Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Challenges of development
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Challenges of development

512

Published on

Examines the challenges facing development in

Examines the challenges facing development in

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
512
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Challenges of Development<br />
  • 2. What is Development?<br />Development –<br />Significant and measurable economic growth.<br />The emergence of social, economic, and political institutions.<br />What is the difference between Development and Growth?<br />Growth –<br />Quantitative increases in economic activities.<br />Infrastructure<br />How do we measure Growth?<br />GNP and GDP<br />Easy to do?<br />UN’s – HDI Index<br />
  • 3. GNP & GDP of states around world<br />1. United States: 12.970 billion<br />2. Japan: 4.988 billion<br />203. Guinea Bissau: .28 billion<br />Global GDP (in millions)<br />World: 58,133,309<br />USA: 14,256,300<br />Japan: 5,067,526<br />China: 4,909,280<br />Kiribati: 130<br />
  • 4.
  • 5. Most countries/economists use GDP to measure economic performance.<br />Not always easy to measure in developing countries<br />What to include? <br />
  • 6. GDP is not enough…<br />Economic development does not equal social development. <br />How to measure human development?<br />Human Development Index<br />Access to health care, housing, education, proper nutrition, safe environment an overall improved quality of life, enjoyment of freedoms. <br />
  • 7. Human Development Index<br />Measures the quality of life people experience<br />Developed by United Nations Development Program (UNDP)<br />Formula includes: life expectancy at birth, income, literacy, and access to education. <br />Gender development index: concentrates on inequalities between women and men<br />
  • 8.
  • 9. Role of Government<br />Governments may promoted or impede development. <br />Close relationship between economic development and political development.<br />Government Institutions: provide the essential framework within which development occurs; Determine the rules of the game<br />Many societies fail to make economic progress because of weak institutions<br />
  • 10. Theories of Development<br />Theory: predicts how humans behave or how things work in the world under certain circumstances<br />Development Theory: Attempts to explain how countries achieve specific economic and political improvements<br />
  • 11. Modernization Theory<br />All societies go through similar stages of development<br />Embraces Free-market capitalism<br />Dominant theory in 1950’s and 1960’s<br />Western Europe and US as model<br />Treated Africa, Asia and Latin America as homogenous mass<br />
  • 12. Types of Societies<br />Traditional Society: self-sufficiency, loyalty to family, strong kinship, weak institutions, low literacy levels and tech. widespread superstition. <br />Transitional: traditional and modern characteristics. Political institutions emerge, literacy increases, less focus on agriculture<br />Modern: Westernized, achievement oriented, urban, literate, high quality of life<br />
  • 13. Marxist Theory<br />History of society is history of struggle between those who control wealth (Bourgeoisie and Proletariat)<br />Economic development is determined and controlled by the govt. <br />After economy is developed,<br /> state will wither away<br /> since no need for govt. <br />
  • 14. Dependency Theory<br />Influenced by Marxist emphasis on class conflict.<br />Three classes of countries<br />Core<br />Semi-Peripherey<br /> Periphery<br />Capitalism reinforces dependency and economic inequalities<br />Advocates cooperation among poor countries and import substitution. <br />
  • 15.
  • 16. Other Theories<br />Third World and African Socialism<br />Opposes Marxism and Capitalism draw upon African traditions of communalism and humanism<br />Community and Grassroots Development<br />Bottom up approach (Grameen Bank). Traditional values used to promote economic growth & equity. <br />Feminist Theory<br />Focus on women’s empowerment, active participation in economic development and improved social, economic and political conditions<br />
  • 17. What influences development?<br />Values of Leaders and Citizens<br />Why would this matter?<br />Iran<br />Asia: Confucianism<br />Natural Resources<br />Are natural resources enough?<br />Why is an “agricultural revolution” important?<br />Natural Disasters<br />Impede or reverse development<br />
  • 18. Population<br />
  • 19. Population<br />Small population can discourage investments and prevent realization of economies of scale<br />Overpopulated countries are generally poor<br />Population of India grows by 48,000 a day<br />Rate of population change threatens earths carrying capacity<br />
  • 20. Education and Health Care<br />Education challenges traditional values and social arrangements, empowers women, helps farmers. <br />Poverty reinforces health problems<br />Loss of workforce to AIDS<br />
  • 21. Political Instability<br />Forces best educated and most talented to leave<br />Increases risks for investors, destroys property, disrupts agriculture and industrial activities. <br />Destroys infrastructure<br />Biafra in Nigeria <br />
  • 22. Corruption<br />Drains resources away from public services and infrastructure projects<br />Bureaucratic Corruption<br />Makes everything more expensive<br />institutions are weakened<br />
  • 23. Why is Corruption so Pervasive?<br />No accountability and lack of good governance<br />Employment in govt. is about personal gain<br />Economic hardship<br />Average persons use officials corruption to justify personal corruption<br />Values<br />Government Control of Economy<br />
  • 24. Debt & Foreign Aid<br />Trapped in Debt from foreign aid and loans.<br />Reliance on International Monetary Fund<br />IMF determines state’s economic policies. <br />Despite substantial aid, most recipients fail to develop<br />

×