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Costs of development


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Explores the numerous costs associated with development

Explores the numerous costs associated with development

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  • 1. Costs of Development
  • 2. Race to the Bottom?
    Globalization contributes to and diminishes impact of development.
    Globalization can contribute to rising levels of poverty and failing local business and environmental degradation.
    Globalization can also pressure companies to recognize workers rights, prohibit forced and child labor and reduce environmental damage
  • 3. Costs of Development
    Opportunity Cost: Passing up an opportunity to achieve a greater benefit
    Policymakers must weight the costs of development against benefits of development
    Interdependence from globalization can affect places far away.
    Pollution in China can have an effect on the world.
    Demand for low costs increase demands for sweatshop labor in Asia
  • 4. Social and Cultural Costs of Development
    Loss of sense of community, pursuit of consumerism, decline in cultural identity, increase in drug and alcohol abuse.
    As industries locate in societies, people adjust to conform to their requirements
    More time devoted to work, equals less interaction
  • 5. United Arab Emirates
    Social alienation, pressure to make money and increased exposure to values of modern societies contribute to rise of social problems.
    Drug abuse, alcoholism and prostitution have accompanied UAE’s rapid economic growth
    Dubai 1990
    Dubai Today
  • 6. Destruction of the Amazon
    Most cultures are durable but those closely linked to environment are threatened with extinction
    Development of Amazon has ignored indigenous cultures.
  • 7. Escalation of Criminal Activities
    Modernization weakens social bonds that helped to reduce crime.
    Urbanization, destruction of communities, individualism, alienation and consumerism cause crime rates to rise.
    Rising prosperity, unequal distribution, and breakdown of traditional societies, makes developing countries vulnerable to widespread crime.
  • 8. Mexico
    Mexico City leading example of widespread and uncontrollable crime
    Rampant Muggings, burglaries, and car thefts.
    94% of all violent crimes never solved or prosecuted
    6,200 people killed in drug wars in 2008
    Salary of Police Officers $200 a month, means incentive to collaborate with criminals and accept bribes.
  • 9. Child Labor
    218 million children, age 5-14 are working.
    317.4 work outside the home part-time
    Pressure to compete makes countries produce at low price.
    Child labor, the cheapest labor of all.
    70% employed in agriculture
    Without income from child, many families would not survive
  • 10. Child Labor by Numbers
    India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines: 153.5 million children employed
    Africa: 80 million
    Latin America and Caribbean: 17 million
    300,000-1 million in the US
  • 11. India
    100 million children work, largest number of child laborers in the world
    Poverty and caste system reinforce the practice
    Landless, illiterate parents expect children to help
    Typical rural family with two children earn less than $1 a day.
    Work in dangerous conditions
    Most families too poor to abandon system of child labor.
  • 12. Pakistan
    Until 1999, Pakistan relied primarily on child labor for the soccer ball industry
    International pressure is forcing Pakistan to eliminate child workers and employ women.
    ‘Social Labeling’ (no sweat label)
  • 13. Bangladesh
    Many children work in garment industry (70% of exports)
    Women in factories earn $30 a month.
    Bangladesh adopted a structural adjustment program
    Program required cuts in govt. spending on health care, education, nutrition and programs that benefit poor.
    Reduced govt. expenditure, forced more families to rely on children for income.
  • 14. Sweatshops
    As old as industrialization
    Many are small businesses owned by locals who make products for various companies
    Many workers earn less than $1 a day and work 12-14 hours a day, 6-7 days a week
    Wal-Mart, Gap, Reebok, Nike, Starbucks, Walt Disney and Mattel
  • 15. Economic and Political Costs
    Consumerism and Development
    • What’s the relationship between these two concepts?
    How has Tourism impacted consumerism?
    Negative side-effects
    Fast food
    Alcohol abuse
  • 16. Urbanization and Development
    World becoming increasingly urbanized (65% by 2025)
    10 of 13 most populated cities in developing countries
    Urbanization increases demand for scarce resource
    Shantytowns destroyed for development
    Severe traffic and air pollution problems
    Unsanitary living conditions, limited access to clean waters, untreated sewage.
  • 17.
  • 18. Decline of Agriculture and Economic Development
    Urbanization influence many farmers to leave the rural areas in search of a better life in the cities
    Fewer farmers=less food
    Shopping malls, airports, roads and highways, tourist facilities, harbors, hospitals, schools reduce land available for agriculture
  • 19. Environmental Costs
    Environmental Costs of Development
    Pollution, pollution, and more…pollution
    How bad is it in Ecuador?
    Many companies are exempt from weak environmental laws and have caused widespread destruction
  • 20. Polluted Water
    Most water pollution caused by untreated human waste
    Ganges River- crowded cities dump millions of gallons of untreated human and industrial waste into the river
    Ganges believed to cleanse sins by drinking and bathing in it.
  • 21. Causes and Effects of Pollution
    Automobiles, factories, and coal
    Toxic chemicals cross the Pacific and pollute California, Oregon and Washington.
    Leads to respiratory disease, lung and heart disease, premature births/deaths
    WHO- Mexico City’s pollution equal to smoking 2 packs of cigarettes a day.
    China, India, Mexico and Brazil have increased gas prices by 121% to reduce emissions
  • 22. Deforestation
    How is deforestation linked to modernization?
    Pressures from population
    The growth of commercial farming
    Cattle Ranching
    Government Programs
    Indonesia’s Transmigration Program
    Trans-Amazon Highway
    Do they work?
  • 23. Dam Construction
    Dam Construction
    Why would you build a dam?
    Success in Egypt (Aswan High Dam)?
    Success in China (Three Gorges Dam)?