Race to the Bottom? Globalization contributes to and diminishes impact of development. Globalization can contribute to rising levels of poverty and failing local business and environmental degradation. Globalization can also pressure companies to recognize workers rights, prohibit forced and child labor and reduce environmental damage
Costs of Development Opportunity Cost: Passing up an opportunity to achieve a greater benefit Policymakers must weight the costs of development against benefits of development Interdependence from globalization can affect places far away. Pollution in China can have an effect on the world. Demand for low costs increase demands for sweatshop labor in Asia
Social and Cultural Costs of Development Loss of sense of community, pursuit of consumerism, decline in cultural identity, increase in drug and alcohol abuse. As industries locate in societies, people adjust to conform to their requirements More time devoted to work, equals less interaction
United Arab Emirates Social alienation, pressure to make money and increased exposure to values of modern societies contribute to rise of social problems. Drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution have accompanied UAE’s rapid economic growth Dubai 1990 Dubai Today
Destruction of the Amazon Most cultures are durable but those closely linked to environment are threatened with extinction Development of Amazon has ignored indigenous cultures.
Escalation of Criminal Activities Modernization weakens social bonds that helped to reduce crime. Urbanization, destruction of communities, individualism, alienation and consumerism cause crime rates to rise. Rising prosperity, unequal distribution, and breakdown of traditional societies, makes developing countries vulnerable to widespread crime.
Mexico Mexico City leading example of widespread and uncontrollable crime Rampant Muggings, burglaries, and car thefts. 94% of all violent crimes never solved or prosecuted 6,200 people killed in drug wars in 2008 Salary of Police Officers $200 a month, means incentive to collaborate with criminals and accept bribes.
Child Labor 218 million children, age 5-14 are working. 317.4 work outside the home part-time Pressure to compete makes countries produce at low price. Child labor, the cheapest labor of all. 70% employed in agriculture Without income from child, many families would not survive
Child Labor by Numbers India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines: 153.5 million children employed Africa: 80 million Latin America and Caribbean: 17 million 300,000-1 million in the US
India 100 million children work, largest number of child laborers in the world Poverty and caste system reinforce the practice Landless, illiterate parents expect children to help Typical rural family with two children earn less than $1 a day. Work in dangerous conditions Most families too poor to abandon system of child labor.
Pakistan Until 1999, Pakistan relied primarily on child labor for the soccer ball industry International pressure is forcing Pakistan to eliminate child workers and employ women. ‘Social Labeling’ (no sweat label)
Bangladesh Many children work in garment industry (70% of exports) Women in factories earn $30 a month. Bangladesh adopted a structural adjustment program Program required cuts in govt. spending on health care, education, nutrition and programs that benefit poor. Reduced govt. expenditure, forced more families to rely on children for income.
Sweatshops As old as industrialization Many are small businesses owned by locals who make products for various companies Many workers earn less than $1 a day and work 12-14 hours a day, 6-7 days a week Wal-Mart, Gap, Reebok, Nike, Starbucks, Walt Disney and Mattel
Economic and Political Costs Consumerism and Development
What’s the relationship between these two concepts?
How has Tourism impacted consumerism? Negative side-effects Fast food Alcohol abuse Smoking
Urbanization and Development World becoming increasingly urbanized (65% by 2025) 10 of 13 most populated cities in developing countries Urbanization increases demand for scarce resource Shantytowns destroyed for development Severe traffic and air pollution problems Unsanitary living conditions, limited access to clean waters, untreated sewage.
Decline of Agriculture and Economic Development Urbanization influence many farmers to leave the rural areas in search of a better life in the cities Fewer farmers=less food Shopping malls, airports, roads and highways, tourist facilities, harbors, hospitals, schools reduce land available for agriculture
Environmental Costs Environmental Costs of Development Pollution, pollution, and more…pollution How bad is it in Ecuador? Many companies are exempt from weak environmental laws and have caused widespread destruction
Polluted Water Most water pollution caused by untreated human waste Ganges River- crowded cities dump millions of gallons of untreated human and industrial waste into the river Ganges believed to cleanse sins by drinking and bathing in it.
Causes and Effects of Pollution Automobiles, factories, and coal Toxic chemicals cross the Pacific and pollute California, Oregon and Washington. Leads to respiratory disease, lung and heart disease, premature births/deaths WHO- Mexico City’s pollution equal to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes a day. China, India, Mexico and Brazil have increased gas prices by 121% to reduce emissions
Deforestation Deforestation How is deforestation linked to modernization? Pressures from population The growth of commercial farming Cattle Ranching Desertification Government Programs Indonesia’s Transmigration Program Trans-Amazon Highway Do they work?
Dam Construction Dam Construction Why would you build a dam? Success in Egypt (Aswan High Dam)? Success in China (Three Gorges Dam)?