Religion Source of Peace, nonviolence, humanitarianism violence, wars and hatred…Divisive and Inclusive Revival of Religious Fervor in last quarter century (Fundamentalism) Fundamentalism has generally conservative values they wish incorporated into political life (issues on Gender Roles, Nationalism, GLBT Rights, Abortion, etc). Righteousness of their own beliefs
Islam Common misconception that Muslim=Arab Largest Muslim Population in Indonesia Fastest Growing Religion in the World (and US) Product of 7th century Arabian Peninsula Produced Advanced civilization with major contributions to human development & progress. Muhammad (570-632 A.D)considered messenger of Islam
Facts about Islam Quran is the holy book, which recognizes the Jewish and Christian holy books and prophets. Previously Pagan community inhabited Arabian Peninsula. Islam means peace through the submission to God. Muslim means anyone or anything that submits itself to the will of God.
Misconceptions about Islam Women Have No Rights Preaches Terrorism Hates Everyone but Muslims Polygamy is widespread Muslims worship Muhammad Cannot adapt to Western societies
5 Pillars of Islam Shahada (Profession of Faith) First step of being Muslim, can be said in private & still counts
5 Pillars of Islam Salat (Prayer) 5 times a day (sunrise, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset and darkness). Muslims must perform act of ablution before prayer (wudu). Obligatory on every Muslim who have reached the age of puberty, with the exception being those who are mentally ill, too physically ill for it to be possible, menstruating
5 Pillars of Islam Zakat (tithing) Voluntary obligation for every Muslim to help those in need. Generally done through direct gifts to poor or through charity
5 Pillars of Islam Sawm (fasting during Ramadan) Required for every Muslim who is not sick, pregnant or a child During fast, Muslim does not eat, drink, smoke, or have sex from sunrise to sunset. Date varies each year since based on lunar calendar. Fast generally broken with a Date(fruit)
5 Pillars of Islam Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) Required once in a lifetime if financially and physically able. Also recommended to visit holy mosques in Medina and Jerusalem
Islam and Politics No political theory in Islam and no distinction between secular and religious. Muslims are considered Ummah based on religion, not kinship, language, race or nationality A strict Muslim community has 4 main features The sole head of the community is God Gods’ teachings as revealed in the Quran are the law Constitution of community are eternal and unchangeable Purpose of the community of state is to uphold the faith.
Islam and Politics Paradox of Muslim nations Women not voting in Saudi Arabia, and until recently Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain. Women President and Prime Ministers in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey and Indonesia. Many Islamic countries still struggle to balance role between religion and politics
Different types of Islamic States Muslim- Has Muslim majority but secular govt. (Turkey) Islamic States- Muslim majority. Govt uses Islam for guidance in political affairs (Egypt). Islamist- State depends on Islamic law or Sharia for governance (Saudi Arabia and Iran)
Hinduism Oldest religion. Dates back to 3000 BC Extremely diverse and complicated beliefs and practices. 600 million followers No founding figure 3 largest religion in world by # of adherents.
Basic Beliefs Karma Samsara Four Permissible Goals in life Karma Artha Dharma Moksha
Misconceptions about Hinduism Worship Cows All are vegetarians They have thousands of gods All Indians are Hindu When Indians are talking about Aryans they mean Nazis. Swastiks
Caste System Integral Part of Hinduism abolished since 1947 Brahmin (Highest, Priesthood) Ksatriya (Aristocratic nobility, warriors, knights) Vaisya (Peasants, Merchants, and Professionals) Shudra (non-aryans, slaves, servants) Untouchables (Dalit)
Hinduism and Indian Politics Post-Independence India clashed over Caste system Gandhi combined Hindu principles and nationalist ideals in the struggle for liberation Gandhi accepted principle of caste system but did not like limitations on outcastes and attempted to integrate Dalits (Harijans) into India’s society. Gandhi’s peaceful resistance still lead to massive bloodshed in partition of India/Pakistan Current Hindu Nationalist party opposes rights to Muslims and non-Hindus
Buddhism Born in India Siddharta Gautama left the riches after seeing poverty and sought enlightenment and meaning of life. Achieved enlightenment after 49 days of mediation and revealed the 4 noble truths
4 Noble Truths Life is suffering Suffering is caused by ignorance Sorrow ends when a person is enlightened Enlightenment is achieved by discipline and moral conduct
Buddhism and Politics Strongly contributed to conceptualization of nonviolent action for social justice Two nobel prizes went to Buddhist activists (Dalai Lama and San SuuKyi. Buddhist revival in China Activist Buddhism in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka 80% Buddhist After Independence government declared Sinhala national language and provided support for Buddhist institutions Angered Tamil/Hindu minority Civil War from the 1970’s- 2008 SarvodayaShramadana movement
Christianity in Africa, Asia and Latin America Largely spread by missionaries Liberation Theology- rise of the “people power” (Gustavo Gutierrez) Oppression against native populations in Latin America early on. Catholic Church often associated with repressive regimes. Aristide in Haiti