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Globalization and Ethnic Conflict Globalization allows problems from one area to spill over into another area. Can weaken ethnic identities (exposed to different ideas, behavior, material goods. Economic globalization can give ethnic groups with an education advantage over another group.
Ethnic Conflict and End of Cold War Increased attentions since end of Cold War Many conflicts developed independently of the East-West rivalry but were held in check by superpowers Extremely difficult to contain to one country Ethnic diversity does not automatically result in violence or conflict.
Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity Ethnicity, tribalism, and nationalism often used interchangeably. Tribalism (outdated term). Preferred term for groups is Ethnic Group (How to determine?) Identity: conception of the self ; social attributes of particular individuals shaped by many social, cultural, economic and political factors Ethnic pluralism
Causes of Ethnic Conflict Ancient Hatreds? Rarely about just ethnicity Political undertones Stereotypes: US vs THEM Competition for resources Modernization? Weak political institutions Democratization Proliferation of automatic weapons
Costs of Ethnic Conflict Poor get poorer Thousands or Millions of Deaths Land Mines (1 death every 22 minutes) Economic Costs Cannot Democratize Refugees and spillover effect Environmental Destruction Worsened Drug Problems
Ethnic Conflicts in Africa Continent most consumed by ethnic conflict.
Ethnic Conflict in Africa Nigeria Why so much violence? Biafra Islamic Law Liberia Americo-Liberians Cycle of Violence The Sudan What’s the Problem? What’s being done? Rwanda Tutsi vs. Hutus European Influence Turn around fair play?
Ethnic Conflicts in Asia India Religious differences Partition: Ali Jinnah (Muslim League/Pakistan) Jawaharlal Nehru (Secular India) Sikhs and Golden Temple Assassination of Indira Gandhi Murders and Rapes of Christians
China China The Xinjiang Province and the Uighur Separatists Uighurs are Muslim, territory became part of China in 1949 Han-93% of Population Tibet Suppression of Religion. Migration of Han Chinese Loss of Culture 1 million deaths
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Complex society Colonial influence Sinhala govt. declared Sinhala the language and Buddhism the religion. Denied Tamils jobs & Education 1983 Targeting of Tamils Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga peace deal (fell through) EU listed LTTE as terrorist org. in 2006 May 2009 End of Civil War
Resolving Ethnic Conflicts Most groups have needs met as country develops economically Democratic societies offer groups a chance to form coalitions Disparities brought about by economic growth may fuel ethnic conflicts. Redraw borders? Power-Sharing arrangements Federalism.