Global and domestic inequalities


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Global and domestic inequalities

  1. 1. Growing Inequality between North and South  80% of world lives on 20% of worlds income  United States, 5% of world population uses 30% of world’s resources
  2. 2. Income Gap Between Rich and Poor Rich Countries GDP Per Capita Luxembourg $60,228 Norway $41,420 Ireland $ 38,505 United States $41,890 Poor Countries GDP Per Capita Ethiopia $1,055 Dem. Rep. Congo $827 Malawi $667 Nepal $1,550
  3. 3. What is Poverty? How to Measure?  World Bank: $1.25 per day or less=Absolute Poverty  1.4 billion live in absolute poverty  However, with the exception of Sub-Saharan, most developing countries are reducing poverty
  4. 4. Measures of Poverty  Literacy Rates: Illiteracy and poverty are strongly connected.  Increased literacy rate=foreign investments, reduce population growth, improve health care, create wealth  Haiti: ½ of all school-age children have never attended school
  5. 5. Measures of Poverty  Malnutrition: More obvious and important indicator of poverty than low literacy rates.  Malnutrition causes impaired vision, inability to concentrate and learn, vulnerability to dease, shorter life.  1/6 (840 million) of worlds population malnourished  1 billion malnourished 1969-1971  Decrease largely in China
  6. 6. Malnutrition  Malnutrition cause of 60% of children’s deaths in Developing World
  7. 7. Effects of Malnutrition  1980: 40,000 deaths from malnutrition a day  1990: 35,000 deaths from malnutrition a day  2010: 24,000 deaths from malnutrition a day  Access to food is often determined by gender, control of resources, and social status.
  8. 8. Results of Poverty  Famine: During Ethnic conflicts, factions often use food as weapons. Deliberately restrict availability of food in order to starve population.  Example: Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Sudan  Famin in sudan has claimed 2.5 million lives  3 million Sudanese are starving
  9. 9. Inadequate Health Care  Inadequate Health Care in an indicator of poverty.  Poor health=no energy=no employment=no money  Infectious diseases thrive in unsanitary conditions.
  10. 10. Economic Inequalities in Rich Countries  Within in the US gap between rich and poor has widened since 1977.  In 1999 richest 1% (2.7 million) earned as much as the poorest 100 million (37% of US)  2000: Top 1%=862,000 Bottom 40%= $21,350 Many unpaved roads, raw sewage runs through streets during heavy rains, rust colored water for bathing Bayview, Virginia
  11. 11. Regional Inequalities  Asia, Africa and most of Latin America in similar position 40 years ago  East Asia now occupies top position in developing world, Latin America in the middle, Africa on the bottom.  Asia and Latin industrializing and reduced dependency on primary products.  Africa’s economic conditions essentially the same as 40 years ago
  12. 12. Sharp Disparities within Countries  Distinct worlds within most countries  Rich people live glamorous lives similar to the West  Poor live in slums, often treated as slaves  Swaziland: King Mswati, last absolute monarch in SSA, drives between his palaces in a $500,00 luxury car  2/3 of Swazis live below UN poverty line, 40% unemployed  Last year the king spent almost $21.5 million on palaces and BMWs for his wives.
  13. 13. 50,000 virgins?
  14. 14. Causes of Inequality  Hotly debated topic 1. Colonialism and its legacies 2. Structure of world economy 3. Increasing globalization of economy 4. Overpopulation 5. Ineffective government 6. Political and Economic Instability 7. Natural Disasters
  15. 15. Colonialism  Laid foundation for economic gap between rich and poor  Inequality breeds inequality.  Does not mean the situation cannot change  Singapore, South Korea, Kuwait-all now very wealthy
  16. 16. Structure of World Economy  Many poor nations suggest that govts. And businesses in rich countries work together to maintain unfair world economy…i.e Dependency Theory  Challenges to theory?  Increasing number of developing countries exporting to US and experiencing greater prosperity  Opening of MNC’s in developing Countries
  17. 17. Increasing Globalization  Globalization contributes to both inequality and greater equality  Programmers and Computer Experts in India recruited to work for IBM, Motorola  Free Trade led many Mexicans to gain jobs and improve standard of living  But to compete, govts. Adopt policies that promote greater inequality (reduce spending on social services, health care, etc)
  18. 18.  Growth rate or 250% in poor countries.  Children regarded as social security and labor. Overpopulation Government policies •North Korea vs South Korea •North Korea isolated self and adopted communism •South Korea integrated into global economy. •Govt. policies of China have created significant growth
  19. 19. Other Causes •Civil War: societies torn by civil war and ethnic conflict have little hope of getting out of poverty •Discourage foreign investment and lets most successful citizens flee and invest their resources elsewhere •Natural Disasters: Natural disasters destroy economic sectors, create infrastructure problems, force relocation.
  20. 20. How to Narrow the Gap  Millenium Development Goals  NGO’s  Democracy  Grassroots Organizations (Grameen Bank)  Green Revolution  Debt Reduction  Development Assistance
  21. 21. What is the UN?  International Organization founded in 1945 after WWII with the mission to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.  192 member states (all sovereign states)
  22. 22. What are the MDG’s?  8 International Development Goals all member states have agreed to achieve by 2015.  Officially established at the Millennium Summit in 2000, where all heads of state were present
  23. 23. MDG’s  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger  2. Achieve universal primary education  3. Promote gender equality and empower women  4. Reduce child mortality rate  5. Improve maternal health  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases  7. Ensure environmental sustainability  8. Develop a global partnership for development
  24. 24. 1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Target 1A: Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day Target 1B: Achieve Decent Employment for Women, Men, and Young People Target 1C: Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
  25. 25. 2. Achieve Universal Primary Education  Target 2a: Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling  How to Measure?  Enrollment in primary education  Completion of primary education  Literacy of 15-24 year olds, female and male
  26. 26. 3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women Target 3a: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015  How to Measure?  Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education  Share of women in wage employment in the non- agricultural sector  Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
  27. 27. 4. Reduce Child Mortality  Target 4a: Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five How to measure?  4.1 Under-five mortality rate  4.2 Infant mortality rate  4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles 
  28. 28. 5. Improve Maternal Health  Target 5a: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio  How to Measure?  5.1 Maternal mortality ratio  5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Target 5b: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
  29. 29. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases  Target 6a: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS  How to Measure?  6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years  6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex  6.3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS  6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
  30. 30. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases  Target 6b: Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it  Target 6c: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases  6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria  6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets  6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs  6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis  6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course
  31. 31. 7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability  Target 7a: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources  Target 7b: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss  7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest  7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)  7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances  7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits  7.5 Proportion of total water resources used  7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected  7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction
  32. 32. Ensure Environmental Sustainability  Target 7c: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation  Target 7d: Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020
  33. 33. 8. Create a Global Partnership for Development  Target 8a: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non- discriminatory trading and financial system Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction; both nationally and internationally  Target 8b: Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
  34. 34. Global Partnership for Development Continued  Target 8c: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States Target 8d: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries  How to Measure?  Market access  Debt sustainability  Access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries  Make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications