOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 6 / 45
    • MotivationGoal of the Research IThe ProblemThe above issues are typically faced with more articulated agentlanguages and architectures – like hybrid agents architectures – e.g.,[Hallenborg et al., 2007]MAS increasing complexity in terms of size and number ofcomponents and events mandates for principled solutionsThere is a need for well-founded SE theories and practicesPossibly at MAS level rather than at single-component levelOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 7 / 45
    • MotivationGoal of the Research IIAn Architectural ApproachAccordingly, in this talk we sketch an event-driven architecture foragent middlewareExploiting coordination abstractions for event handlingIn particularwe discuss its abstract architectural featureswe describe a possible reification as a concrete architecture based onthe TuCSoN middleware for multi-agent system (MAS) coordination[TuCSoN, 2013]Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 8 / 45
    • MAS as Event-driven SystemsOutline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 9 / 45
    • MAS as Event-driven SystemsEnvironment Events IEnvironment activity can be most easily modelled in terms of(possibly unpredictable) eventsAs a result, environment interaction with computational systems canbe modelled in an event-driven wayEvent handling is articulated in a number of stages, such as (atleast):selection of potentially-relevant eventsperception of selected eventsdelivering of perceived events to designed componentselaboration of events by componentsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 10 / 45
    • MAS as Event-driven SystemsEnvironment Events IIFigure : Event-driven architectures fundamental stages for event-processingOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 11 / 45
    • MAS as Event-driven SystemsAgent EventsMAS are open, so agents may be either not designed or notcontrollable by MAS engineersNon-trivial agents may be intrinsically complex, either by design or asa result of a too-articulated individual historyAs a result, also agent activity in an open MAS should be handled asan unpredictable source of eventsAgents eventsBoth organisation and security issues require modelling agents, too, as(possibly unpredictable) event sources within MAS, to be possibly handledvia event-driven engineering techniques.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 12 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsOutline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 13 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsArtefacts IArtefactsagents and environment are the most suitable abstractions to handleactivities in a MASartefacts are the most suitable abstractions to encapsulate reactivebehavioursencapsulating events handling in a complex MASaccording to the A&A meta-modelOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 14 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsArtefacts IIAgents & Artefacts meta-model (A&A) [Omicini et al., 2008]Agents areactive entitiesencapsulating controlalong with criteria to govern it (tasks / goals)Artefacts arepassive / reactive entitiesencapsulating services / functionsshaping agent environment according to MAS needsThe A&A approach to the engineering of complex MAS exploitsagents to model pro-active goal/task-oriented entitiesartefacts to model objects or tools dynamically constructed, used,modified by agents in their activitiesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 15 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsBoundary Artefacts IAdmissible eventsThe first issue is to map activities of any sort upon a set of admissibleevents, that is, those events that are accepted and handled by the MAS.Apart from an appropriate model, this requires suitably-definedarchitectural abstractions embedding such a mapping.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 16 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsBoundary Artefacts IIBoundary artefactsThis is the role of boundary artefacts, which mediatebetween agents and the MASbetween the MAS and its environmentIn particular, we envision a MAS architecture in which each agent andeach environmental resource is associated to its own boundary artefact,working as:a proxy for the agent / resource within the MASa sort of interface for the agent / resource towards the MASOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 17 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsCoordination ArtefactsOnce brought within a MAS by a boundary artefact, an admissible eventhas to be properly handled to possibly generate other events and / orcomputational activities, defining the overall behaviour of a MAS.Coordination artefactsThis is the role of coordination artefacts [Omicini et al., 2004], whichperceive admissible MAS eventsassociate them to computational activities implementing coordinationlawspossibly generating further events—thus giving raise to so-calledevent chainsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 18 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsAn Event-driven Architecture IFigure : An event-driven architecture built around the notions of boundary andcoordination artefactsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 19 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsAn Event-driven Architecture IIIIIIISSRRFigure : A&A artefacts: individual, social, and resource artefactsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 20 / 45
    • Boundary & Coordination ArtefactsAn Event-driven Architecture IIIWith respect to the classification of artefacts introduced by the A&Ameta-model [Omicini et al., 2006a]:individual and resource artefacts are basically represented by boundaryartefactssocial artefacts play roughly the role of coordination artefacts! more precisely, an articulated association of boundary and (individual)coordination artefacts is required for A&A individual artefactsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 21 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNOutline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 22 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN IThe abstract architecture sketched above essentially models complex MASas composed of:proactive entities, as agents, environment resources and thespace-time fabricreactive entities, like boundary and coordination artefactsconnected together by a net of co-ordinated events.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 23 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN IITuCSoN coordination mediaFirst of all, it is quite easy to map coordination artefacts upon ReSpecTtuple centres [Omicini and Denti, 2001], which are the coordinationabstraction provided by TuCSoN.ReSpecT tuple centrescomputational activities devoted to MAS coordination can berepresented in terms of the ReSpecT logic-based specificationlanguage [Omicini, 2007]ReSpecT allows admissible events to be associated to reactionsReSpecT reactions atomic, transactional computational activitiescarried out by tuple centre themselvesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 24 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN IIIAgent Coordination ContextsThen, two middleware abstractions play the role of boundary artefacts inTuCSoN:Agent Coordination Contexts (ACC) [Omicini, 2002], for agentsTransducers [Casadei and Omicini, 2009], for resourcesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 25 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN IVFigure : TuCSoN event-driven architecture: ACC and transducers are theboundary (respectively, individual and resource artefacts), whereas ReSpecT tuplecentres are the coordination (social) artefactsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 26 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN VOn the role of ACCACC play the role of security and organisation abstractions[Omicini et al., 2006b]Each agent has an associated ACC that mediates all the agentinteractions with the TuCSoN system, workingboth as its representative within the TuCSoN-coordinated MASand as its interface towards the MAS itself, providing the agent withavailable operationsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 27 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNArchitectural Mapping upon TuCSoN VIOn the role of transducersTransducers [Casadei and Omicini, 2009] are in charge of representingindividual resources, along with their own peculiar ways of interactingEach portion of the MAS environment represented by a resource isassociated to its specific transducer, capable of two-way interaction tomap meaningful resource events upon admissible MAS eventsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 28 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNSwarm Steering Scenario ISuppose you want to coordinate the motion of a swarm of robots soas to reach a “uniform” distribution in space, in which each robot isequi-distant from its neighboursBy adopting our reference event-driven architecture, you’ll have:a number of agents, responsible for motion planning and policiesadjustmentsa number of sensors to perceive motion eventsa number of actuators to perform motion actionsa number of coordination media to enable the distributed algorithm incharge of enforcing uniform spatial distribution of the robotsOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 29 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNSwarm Steering Scenario IIFurthermore, by adopting TuCSoN architecture, you’ll assign:one ACC for each agent, to properly model agents (unpredictable)behaviour as seen by the systemone Transducer for each sensor and actuator, to properly model theportion of environment the system has to interact withone ReSpecT tuple centre for each coordination mediarequired—adding tuple centres can help, e.g., to scale-up with the sizeof the applicationOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 30 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNSwarm Steering Scenario IIIFigure : TuCSoN event-driven architecture on a case study: Managers allowfailures to be properly handled, and of transducers / ACCs to be dynamicallyadded/removedOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 31 / 45
    • A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoNSwarm Steering Scenario IVDoing so enables us to:define which events are of your interestmodel their structureassociate them to computational activities to be carried out withinReSpecT tuple centres—thus, transparently from the agents’standpointdeliver events of any sort to the interested receivers—e.g. agentsIn our scenario, for instance, interesting events to be properlymodelled and handled are:an agent leaving a place to reach another, closer to the desired spatialuniform distributionan agent approaching a place from another, as a result of a motionphase toward a better configurationan agent multicasting its new position to neighbours, so as to triggertheir own position adjustmentOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 32 / 45
    • PerspectivesOutline1 Motivation2 MAS as Event-driven Systems3 Boundary & Coordination Artefacts4 A Concrete Event-driven Architecture in TuCSoN5 PerspectivesOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 33 / 45
    • PerspectivesBenefitsFacing situatedness at the (MAS) system level, rather than at the(agent) individual component levelBridging between the (low-level) environment level representation,and the (high-level) cognitive level of intelligent agentsProviding engineers with a principled architecture for dealing withcomplex environmentsDelivering languages, tools, and methodologies that coherentlysupport the architectureOmicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 34 / 45
    • PerspectivesPerspectivesEngineering complex MAS is mostly dealing with a complex networkof eventsBoth formal tools – like, say, Petri Nets – and new tools from thefield of Complex Networks may tell us something new about MASengineeringInteraction as a key point for interdisciplinary study of complexsystems of any sort [Omicini and Contucci, 2013]Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 35 / 45
    • PerspectivesFurther ReferencesPaperReference [Omicini and Mariani, 2013]APICe http://apice.unibo.it/xwiki/bin/view/Publications/EventsituatedmasPnse2013PresentationAPICe http://apice.unibo.it/xwiki/bin/view/Talks/EventsituatedmasPnse2013Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/andreaomicini/om-pnse2013Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 36 / 45
    • AcknowledgementsThanks to . . .The authors would like to thank the organisers of PNSE’13 andModBE’13 – and in particular Daniel Moldt – for inviting ourcontributionThis work has been supported by the EU-FP7-FET Proactive projectSAPERE – Self-Aware PERvasive service Ecosystems, under contractno. 256873Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 37 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences IBellifemine, F. L., Caire, G., and Greenwood, D. (2007).Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE.Wiley.Casadei, M. and Omicini, A. (2009).Situated tuple centres in ReSpecT.In Shin, S. Y., Ossowski, S., Menezes, R., and Viroli, M., editors, 24th AnnualACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2009), volume III, pages1361–1368, Honolulu, Hawai’i, USA. ACM.Cossentino, M., Gaglio, S., Sabatucci, L., and Seidita, V. (2005).The PASSI and agile PASSI MAS meta-models compared with a unifying proposal.In Pechoucek, M., Petta, P., and Varga, L. Z., editors, Multi-Agent Systems andApplications IV, volume 3690 of LNCS, pages 183–192. Springer.4th International Central and Eastern European Conference on Multi-AgentSystems, CEEMAS 2005, Budapest, Hungary, September 15-17, 2005, Proceedings.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 38 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences IIGoldin, D. Q., Smolka, S. A., and Wegner, P., editors (2006).Interactive Computation: The New Paradigm.Springer.Hallenborg, K., Jensen, A. J., and Demazeau, Y. (2007).Reactive agent mechanisms for manufacturing process control.In 2007 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence andIntelligent Agent Technology Workshops (WI-IATW ’07), pages 399–403,Washington, DC, USA. IEEE Computer Society.Molesini, A., Omicini, A., Denti, E., and Ricci, A. (2006).SODA: A roadmap to artefacts.In Dikenelli, O., Gleizes, M.-P., and Ricci, A., editors, Engineering Societies in theAgents World VI, volume 3963 of LNAI, pages 49–62. Springer.6th International Workshop (ESAW 2005), Ku¸sadası, Aydın, Turkey,26–28 October 2005. Revised, Selected & Invited Papers.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 39 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences IIIOmicini, A. (2002).Towards a notion of agent coordination context.In Marinescu, D. C. and Lee, C., editors, Process Coordination and UbiquitousComputing, chapter 12, pages 187–200. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Omicini, A. (2007).Formal ReSpecT in the A&A perspective.Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 175(2):97–117.5th International Workshop on Foundations of Coordination Languages andSoftware Architectures (FOCLASA’06), CONCUR’06, Bonn, Germany,31 August 2006. Post-proceedings.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 40 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences IVOmicini, A. and Contucci, P. (2013).Complexity & interaction: Blurring borders between physical, computational, andsocial systems. Preliminary notes.In Badica, C., Nguyen, N. T., and Brezovan, M., editors, 5th InternationalConference on Computational Collective Intelligence Technologies and Applications(ICCCI 2013), Craiova, Romania.Invited Paper.Omicini, A. and Denti, E. (2001).From tuple spaces to tuple centres.Science of Computer Programming, 41(3):277–294.Omicini, A. and Mariani, S. (2013).Coordination for situated MAS: Towards an event-driven architecture.In Moldt, D. and R¨olke, H., editors, Proceedings of the International Workshop onPetri Nets and Software Engineering (PNSE’13), volume 989 of CEUR WorkshopProceedings. Sun SITE Central Europe, RWTH Aachen University.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 41 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences VOmicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2006a).Agens Faber: Toward a theory of artefacts for MAS.Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 150(3):21–36.1st International Workshop “Coordination and Organization” (CoOrg 2005),COORDINATION 2005, Namur, Belgium, 22 April 2005. Proceedings.Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2006b).Agent Coordination Contexts for the formal specification and enactment ofcoordination and security policies.Science of Computer Programming, 63(1):88–107.Special Issue on Security Issues in Coordination Models, Languages, and Systems.Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008).Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent systems.Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 17(3):432–456.Special Issue on Foundations, Advanced Topics and Industrial Perspectives ofMulti-Agent Systems.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 42 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences VIOmicini, A., Ricci, A., Viroli, M., Castelfranchi, C., and Tummolini, L. (2004).Coordination artifacts: Environment-based coordination for intelligent agents.In Jennings, N. R., Sierra, C., Sonenberg, L., and Tambe, M., editors, 3rdinternational Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems(AAMAS 2004), volume 1, pages 286–293, New York, USA. ACM.Omicini, A. and Zambonelli, F. (1999).Coordination for Internet application development.Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 2(3):251–269.Special Issue: Coordination Mechanisms for Web Agents.Ricci, A., Viroli, M., and Omicini, A. (2007).CArtAgO: A framework for prototyping artifact-based environments in MAS.In Weyns, D., Parunak, H. V. D., and Michel, F., editors, Environments forMultiAgent Systems III, volume 4389 of LNAI, pages 67–86. Springer.3rd International Workshop (E4MAS 2006), Hakodate, Japan, 8 May 2006.Selected Revised and Invited Papers.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 43 / 45
    • ReferencesReferences VIITuCSoN (2013).Home page.http://tucson.apice.unibo.it.Weyns, D., Omicini, A., and Odell, J. J. (2007).Environment as a first-class abstraction in multi-agent systems.Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 14(1):5–30.Special Issue on Environments for Multi-agent Systems.Zambonelli, F., Jennings, N. R., and Wooldridge, M. J. (2003).Developing multiagent systems: The Gaia methodology.ACM Transactions on Software Engeneering Methodologies, 12(3):317–370.Zambonelli, F. and Omicini, A. (2004).Challenges and research directions in agent-oriented software engineering.Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 9(3):253–283.Special Issue: Challenges for Agent-Based Computing.Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 44 / 45
    • Coordination for Situated MAS:Towards an Event-driven ArchitectureAndrea Omiciniandrea.omicini@unibo.itStefano Marianis.mariani@unibo.itDISIAlma Mater Studiorum–Universit`a di BolognaModBE’13 / PNSE’13Universit`a di Milano – Bicocca25 June 2013Omicini, Mariani (DISI, Alma Mater) Coordination for Situated MAS Milano Bicocca, 25/6/2013 45 / 45